Stochastic
Stochastic (, ) refers to the property of being well described by a random probability distribution. Although stochasticity and randomness are distinct in that the former refers to a modeling approach and the latter refers to phenomena themselves, these two terms are often used synonymously. Furthermore, in probability theory, the formal concept of a ''stochastic process'' is also referred to as a ''random process''. Stochasticity is used in many different fields, including the natural sciences such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, and physics, as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing, signal processing, information theory, computer science, cryptography, and telecommunications. It is also used in finance, due to seemingly random changes in financial markets as well as in medicine, linguistics, music, media, colour theory, botany, manufacturing, and geomorphology. Etymology The word ''stochastic'' in English was originally used as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stochastic Process
In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic () or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. Examples include the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule. Stochastic processes have applications in many disciplines such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, physics, image processing, signal processing, control theory, information theory, computer science, cryptography and telecommunications. Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial markets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance. Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include the Wiener process or Brownian motion proce ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Signal Processing
Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analyzing, modifying and synthesizing ''signals'', such as sound, images, and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques are used to optimize transmissions, digital storage efficiency, correcting distorted signals, subjective video quality and to also detect or pinpoint components of interest in a measured signal. History According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, the principles of signal processing can be found in the classical numerical analysis techniques of the 17th century. They further state that the digital refinement of these techniques can be found in the digital control systems of the 1940s and 1950s. In 1948, Claude Shannon wrote the influential paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" which was published in the Bell System Technical Journal. The paper laid the groundwork for later development of information communication systems and the processing of signals fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Information Theory
Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication of information. The field was originally established by the works of Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley, in the 1920s, and Claude Shannon in the 1940s. The field is at the intersection of probability theory, statistics, computer science, statistical mechanics, information engineering, and electrical engineering. A key measure in information theory is entropy. Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random variable or the outcome of a random process. For example, identifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (with two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (with six equally likely outcomes). Some other important measures in information theory are mutual information, channel capacity, error exponents, and relative entropy. Important subfields of information theory include source ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Andrey Kolmogorov
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov ( rus, Андре́й Никола́евич Колмого́ров, p=ɐnˈdrʲej nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ kəlmɐˈɡorəf, a=RuAndrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov.ogg, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a Soviet mathematician who contributed to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity. Biography Early life Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Tambov, about 500 kilometers southsoutheast of Moscow, in 1903. His unmarried mother, Maria Y. Kolmogorova, died giving birth to him. Andrey was raised by two of his aunts in Tunoshna (near Yaroslavl) at the estate of his grandfather, a welltodo nobleman. Little is known about Andrey's father. He was supposedly named Nikolai Matveevich Kataev and had been an agronomist. Kataev had been exiled from St. Petersburg to the Yaroslavl province after his participation in the revolutionary move ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for , and 0.5 for (assuming that the coin is fair). Examples of random phenomena include the weather conditions at some future date, the height of a randomly selected person, the fraction of male students in a school, the results of a survey to be conducted, etc. Introduction A probability distribution is a mathematical description of the probabilities of events, subsets of the sample space. The sample space, often denoted by \Omega, is the set of all possible outcomes of a rand ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Joseph Doob
Joseph Leo Doob (February 27, 1910 – June 7, 2004) was an American mathematician, specializing in analysis and probability theory. The theory of martingales was developed by Doob. Early life and education Doob was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 27, 1910, the son of a Jewish couple, Leo Doob and Mollie Doerfler Doob. The family moved to New York City before he was three years old. The parents felt that he was underachieving in grade school and placed him in the Ethical Culture School, from which he graduated in 1926. He then went on to Harvard where he received a BA in 1930, an MA in 1931, and a PhD (''Boundary Values of Analytic Functions'', advisor Joseph L. Walsh) in 1932. After postdoctoral research at Columbia and Princeton, he joined the Department of Mathematics of the University of Illinois in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1978. He was a member of the Urbana campus's Center for Advanced Study from its beginning in 1959. During the Second World War, he ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Theory
