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Ozonide
Ozonide is the polyatomic anion . Cyclic organic compounds formed by the addition of ozone () to an alkene are also called ozonides. Ionic ozonides Inorganic ozonides are dark red salts. The anion has the bent shape of the ozone molecule. Inorganic ozonides are formed by burning potassium, rubidium, or caesium in ozone, or by treating the alkali metal hydroxide with ozone; this yields potassium ozonide, rubidium ozonide, and caesium ozonide respectively. They are very sensitive explosives that have to be handled at low temperatures in an atmosphere consisting of an inert gas. Lithium and sodium ozonide are extremely labile and must be prepared by low-temperature ion exchange starting from . Sodium ozonide, , which is prone to decomposition into NaOH and , was previously thought to be impossible to obtain in pure form. However, with the help of cryptands and methylamine, pure sodium ozonide may be obtained as red crystals isostructural to . Ionic ozonides are being investi ...
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Caesium Ozonide
Caesium ozonide (CsO3) is an oxygen-rich compound of caesium. It is an ozonide, meaning it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). It can be formed by reacting ozone with caesium superoxide: :CsO2 + O3 -> CsO3 + O2 The compound will react strongly with any water in the air forming caesium hydroxide. :2 CsO3 + H2O -> 2CsOH + 5/2O2 If heated to between 70 and 100 °C, caesium ozonide will quickly decompose to caesium superoxide (CsO2). In fact, the compound is metastable to decomposition into caesium superoxide, slowly decomposing at room temperature, but can remain intact for months if stored at -20 °C. Above around 8 °C, the crystal structure is of the caesium chloride type, with the ozonide in place of the chloride ion. At lower temperatures, the crystal structure changes to a structure identical to rubidium ozonide (RbO3), with space group In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of an object in space, usually in three dime ...
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Rubidium Ozonide
Rubidium ozonide is an oxygen rich compound of rubidium. It is an ozonide, meaning it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). It can be created by reacting rubidium superoxide (RbO2) with ozone (O3) in a liquid ammonia Ammonia is an inorganic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct pungent smell. Biologically, it is a common nitrogenous wa ... solution. :RbO2 + O3 -> RbO3 + O2 The chemical forms in two crystal structures, the low temperature α-RbO3 (P21), and β-RbO3 (P21/c) Detailed structural analysis finds the ozonide anions are significantly off-center from the surrounding rubidium atoms. Since ozonide anion is magnetic, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of rubidium ozonide have determined the g-values of the ozonide anion. References Rubidium compounds Ozonides {{inorganic-compound-stub ...
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Sodium Ozonide
Sodium ozonide (NaO3) is an oxygen-rich compound of sodium. As an ozonide, it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). Some experiments report creating sodium ozonide by applying ozone to sodium hydroxide, but the substance was not pure, and the claimed stability at room temperature was contradicted by other reports. This is in contrast to potassium ozonide, rubidium ozonide, and caesium ozonide, which can be synthesized applying ozone directly to the metal. Instead, it is made in ammonia solution using ion exchange and cryptands. The compound is unstable at room temperature and decomposes at -10 °C to sodium superoxide and oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements .... :2NaO3 -> 2NaO2 + O2 However, the compound can be stored for months at -18 °C. References ...
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Sodium Ozonide
Sodium ozonide (NaO3) is an oxygen-rich compound of sodium. As an ozonide, it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). Some experiments report creating sodium ozonide by applying ozone to sodium hydroxide, but the substance was not pure, and the claimed stability at room temperature was contradicted by other reports. This is in contrast to potassium ozonide, rubidium ozonide, and caesium ozonide, which can be synthesized applying ozone directly to the metal. Instead, it is made in ammonia solution using ion exchange and cryptands. The compound is unstable at room temperature and decomposes at -10 °C to sodium superoxide and oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements .... :2NaO3 -> 2NaO2 + O2 However, the compound can be stored for months at -18 °C. References ...
