Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4
Kingdom of Spain _Reino de España_ (Spanish )
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond"
Location of Spain (dark green)
and largest city
Official language and national language Spanish
Recognised regional languages
* Aragonese * Asturian * Basque * Catalan * Galician * Occitan
ETHNIC GROUPS (2015)
* 89.9% Spanish * 10.1% others
* Spanish * Spaniard
GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• MONARCH Felipe VI
• PRIME MINISTER
• UPPER HOUSE Senate
• LOWER HOUSE Congress of Deputies
• DYNASTIC 20 January 1479
• _DE FACTO _ 23 January 1516
• _DE JURE _ 9 June 1715
• FIRST CONSTITUTION 19 March 1812
• CURRENT DEMOCRACY 29 December 1978
• EEC ACCESSION 1 January 1986
• TOTAL 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi) (51st )
• WATER (%) 1.04
• 2016 CENSUS 46,468,102 (30th )
• DENSITY 92/km2 (238.3/sq mi) (112th )
GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate
• TOTAL $1.769 trillion (16th )
• PER CAPITA $38,239 (33rd )
GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate
• TOTAL $1.232 trillion (12th )
• PER CAPITA $26,643 (30th )
GINI (2013) 33.7 medium
HDI (2015) 0.884 very high · 27th
TIME ZONE CET (UTC +1) WET (UTC )
• SUMMER (DST ) CEST (UTC +2) WEST (UTC +1)
DATE FORMAT dd/mm/yyyy (CE )
DRIVES ON THE right
CALLING CODE +34
ISO 3166 CODE ES
INTERNET TLD .es
SPAIN (Spanish : _España_ (_ listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF
SPAIN (Spanish: Reino de España_), is a sovereign state located on
Iberian Peninsula in southwestern
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi),
Spain is the largest
country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western
Modern humans first arrived in the
Iberian Peninsula around 35,000
years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician , Greek and
Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came
under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named
Hispania _, based on the earlier Phoenician name _Span_ or _Spania_.
In the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by
Germanic tribes and
later by the
Spain emerged as a unified country in the 15th
century, following the marriage of the
Spain is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy . The
current Spanish king is
Felipe VI . It is a middle power and a major
developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by
nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity . It is a
member of the
United Nations (UN), the
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples * 2.2 Roman Empire and the Gothic Kingdom * 2.3 Middle Ages: Muslim era and Reconquista * 2.4 Imperial Spain * 2.5 Liberalism, Labour movement and nation state * 2.6 Spanish Civil War, Franco era and fascism * 2.7 Restoration of democracy and Globalization
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Islands * 3.2 Mountains and rivers * 3.3 Climate * 3.4 Fauna and flora
* 4 Politics
* 4.1 Government * 4.2 Human rights
* 4.3 Administrative divisions
* 4.3.1 Autonomous communities * 4.3.2 Provinces and municipalities
* 4.4 Foreign relations * 4.5 Military
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Agriculture * 5.2 Tourism * 5.3 Energy * 5.4 Transport * 5.5 Science and technology * 5.6 Water supply and sanitation
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Urbanisation * 6.2 Peoples * 6.3 Minority groups * 6.4 Immigration * 6.5 Languages * 6.6 Education * 6.7 Health * 6.8 Religion
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 World Heritage Sites * 7.2 Literature * 7.3 Art * 7.4 Sculpture * 7.5 Cinema * 7.6 Architecture * 7.7 Music and dance * 7.8 Cuisine * 7.9 Sport * 7.10 Public holidays and festivals
* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
The origins of the Roman name _ Hispania _, from which the modern name _España_ was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as _Spania_, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one. Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: Lady of Elche
Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term _span_ is the Phoenician word _spy_, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, _i-spn-ya_ would mean "the land where metals are forged". It may be a derivation of the Phoenician _I-Shpania_, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits".
_Hispania_ may derive from the poetic use of the term _Hesperia_, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (_Hesperia_, _Ἑσπερία_ in Greek ) and Spain, being still further west, as _Hesperia ultima_.
There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word _Ezpanna_ meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.
Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga , gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of _España_ (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.
Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians , Basques and Celts . Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cadiz and Malaga . Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire , becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire . After an arduous conquest , the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule. During the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.
Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalized world with economic and ecological challenges.
PREHISTORY AND PRE-ROMAN PEOPLES
Main article: Prehistoric Iberia Pre-Roman map of The Iberian Peninsula
Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula
was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. In Atapuerca fossils
have been found of the earliest known hominins in
The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts . The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. A number of cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians , and trading outposts were established by Greeks in the North East. Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians expanded inland conquering about over half of modern-day Spain.
ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE GOTHIC KINGDOM
Main articles: Hispania and Visigothic Kingdom Roman Theatre , Mérida Breogan and the Tower of Hercules , La Coruña . Reccared I and bishops. Council III of Toledo , 589. Códice Vigilano, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial .
During the Second Punic War , roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road .
The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold , wool , olive oil , and wine . Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Hadrian , Trajan , Theodosius I , and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD. Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.
The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi and Vandals , together with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes who had crossed the Rhinein early 407 and ravaged Gaul . The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.
The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania , in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule .
Seville , born in
Seville , was an
influential cleric and philosopher and was much studied in the Middle
MIDDLE AGES: MUSLIM ERA AND RECONQUISTA
Main articles: Al-Andalus and Reconquista Statue of Don Pelayo King of Asturias in Gijón . The death of the Frankish leader Roland defeated by a Basque and Muslim - Muladi ( Banu Qasi ) alliance at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778) originated the Kingdom of Navarre led by Íñigo Arista .
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate . Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.
Under Islamic law , Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi . This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as _ People of the Book _ but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims. Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí .
Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The _muladíes _ ( Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.
The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East . Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia , the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada . Hypostyle hall in the Great Mosque of Córdoba .
Córdoba , the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III , was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played an important part in reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes , Ibn Arabi and Maimonides . The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture. Petronilla of Aragon and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona , dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon .
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains. Basilica of San Isidoro , León .
Reconquista _ (Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in
which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula.
Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga
won by Don Pelayo in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim
rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over
Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias
along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739,
Muslim forces were driven from Galicia , which was to eventually host
one of medieval Europe's holiest sites,
Santiago de Compostela and was
incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. The
Kingdom of León was
the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first
modern parliamentary session in
Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers , Frankia and pushed out of the verz southernmost regionof France along the seacoast by the 760s. Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon . For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the Ebro and Douro valleys. Franciscan Ramon Llull and sufi Ibn Arabi , both mystic theologists.
The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238. The Almohads transferred the capital of Al-Andalus to Seville .
The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. After 800 years of Muslim presence in Spain, the last Nasrid sultanate of Granada , a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon . Alfonso X , pretendant of the Holy Roman Empire crown and king of the Crown of Castile .
From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to
flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman
and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is
Ramon Llull .
Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer.
Roman law and its institutions were the model for the legislators. The
Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and
Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with
the rest of medieval European Christendom. Alfonso worked for being
elected emperor of the Holy
Roman Empire and published the Siete
Partidas code. The
Toledo School of Translators is the name that
commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the
city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many
of the philosophical and scientific works from
Classical Arabic ,
Ancient Greek , and
Ancient Hebrew . The Islamic transmission of the
classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval
The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon , centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and even Athens. Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.
Main article: Spanish Empire School of Salamanca (origin of modern international law theories) and Colegio de San Gregorio of Valladolid (origin of modern human rights theories). Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro .
In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon
were united by the marriage of
Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II
Aragon . 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the
The year 1492 also marked the arrival of
Christopher Columbus in the
As Renaissance New Monarchs , Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word _España_, whose root is the ancient name _Hispania_, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power .
The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country, in social, political, laws, currency and language. Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire including territorial claims. María Pacheco , last leader of Revolt of the Comuneros , one of the first modern revolutions.
There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Majorca and Valencia . After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla , Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco went into exile. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.
Spain was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power . It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs —Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the Italian Wars , the Revolt of the Comuneros , the Dutch Revolt , the Morisco Revolt , clashes with the Ottomans , the Anglo-Spanish War and wars with France .
Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and
Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the
Americas , islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in
Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany,
Luxembourg , and the
Netherlands . The first
circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was
the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set . This
Age of Discovery , with daring explorations by sea and by land,
the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the
beginnings of European colonialism . Spanish explorers brought back
precious metals , spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and
played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of
the globe. The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is
now referred to as the
Spanish Golden Age . The expansion of the
empire caused immense upheaval in the
Americas as the collapse of
societies and empires and new diseases from
In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century, Spain was confronted by unrelenting challenges from all sides. Barbary pirates , under the aegis of the rapidly growing Ottoman Empire , disrupted life in many coastal areas through their slave raids and the renewed threat of an Islamic invasion . This was at a time when Spain was often at war with France.
Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into
the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced
into ever expanding military efforts across
By the middle decades of a war- and plague -ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire , and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal (with whom it had been united in a personal union of the crowns from 1580 to 1640) and the Netherlands , and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years\' War . The Family of Philip V (1743) . During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon .
In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and the Netherlands; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons , was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V , united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Military assistance for the rebellious British colonies in the American War of Independence improved the kingdom's international standing.
LIBERALISM, LABOUR MOVEMENT AND NATION STATE
Main articles: Mid-19th-century Spain , Spanish American wars of independence , Spanish–American War , Anarchism in Spain , and Spanish Second Republic The Third of May 1808 by Francisco de Goya depicts an episode of the Spanish Independence War .
In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition . The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola . The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy , then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The ridiculed Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon\'s brother, Joseph Bonaparte .
Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington\'s British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia , led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII . The Proclamation of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 in Cádiz .
During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of
was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime
and to prepare a constitution. It met as one body, and its members
represented the entire Spanish empire. In 1812 a constitution for
universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared
but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime
Ferdinand VII dismissed
Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens ( Peninsulars ) over those born overseas (Criollos ) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people . Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico .
The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars . Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic , a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of _turnismo_ (the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government). Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic in Barcelona , 1873. Francesc Pi i Margall , was president and intellectual theoric of federalism .
In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. _El Desastre_ (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of \'98 who were conducting an analysis of the country. Demonstration in Barcelona after the Tragic Week events.
Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa , with the colonisation of Western Sahara , Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea . It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I ). The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.
A period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic . The Republic offered political autonomy to the linguistically distinct regions of Basque Country , Catalonia and Galicia and gave voting rights to women .
SPANISH CIVIL WAR, FRANCO ERA AND FASCISM
Spanish Civil War ,
Spanish Revolution of 1936 , and
Francoist Spain _ They shall not pass!...
Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936. For three years the
Nationalist forces led by General
Francisco Franco and supported by
Nazi Germany and Fascist
Italy fought the Republican side, which was
supported by the
Soviet Union ,
International Brigades but
it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led
Non-Intervention . The civil war was viciously fought and
there were many atrocities committed by all sides . The war claimed
the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a
half-million citizens from the country. In 1939, General Franco
emerged victorious and became a dictator.
Francisco Franco and
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The state as established under Franco was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the Axis . The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the _ Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS_, formed in 1937; the party emphasised falangism , a form of fascism that emphasised anti-communism , nationalism and Roman Catholicism . Given Franco's opposition to competing political parties, the party was renamed the National Movement (_ Movimiento Nacional _) in 1949.
After World War II
Spain was politically and economically isolated,
and was kept out of the
United Nations . This changed in 1955, during
RESTORATION OF DEMOCRACY AND GLOBALIZATION
Spanish transition to democracy
In 1962 a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in the exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich , where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.
With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the franquist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy , the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities . Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco´s regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even responsibles of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha .
In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism has coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed terrorist organisation ETA . The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy. On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military backed government . King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. Jose Maria Aznar , Jordi Pujol , Felipe VI and Adolfo Suárez in the 90´s.
During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing
open society. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like
La Movida Madrileña and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio
Peces-Barba . On 30 May 1982
NATO , following a
referendum after a strong social opposition. That year the Spanish
Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing
government in 43 years. In 1986
Spain joined the European Economic
Community , which later became the
On 1 January 2002,
Spain fully adopted the euro , and Spain
experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during
the early 2000s. However, well publicised concerns issued by many
economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that
extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were
likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.
Spain has been a
member of the
Prestige oil spill happened with big ecological consequences
in the Spanish atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar
supported US president
George W. Bush in its preventive war against
Sadam Hussein´s Iraq . A strong movement against war rose in Spanish
society. On 11 March 2004 a local
Islamist terrorist group inspired by
Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history
when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by
bombing commuter trains in Madrid. Though initial suspicions focused
on the Basque terrorist group ETA , evidence soon emerged indicating
Islamist involvement. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election ,
the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy,
with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations
over the handling of the incident. At 14 March elections, PSOE, led
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero won the elections. Puerta del
Sol square in
The proportion of Spain\'s foreign born population increased rapidly from around 1 in 50 in 2000 to almost 1 in 8 in 2010 but has since declined. In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage . Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the band announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.
The bursting of the
Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the
2008–16 Spanish financial crisis and high levels of unemployment ,
cuts in government spending and corruption in
Royal family and
People\'s Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests
Catalan independentism was also on rise. In 2011
In February 2016, the government of Spain announced it will rename streets named after Franco's administration officials with names of women.
At 505,992 km2 (195,365 sq mi), Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe\'s fourth largest country . It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France and 81,000 km2 (31,000 sq mi) larger than the US state of California . Mount Teide (Tenerife ) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country .
Spain lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N , and longitudes 19° W and 5° E .
On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal ; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar (a British overseas territory ) and Morocco , through its exclaves in North Africa ( Ceuta and Melilla , and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera ). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and the Principality of Andorra . Along the Pyrenees in Girona , a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.
Main article: List of islands of Spain
Spain also includes the
Balearic Islands in the
Mediterranean Sea ,
Majorca (Mallorca_) 862,397
Gran Canaria 838,397
La Palma 85,933
MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS
Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central (Central System), Montes de Toledo , Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén , located in Sierra Nevada , is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain is the Teide , a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central (often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.
There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (_Tajo_), Ebro , Guadiana , Douro (_Duero_), Guadalquivir , Júcar , Segura , Turia and Minho (_Miño_). Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia .
Main article: Climate of Spain
Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions:
* The _Csa_ zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is
predominant in the
Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and
Extremadura and much, if not most, of
the centre of the country. The _Csa_ zone covers climatic zones with
both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely
different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen
classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps
generally divide the
Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the
country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than
according to summer temperatures.
* The _Csb_ zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to
additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a
Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of
Spain (e.g. western Castile–León , northeastern Castilla-La Mancha
* The semi-arid climate (_BSk_, _BSh_), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia , southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro valley, which crosses southern Navarre , central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude. * The oceanic climate (_Cfb_), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country , Cantabria , Asturias , and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (_Cfa_) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.
Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the
alpine and continental climates (_Dfc_, _Dfb_ / _Dsc_, _Dsb_) in the
Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range , the Central System
, Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System , and a typical desert climate
(_BWk_, _BWh_) in the zone of Almería,
Murcia and eastern Canary
Islands . Low-lying areas of the
FAUNA AND FLORA
The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.
The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude . Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.
Spanish Constitution of 1978
As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.
The Spanish administration approved legislation in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life (Gender Equality Act). However, in the legislative branch, as of May 2017 only 140 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (40%). It places Spain 12th on a list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the lower house . In the Senate, there are only 101 women out of 263 (38.0%). The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, 12th in the world.
Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a
bicameral parliament , the _
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (_Congreso de los Diputados_) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (_Senado_) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
* HEAD OF STATE
* King Felipe VI , since 19 June 2014
* HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
* Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Presidency : Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría .
* Council of Ministers (_Consejo de Ministros_) designated by the Prime Minister.
Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called _Estado de las Autonomías_ ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium; for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see _Mossos d\'Esquadra _, _ Ertzaintza _, _Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa _ and _ Policía Canaria _).
The Government respects the human rights of its citizens; although there are a few problems in some areas, the law and judiciary provide effective means of addressing individual instances of abuse. There are allegations that a few members of the security forces abused detainees and mistreated foreigners and illegal immigrants. According to Amnesty International (AI), government investigations of such alleged abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address.
Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with an 88% of society supporting the gay community compared to 11% who do not.
Main article: Political divisions of Spain
The Spanish State is integrated by 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are integrated by provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the _comarques_ (sing. _comarca_) and the _vegueries_ (sing. _vegueria_) both of which have administrative powers; _comarques_ being aggregations of municipalities, and the _vegueries_ being aggregations of _comarques_. The concept of a _comarca_ exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
Autonomous communities of Spain See also:
Nationalities and regions of Spain Galicia
Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "_nationalities_ and regions of Spain ". The autonomous communities were to be integrated into adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economical traits. This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies".
The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy . The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.
The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers comprising:
* a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented; * a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain ; * a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as _nationalities_, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, and Aragon.
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive
autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The
distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid
out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be
asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and
Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the
_nationalities_—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and
Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities,
among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the
parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque
Navarre have police corps of their own:
Ertzaintza , Mossos d\'Esquadra and the
Policía Foral respectively.
Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the
_Policía Autónoma Andaluza_ in
Andalusia or the
Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the _nationalities_ and the rest of the regions.
Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta and Melilla . These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.
Provinces And Municipalities
Autonomous communities are subdivided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities . The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that are integrated by a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.
Foreign relations of Spain
After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations , enter the European Community , and define security relations with the West.
As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.
Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines . Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of _" Hispanidad "_ or _"Hispanismo "_, as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. Territorial disputes
Spain claims Gibraltar , a 6-square-kilometre (2.3 sq mi) Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula . Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic army. According to United Nations , Spain is the administrative power of the Western Sahara de iure.
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht , in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.
The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ". The United Kingdom relies on _de facto_ arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus, as there has been "continuous possession over a long period".
Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands , a claim not recognised by Portugal. Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, therefore claiming that there is no Portuguese territorial waters around the disputed islands. On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.
Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island , a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar . The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.
Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the _plazas de soberanía _ islets off the northern coast of Africa; and Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza .
The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:
* Army (_Ejército de Tierra_) * Navy (_Armada_) * Air Force (_Ejército del Aire_)
Main article: Economy of Spain
The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October 2006, lower than many other European countries, and significantly below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy , and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK. Spain is a member of the Schengen Area , the Eurozone and the European Single Market .
By the mid-1990s the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.
Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational
status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin
Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the
United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia,
China and India. This early global expansion is a
competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours.
The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards
Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation ( Iberdrola was the world's largest renewable energy operator ), technology companies like Telefónica , Abengoa , Mondragon Corporation , Movistar , Hisdesat , Indra , train manufacturers like CAF , Talgo , global corporations such as the textile company Inditex , petroleum companies like Repsol and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial , Acciona , ACS , OHL and FCC .
In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world. In 2013 the same survey (now called the "Where-to-be-born index"), ranked Spain 28th in the world.
In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize , and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna , was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012. The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz received the European Green Capital Award in 2012.
Main article: Agriculture in Spain
Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (_secano_), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (_regadío_) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería —one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. A vineyard near Montferri in the province of Tarragona
Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40–45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables . Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes , cotton , sugar beets , potatoes , legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes , and fodder grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.
Citrus fruits , vegetables , cereal grains , olive oil , and wine —Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock , poultry , and dairy products . Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community .
The climate of Spain, its geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture and excellent infrastructure, has made Spain's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.
Main article: Energy in Spain
Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida , near Alvarado, Badajoz . Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain. On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors . Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric , biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction).
Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas , coal , and oil . Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each.
The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways
Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and
the second-most extensive in the world after China. As of October
Spain has a total of 3,500 km (2,174.80 mi) of high-speed tracks
There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were Miguel Servet , Santiago Ramón y Cajal , Narcís Monturiol , Celedonio Calatayud , Juan de la Cierva , Leonardo Torres y Quevedo , Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa . _See also ASCAMM , Associació Catalana d'Empreses constructores de Motlles i Matrius_
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Spain
Water supply and sanitation in Spain is characterised by universal access and generally good service quality, while tariffs are among the lowest in the EU. Almost half of the population is served by private or mixed private-public water companies, which operate under concession contracts with municipalities. The largest of the private water companies, with a market share of about 50% of the private concessions, is Aguas de Barcelona ( Agbar ). However, the large cities are all served by public companies except Barcelona and Valencia. The largest public company is Canal de Isabel II , which serves the metropolitan area of Madrid.
Droughts affect water supply in Southern Spain, which increasingly is turning towards seawater desalination to meet its water needs.
Main article: Demographics of Spain See also: List of Spanish autonomous communities by population
In 2008 the population of
Spain officially reached 46 million people,
as recorded by the _Padrón municipal_ (Spain's Municipal Register).
Spain's population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that
of most Western European countries and its distribution across the
country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding
Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward, based initially on the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%). In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.
In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute .
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru and Mexico . Another 450,000 left in the 17th century. Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil . Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.
* v * t * e
Largest cities or towns in Spain _Instituto Nacional de Estadística_ (INE)
RANK NAME AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY POP. RANK NAME AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY POP.
Metropolitan areas Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Spain Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008 The urban transformation of Bilbao has been hailed as an example of "smart city ".
Source: "_Áreas urbanas +50_", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)
e • d RANK METRO AREA Autonomous community POPULATION
GOVERNMENT DATA OTHER ESTIMATIONS
6 Bilbao Basque Country 910,578
Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spain is _de facto_ a plurinational state . The idendity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques , Catalans , Galicians , Andalusians and Valencians , although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Map portraying the major Immigrant countries of origin as of 2008
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa . Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern , South Asian and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans , French and others.
The arrival of the _gitanos _, a Romani people , began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million. There are also the _mercheros _ (also _quinquis_), a formerly nomadic minority group. Their origin is unclear.
Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture. The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews.
According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian , about 770,000 were Moroccan , approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian . Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian , Bolivian , German , Italian , Bulgarian , and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians . Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.
Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America , its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.
Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the _Financial Times_ reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.
In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer. What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners.
Main article: Languages of Spain The languages of Spain (simplified)
Spain is openly multilingual, and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.
Spanish (_español_)—officially recognised in the constitution as Castilian (_castellano_)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. The constitution also establishes that "all other Spanish languages"—that is, all other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes , their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."
The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are:
* Basque (_euskara_) in the Basque Country and Navarre ; * Catalan (_català_) in Catalonia , the Balearic Islands and in the Valencian Community , where its distinct modality of the language is officially known as Valencian (_valencià_); and * Galician (_galego_) in Galicia
As a percentage of the general population, Basque is spoken by 2%, Catalan (or Valencian) by 17%, and Galician by 7% of all Spaniards.
In Catalonia , Aranese (_aranés_), a local variety of the Occitan language , has been declared co-official along with Catalan and Spanish since 2006. It is spoken only in the _comarca_ of _Val d\'Aran _ by roughly 6,700 people. Other Romance minority languages , though not official, have special recognition, such as the Astur-Leonese group (Asturian – _asturianu_, also called _bable_ – in Asturias and Leonese – _llionés_ – in Castile and León ) and Aragonese (_aragonés_) in Aragon .
In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla , Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system was established by the 2006 educational law, LOE (_Ley Orgánica de Educación_), or Fundamental Law for the Education. In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (_Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa_), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called _Ley Wert_ (Wert Law). Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE).
Institución Libre de Enseñanza was an educational project that developed in Spain for the half a century of about 1876–1936 by Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Gumersindo de Azcárate . The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism . Concepción Arenal in feminism and Santiago Ramón y Cajal in neuroscience were in the movement.
Main article: Health care in Spain
The health care system of Spain ( Spanish National Health System ) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization . The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD .
RELIGIONS IN SPAIN
Roman Catholicism 67.8%
No Religion 27.5%
Other Faith 2.2%
No Answer 2.5%
Numbers from the following source:
Roman Catholicism has long been the main religion of Spain, and although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, Judaism, and evangelical Christianity is also recognised in law. According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 68% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 27% identify with no religion . Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Recent polls and surveys have revealed that atheists and agnostics comprise anywhere from 20% to 27% of the Spanish population. Santiago de Compostela Cathedral , A Coruña.
Altogether, about 9% of the entire Spanish population attends religious services at least once per month. Though Spanish society has become considerably more secular in recent decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has helped the Catholic Church to recover.
There have been four Spanish Popes . Damasus I , Calixtus III , Alexander VI and Benedict XIII . Spanish mysticism was an important intellectual fight against Protestantism with Teresa of Ávila , a reformist nun, ahead. The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and Francisco Javier . In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe and Ignacio Ellacuría were inside the movement of Liberation Theology .
Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members. There are about 105,000 Jehovah\'s Witnesses . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid. Ignatius of Loyola , Teresa de Jesús and Francisco Javier prominent figures of Counter-Reformation .
A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were about 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2012 , accounting for 3–4% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from Morocco and other African countries. More than 514,000 (30%) of them had Spanish nationality.
The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus , Buddhists , Sikhs and Muslims . After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.
Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion.
Main article: Culture of Spain
Culturally, Spain is a Western country . Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music has been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.
WORLD HERITAGE SITES
Main article: World Heritage Sites in Spain See also: Castles in Spain and Cathedrals in Spain The pre- Romanesque architecture of Santa María del Naranco Aljafería of Zaragoza Llotja de la Seda in Valencia . The Hanging Houses of Cuenca at the Museo de Arte Abstracto Español The Sagrada Família in Barcelona
It should be noted that after
Italy (49) and
Spain is the
third country in the world with the most World Heritage Sites . At the
present time it has 44 recognised sites, including the landscape of
Monte Perdido in the
Pyrenees , which is shared with
France , the
Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the
Côa Valley and
Siega Verde , which
is shared with
Portugal (the Portuguese part being in the Côa Valley,
Guarda ), and the Heritage of Mercury , shared with
Slovenia . In
Spain has also 14
Intangible cultural heritage , or "Human
Spain ranks first in
* 1984 — Alhambra , Generalife and Albayzín (Granada, Andalusia). * 1984 — Burgos Cathedral (Burgos, Castile-León). * 1984 — Historic Centre of Córdoba (Córdoba, Andalusia). * 1984 — Monastery and Royal Site of El Escorial (Madrid). * 1984 — Works of Antoni Gaudí (Barcelona, Catalonia). * 1985 — Cave of Altamira and Palaeolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain (Asturias, Basque Country and Cantabria regions). * 1985 — Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of Asturias (Asturias). * 1985 — Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches (Ávila, Castile-León). * 1985 — Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct (Segovia, Castile-León). * 1985 — Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) (A Coruña, Galicia). * 1986 — Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 1986 — Historic City of Toledo (Toledo, Castile-La Mancha). * 1986 — Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon (Provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza in Aragon). * 1986 — Old Town of Cáceres (Cáceres, Extremadura). * 1987 — Cathedral , Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (Seville, Andalusia). * 1988 — Old City of Salamanca (Salamanca, Castile-León). * 1991 — Poblet Monastery (Tarragona, Catalonia). * 1993 — Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida (Badajoz, Extremadura). * 1993 — Route of Santiago de Compostela (Provinces of Burgos, León and Palencia in Castile-León, Provinces of A Coruña and Lugo in Galicia, La Rioja, Navarre, and the Province of Huesca in Aragon). * 1993 — Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe (Cáceres, Extremadura). * 1994 — Doñana National Park (Provinces of Cádiz, Huelva and Seville in Andalusia). * 1996 — Historic Walled Town of Cuenca (Cuenca, Castile-La Mancha). * 1996 — Silk Exchange of Valencia (Valencia). * 1997 — Las Médulas (León, Castile-León). * 1997 — Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau in Barcelona (Barcelona, Catalonia). * 1997 — Pirineos – Monte Perdido (Huesca, Aragon – Spanish part / Midi-Pyrénées and Aquitaine – French part). (Shared with France). * 1997 — San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries (La Rioja). * 1998 (2010) — Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley (Guarda, Norte Region – Portuguese part) and Siega Verde (Salamanca, Castile-León – Spanish part). (Shared with Portugal). * 1998 — Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia, Aragon, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, Murcia and Valencia regions). * 1998 — University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid). * 1999 — Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture (Ibiza, Balearic Islands). * 1999 — San Cristóbal de La Laguna (Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 2000 — Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco (Tarragona, Catalonia). * 2000 — Archaeological Site of Atapuerca (Burgos, Castile-León). * 2000 — Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí (Lleida, Catalonia). * 2000 — Palmeral of Elche (Alicante, Valencia). * 2000 — Roman Walls of Lugo (Lugo, Galicia). * 2001 — Aranjuez Cultural Landscape (Madrid). * 2003 — Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (Jaén, Andalusia). * 2006 — Vizcaya Bridge (Biscay, Basque Country). * 2007 — Teide National Park (Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 2009 — Tower of Hercules (A Coruña, Galicia). * 2011 — Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (Majorca, Balearic Islands). * 2012 — Heritage of Mercury . Almadén (Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha – Spanish part) and Idrija (Slovene Littoral – Slovenian part). (Shared with Slovenia).
Main articles: Spanish literature , Royal Spanish Academy , and Instituto Cervantes See also: Basque literature , Catalan literature , Galician literature , and Latin American literature Corral de comedias de Almagro , Spanish Golden Age theatre with Lope de Vega and Calderon de la Barca .
The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature
date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish,
and Christian cultures in
Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes,
and others worked, the Kharjas (_Jarchas_). Bronze statues of Don
Sancho Panza in the Plaza de España in
During the Renaissance the major plays are _ La Celestina _ and _El Lazarillo de Tormes _, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León , San Juan de la Cruz , Santa Teresa de Jesús , etc.
The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire . The famous _Don Quijote de La Mancha _ by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo , Lope de Vega , Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina .
During the Romanticism , José Zorrilla created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio . Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer , José de Espronceda , Rosalía de Castro or Mariano José de Larra .
In Realism we find names such as Benito Pérez Galdós , Emilia Pardo Bazán , Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal , Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo . Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.
The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of _Regeneracionismo_. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno , Pío Baroja , and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán , Antonio Machado , Ramiro de Maeztu , and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98. Ramón del Valle-Inclán , María Zambrano and Federico García Lorca
The Generation of 1914 or _Novecentismo_. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset —a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field. Miguel Delibes describes the situation of rural Spain after the Rural flight in the 1950s.
Leading voices include the poet
Juan Ramón Jiménez , the academics
Ramón Menéndez Pidal ,
Gregorio Marañón , Manuel
Maria Zambrano , Eugeni d\'Ors ,
Clara Campoamor and Ortega y
Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró,
Ramón Pérez de Ayala , and
Ramón Gómez de la Serna . While still driven by the national and
existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they
approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and
Salvador de Madariaga , another prominent intellectual
and writer, was one of the founders of the College of
The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén , Federico García Lorca , Vicente Aleixandre , Dámaso Alonso . All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of _regeneracionistas_ and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.
The two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and Miguel Delibes from Generation of \'36 . Spain is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature , and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray , Jacinto Benavente , Juan Ramón Jiménez , Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela . The Portuguese writer José Saramago , also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Saramago was also well known by his Iberist ideas.
The Generation of \'50 are also known as the children of the civil war. Rosa Chacel , Gloria Fuertes , Jaime Gil de Biedma , Juan Goytisolo , Carmen Martín Gaite , Ana María Matute , Juan Marsé , Blas de Otero , Gabriel Celaya , Antonio Gamoneda , Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa .
Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European artistic movements . Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Moorish heritage in Spain, especially in Andalusia , is still evident today and European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods.
During the Golden Age we find painters such as El Greco , José de Ribera , Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán . Also inside Baroque period Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, like Las Meninas or Las Hilanderas .
Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War , the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the raise of state-nations.
Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso , Salvador Dalí , Juan Gris and Joan Miró .
The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete ( Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo , the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez , Diego de Siloé , