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John I Of Portugal
John I ( pt, João WP:IPA for Portuguese, [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433), also called John of Aviz, was List of Portuguese monarchs, King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in 1383–85 crisis, a succession war with Crown of Castile, Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the House of Aviz, Aviz (or Joanine) dynasty on the Portuguese throne. His long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory (''de Boa Memória''); he was also referred to as "the Good" (''o Bom''), sometimes "the Great" (''o Grande''), and more rarely, especially in Spain, as "the Bastard" (''Bastardo''). Early life John was born in Lisbon as the Royal bastard, natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, who, according t ...
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List Of Portuguese Monarchs
This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal The Kingdom of Portugal ( la, Regnum Portugalliae, pt, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Hou ..., in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a whose mainland is located on the , in , and whose territory also includes the Atlantic s of the and . It features in and its Iberian portion is ... with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Through the nearly 800 years in which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the ...
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Peter I Of Portugal
Peter I (Portuguese: ''Pedro I'', ; 8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just (''o Justo'') or the Cruel (''o Cruel''), was King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portugal, Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Throug ... from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal Afonso IVEnglish: ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', or ''Affonso'' (Archaic Portuguese), ''Alfonso'' or ''Alphonso'' (Portuguese-Galician languages, Portuguese-Galician) or ''Alphonsus'' (Latin). (; 8 February 129128 May 1357), called the Brave ( pt, ... and his wife, Beatrice of Castile. Early life In 1328, Peter's father, Afonso IV Afonso IVEnglish: ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', or ''Affonso'' (Archaic Portuguese), ''Alfonso'' or ''Alphonso'' (Portuguese-Galician languages, Portuguese-Gali ...
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Order Of Aviz
The Military Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz ( pt, Ordem Militar de São Bento de Avis, ), previously to 1910 ''Royal Military Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz'' ( pt, Real Ordem Militar de São Bento de Avis), previously to 1789 ''Knights'' (of the ''Order) of Saint Benedict of Aviz'' ( pt, Ordem de São Bento de Aviz) or ''Friars of Santa Maria of Évora'', is a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ... order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order (honour), order of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Catholic Military order (society), military orders of the Crusades (circa ..., founded in Portugal in 1146. It gave its name and coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms ...
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Order Of Christ (Portugal)
The Military Order of Christ (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Ordem Militar de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo''), before 1910 Royal Military Order of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Real Ordem Militar de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo''), previously the ''Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ'' (''Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo''), is the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, ''Vox in excelso'', issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis of Portugal, Denis, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in most of the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church. Heavily swayed by Philip IV of France, Pope Clement had the Knights Templar annihilated throughout France and most of Europe on charges of heresy, but D ...
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Arquivo Nacional Da Torre Do Tombo
The National Archive of Torre do Tombo ( pt, Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, ) is the Portugal, Portuguese national archive located in the Freguesia (Portugal), civil parish of Alvalade (Lisbon), Alvalade, in the Concelho, municipality of central-northern Lisbon. Established in 1378, it was renamed the Instituto dos Arquivos Nacionais (''Institute of the National Archives'') in 2009. History The archive is one of the oldest institutions in Portugal, since its installation in one of the towers of the Castle of São Jorge, castle in Lisbon, occurring during the reign of Ferdinand I of Portugal, Ferdinand I, and likely in 1378 (the date where the first testimony originated). The archive served as the King's and nobilities' reference, with documents supporting the administration of the kingdom and overseas territories, and documenting the relationships between the State and foreign kingdoms. Following the events of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the High-Guardian of the archives, Ma ...
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Kingdom Of Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia ( gl, Reino de Galicia, or ''Galiza''; es, Reino de Galicia; pt, Reino da Galiza; la, Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni .... It was founded by the Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...c king Hermeric Hermeric (died 441) was the king of the Suevi from at least 419 and possibly as early as 406 until his abdication in 438. Biography Before 419 Nothing is known ...
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Fernão Lopes
Fernão Lopes () (c. 1385 – after 1459) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ... chronicler appointed by King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ... Edward of Portugal Duarte (; 31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438), known in English language, English as Edward and called the King Philosopher (''o Rei-Filósofo'') or the Eloquent (''o Eloquente''), was King of Portugal from 1433 until his death. He was born in V .... Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when ...
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Royal Bastard
A royal bastard was a common term (now largely dropped from common usage) for the illegitimate Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opi ... child of a reigning monarch. These children were considered to be born outside of marriage - either because the monarch had an extra-marital affair, or because the legitimacy of the monarch's marriage had been called into question. Notable royal bastards include Henry FitzRoy, son of King Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ..., and the Duke of Monmouth Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling ...
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Spain
, image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Madrid , coordinates = , largest_city = Madrid , languages_type = Official language , languages = Spanish language, Spanish , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = , ethnic_groups_ref = , religion = , religion_ref = , religion_year = 2021 , demonym = , government_type = Unitary state, Unitary Parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy , leader_title1 = Monarchy of Spain, Monarch , leader_name1 = Felipe VI , leader_title2 = Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister , leader_name2 = Pedro Sánchez , legislat ...
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Encyclopædia Britannica
The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers (for previous editions). It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. Printed for 244 years, the ''Britannica'' was the longest running in-print encyclopaedia in the English language. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1810) it had expanded to 20 volumes. Its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th (1875–1889) and Encyclopædia Britannica Eleve ...
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Crown Of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kingdom of León, León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III of Castile, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Crown of Aragon, Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V of Spain, Philip V in 1715. In 1492, the voyage of Christopher Columbus and the discovery of the Americas were major events in the history of Castile. The West Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death ...
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