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Potassium Ozonide
Potassium ozonide is an oxygen rich compound of potassium. It is an ozonide, meaning it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). In polarized light, it shows pleochroism. Hybrid functional calculations have predicted the compound is an insulator with a band gap of 3.0 eV, and has magnetic behavior which departs from the Curie–Weiss law. The compound can be created by reacting ozone with potassium hydroxide, but the yield is quite low, only 5-10%. :6KOH + 4O3 -> 4KO3 + 2KOH (H2O) + O2 The compound is metastable, and will decompose to potassium superoxide and oxygen, especially if there is any water in the atmosphere. Long-term storage in very dry atmosphere is possible below around 0 °C. :KO3 -> KO2 + 1/2 O2 This compound reacts with water to form potassium hydroxide and potassium superoxide Potassium superoxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KO2. It is a yellow paramagnetic solid that decomposes in moist air. It is a rare example of a stable salt of the supe ...
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Magnesium Ozonide
Magnesium ozonide is a compound with the formula Mg O3. Much like other ozonide Ozonide is the polyatomic anion . Cyclic organic compounds formed by the addition of ozone () to an alkene are also called ozonides. Ionic ozonides Inorganic ozonides are dark red salts. The anion has the bent shape of the ozone molecule. Ino ...s, it is only stable at low temperatures. Unlike other ozonide compounds, magnesium ozonide is white rather than the typical red colour. Preparation Magnesium ozonide can be made by passing a dilute mixture of ozone in nitrogen gas and over magnesium at -259 °C. O3 + Mg -> MgO3 Magnesium bisonozide Magnesium is also known to form bisozonide complexes, containing Mg(O3)2 complexed with argon or carbon monoxide, in an argon matrix. References Ozonides Magnesium compounds {{Inorganic-compound-stub ...
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Molozonide
A molozonide (or "molecular ozonide") is a 1,2,3-trioxolane, which can also be thought of a cyclic dialkyl trioxidane. Molozonides are formed by cycloaddition of ozone and an alkene during ozonolysis, as a transient intermediate which quickly rearranges to give the ozonide Ozonide is the polyatomic anion . Cyclic organic compounds formed by the addition of ozone () to an alkene are also called ozonides. Ionic ozonides Inorganic ozonides are dark red salts. The anion has the bent shape of the ozone molecule. Ino ... (1,2,4-trioxolane), the relatively stable product generated immediately prior to reductive or oxidative cleavage to form alcohols, carbonyl compounds, or derivatives thereof. References Oxygen heterocycles Polyoxides Heterocyclic compounds with 1 ring {{Heterocyclic-stub ...
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Ozone
Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula . It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope , breaking down in the lower atmosphere to (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone's odour is reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865. The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be weakly diamagnetic. In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-black ...
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Alkali Metal
The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, ''natrium'' and ''kalium''; these are still the origins of the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian. rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its leading element. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and read ...
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Singlet Oxygen
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O=O (also written as or ), which is in a quantum state where all electrons are spin paired. It is kinetically unstable at ambient temperature, but the rate of decay is slow. The lowest excited state of the diatomic oxygen molecule is a singlet state. It is a gas with physical properties differing only subtly from those of the more prevalent triplet ground state of O2. In terms of its chemical reactivity, however, singlet oxygen is far more reactive toward organic compounds. It is responsible for the photodegradation of many materials but can be put to constructive use in preparative organic chemistry and photodynamic therapy. Trace amounts of singlet oxygen are found in the upper atmosphere and also in polluted urban atmospheres where it contributes to the formation of lung-damaging nitrogen dioxide. It often appears and coexists confounded in environmen ...
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Caesium
Caesium (IUPAC spelling) (or cesium in American English) is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of , which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. It is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at . It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite. The element has 40 known isotopes, making it, along with barium and mercury, one of the elements with the most isotopes. Caesium-137, a fission product, is extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors. The German chemist Robert Bunsen and physicist Gustav Kirchhoff discovered caesium in 1860 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. The first small-scale applications for ...
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Chemical Oxygen Generator
A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen via a chemical reaction. The oxygen source is usually an inorganic superoxide, chlorate, or perchlorate; ozonides are a promising group of oxygen sources. The generators are usually ignited by a firing pin, and the chemical reaction is usually exothermic, making the generator a potential fire hazard. Potassium superoxide was used as an oxygen source on early crewed missions of the Soviet space program, in submarines for use in emergency situations, for firefighters, and for mine rescue. In commercial airliners Commercial aircraft provide emergency oxygen to passengers to protect them in case of loss of cabin pressure. Chemical oxygen generators are not used for the cockpit crew, who are typically supplied using compressed oxygen canisters, also known as oxygen bottles. In narrow body airliners, for each row of seats there were overhead oxygen masks and oxygen generators. In some wide-body airliners, such as t ...
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