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. Typically these axioms formalise probability in terms of a probability space, which assigns a measure taking values between 0 and 1, termed the probability measure, to a set of outcomes called the sample space. Any specified subset of the sample space is called an event. Central subjects in probability theory include discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, and stochastic processes (which provide mathematical abstractions of nondeterministic or uncertain processes or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in a random fashion). Although it is not possible to perfectly predict random events, much can be said about their behavior. Two major results in probabil ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

William Feller
William "Vilim" Feller (July 7, 1906 – January 14, 1970), born Vilibald Srećko Feller, was a Croatian American mathematician specializing in probability theory. Early life and education Feller was born in Zagreb to Ida OemichenPerc, a Croatian Austrian Catholic, and Eugen Viktor Feller, son of a PolishJewish father (David Feller) and an Austrian mother (Elsa Holzer). Eugen Feller was a famous chemist and created ''Elsa fluid'' named after his mother. According to GianCarlo Rota, Eugen Feller's surname was a "Slavic tongue twister", which William changed at the age of twenty. This claim appears to be false. His forename, Vilibald, was chosen by his Catholic mother for the saint day of his birthday. Work Feller held a docent position at the University of Kiel beginning in 1928. Because he refused to sign a Nazi oath, he fled the Nazis and went to Copenhagen, Denmark in 1933. He also lectured in Sweden (Stockholm and Lund). As a refugee in Sweden, Feller reported bein ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paul Bressloff
Paul C. Bressloff is an English American biophysicist and mathematical neuroscientist. As of 2022, Bressloff is currently a full professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Utah. Education Bressloff obtained an MA with First Class Honors from the University of Oxford in 1982, and obtained his Ph.D from the Department of Mathematics at King's College in 1988. His thesis was titled ''Quantum field theory of superstrings in the lightcone gauge.'' Research Bressloff has published extensively on a wide variety of applied and theoretical topics. As of 2022, he has an Hindex of 54, and he has published over threehundred and fifty articles, three textbooks, and has cowritten a nonfiction popular science book. He has advised more than twenty PhD recipients. Books Paul is the author of three textbooks in computational biology, two of which deal with stochastic processes in cellular biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paul Lévy (mathematician)
Paul Pierre Lévy (15 September 1886 – 15 December 1971) was a French mathematician who was active especially in probability theory, introducing fundamental concepts such as local time, stable distributions and characteristic functions. Lévy processes, Lévy flights, Lévy measures, Lévy's constant, the Lévy distribution, the Lévy area, the Lévy arcsine law, and the fractal Lévy C curve are named after him. Biography Lévy was born in Paris to a Jewish family which already included several mathematicians. His father Lucien Lévy was an examiner at the École Polytechnique. Lévy attended the École Polytechnique and published his first paper in 1905, at the age of nineteen, while still an undergraduate, in which he introduced the Lévy–Steinitz theorem. His teacher and advisor was Jacques Hadamard. After graduation, he spent a year in military service and then studied for three years at the École des Mines, where he became a professor in 1913. During ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aleksandr Khinchin
Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin (russian: Алекса́ндр Я́ковлевич Хи́нчин, french: Alexandre Khintchine; July 19, 1894 – November 18, 1959) was a Soviet mathematician and one of the most significant contributors to the Soviet school of probability theory. Life and career He was born in the village of Kondrovo, Kaluga Governorate, Russian Empire. While studying at Moscow State University, he became one of the first followers of the famous Luzin school. Khinchin graduated from the university in 1916 and six years later he became a full professor there, retaining that position until his death. Khinchin's early works focused on real analysis. Later he applied methods from the metric theory of functions to problems in probability theory and number theory. He became one of the founders of modern probability theory, discovering the law of the iterated logarithm in 1924, achieving important results in the field of limit theorems, giving a definition of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maurice Fréchet
Maurice may refer to: People *Saint Maurice (died 287), Roman legionary and Christian martyr *Maurice (emperor) or Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus (539–602), Byzantine emperor *Maurice (bishop of London) (died 1107), Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England * Maurice of Carnoet (1117–1191), Breton abbot and saint *Maurice, Count of Oldenburg (fl. 1169–1211) * Maurice of Inchaffray (14th century), Scottish cleric who became a bishop *Maurice, Elector of Saxony (1521–1553), German Saxon nobleman * Maurice, Duke of SaxeLauenburg (1551–1612) *Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567–1625), stadtholder of the Netherlands *Maurice, Landgrave of HesseKassel or Maurice the Learned (1572–1632) * Maurice of Savoy (1593–1657), prince of Savoy and a cardinal *Maurice, Duke of SaxeZeitz (1619–1681) *Maurice of the Palatinate (1620–1652), Count Palatine of the Rhine * Maurice of the Netherlands (1843–1850), prince of OrangeNassau *Maurice Chevalier (1888–1972) ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 