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Nocturia
Nocturia is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for urination, voiding (''i.e. to urinate'').” The term is derived from Latin language, Latin ''nox, night'', and Greek language, Greek ''[τα] ούρα, urine''. Causes are varied and can be difficult to discern. Although not every patient needs treatment, most people seek treatment for severe nocturia, waking up to void more than 2–3 times per night. Prevalence Studies show that 5–15% of people who are 20–50 years old, 20–30% of people who are 50–70 years old, and 10–50% of people 70+ years old, urinate at least twice a night. Nocturia becomes more common with age. More than 50 percent of men and women over the age of 60 have been measured to have nocturia in many communities. Even more over the age of 80 are shown to experience symptoms of nocturia nightly. Nocturia symptoms also often worsen with age. Although nocturia ra ...
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Desmopressin
Desmopressin, sold under the trade name DDAVP among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes insipidus, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting, hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and uremia, high blood urea levels. In hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease, it should only be used for mild to moderate cases. It may be given nasal administration, in the nose, intravenous therapy, by injection into a vein, oral administration, by mouth, or sublingual administration, under the tongue. Common side effects include headaches, diarrhea, and hyponatremia, low blood sodium. The low blood sodium that results may cause seizures. It should not be used in people with significant kidney problems or low blood sodium. It appears to be safe to use during pregnancy. It is a chemical synthesis, synthetic analogue of vasopressin, the hormone that plays roles in the control of the body’s osmotic balance, blood pressure regulation, kidney function, and reduction of urine production. Desmopressin ...
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Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms involving the Urinary bladder, bladder, Urethral sphincter, urinary sphincter, urethra and, in men, the prostate. Although LUTS is a preferred term for prostatism, and is more commonly applied to men, lower urinary tract symptoms also affect women. LUTS affect approximately 40% of older men. Symptoms and signs Symptoms can be categorised into: Filling (storage) or irritative symptoms * Frequent urination, Increased frequency of urination * Urinary urgency, Increased urgency of urination * Urge incontinence * Nocturia, Excessive passage of urine at night Voiding or obstructive symptoms * Poor stream (unimproved by straining) * Urinary hesitancy, Hesitancy * Terminal dribbling * Incomplete voiding * Urinary retention * Overflow incontinence (occurs in chronic retention) * Episodes of near retention As the symptoms are common and non-specific, LUTS is not necessarily a reason to suspect prostate cancer. La ...
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Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus (from Ancient Greek wikt:ὑπό, ὑπό, "under", and wikt:θάλαμος, θάλαμος, "chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small Nucleus (neuroanatomy), nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an Almond#Nut, almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for the regulation of certain Metabolism, metabolic biological process, processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It biosynthesis, synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones from the ...
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Cardiac Muscle Cells
Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) is one of three types of vertebrate muscles, with the other two being skeletal muscle, skeletal and smooth muscle, smooth muscles. It is involuntary, striated muscle tissue, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the walls of the heart. The myocardium forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium), with blood supplied via the coronary circulation. It is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiac muscle cell, cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated discs, encased by collagen fibers and other substances that form the extracellular matrix. Cardiac muscle Muscle contraction, contracts in a similar manner to skeletal muscle, although with some important differences. Electrical stimulation in the form of an Cardiac action potential, action potential triggers the release of calcium from the cell's internal calcium store, the ...
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Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a natriuretic peptide hormone secreted from the cardiac atria that in humans is encoded by the NPPA gene. Natriuretic peptides (ANP, Brain natriuretic peptide, BNP, and Natriuretic peptide precursor C, CNP) are a family of hormone/paracrine factors that are structurally related. The main function of ANP is causing a reduction in expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion. ANP is synthesized and secreted by cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the Atrium (heart), atria in the heart. These cells contain Atrial volume receptors, volume receptors which respond to increased stretching of the atrial wall due to increased atrial blood volume. Reduction of blood volume by ANP can result in secondary effects such as reduction of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, improved cardiac ejection fraction with resultant improved organ perfusion, decreased blood pressure, and increased serum pot ...
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Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of an individual's sleep patterns. Some sleep disorders are severe enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography and actigraphy are tests ... in which pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and deba ... occur more often than normal. Each pause can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and they happen many times a night. In the most common form, this follows loud snoring Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. The sound may be soft or loud and un ...
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Liver Failure
Liver failure is the inability of the liver The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's t ... to perform its normal syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or synthetic compress, produced by the process ... and metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cell ... functions as part of normal physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organ ...
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Nephritic Syndrome
Nephritic syndrome is a syndrome A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign for example may be a higher or lower temperature than normal, rais ... comprising signs of nephritis Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules. Types * Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis is often implied ..., which is kidney disease Kidney disease, or renal disease, technically referred to as nephropathy, is damage to or disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of i ... involving inflammation Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, ...
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Congestive Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) and (congestive) cardiac failure (CCF), is a set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste ...'s function as a pump supporting the blood flow through the body; its signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign for example may be a higher or lower temperature than normal, raised or lowered blood pressure or an abnormality showi ... result from a structural and/or functional abnormality of the heart, that disrupts its filling with blood or its ejecting of it during each heart beat. Signs and symptoms of heart failure commonly include shortness of breath ...
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Arginine Vasopressin
Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ... synthesized from the AVP gene Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) Gene is a gene whose product is proteolytically cleaved to produce vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), neurophysin II, and a glycoprotein called copeptin. AVP and other AVP-like peptides are found in ... as a peptide Peptides (from Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken ... prohormone A prohormone is a committed precursor Precursor or Precursors may ...
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Nocturnal Polyuria Index
Nocturnality is an ethology, animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal", versus diurnality, diurnal meaning the opposite. Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing (sense), hearing, olfaction, smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination (see metaturnal). Others, such as bushbaby, bushbabies and (some) bats, can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures including tarsiers and some owls have large eyes in comparison with their body size to compensate for the lower light levels at night. More specifically, they have been found to have a larger cornea relative to their eye size than diurnal creatures to increase their : in the low-light conditions. Nocturnality helps wasps, such as ''Apoica flavissima'', avoid hunting in intense sunlight. Diurnality ...
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Nephron
The nephron is the minute or microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized .... It is composed of a renal corpuscle A renal corpuscle (also called malpighian body) is the blood-filtering component of the nephron The nephron is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organ (anatomy), organ ... and a renal tubule The nephron is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organ (anatomy), organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in .... The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries A capillary is a small blood vesse ...
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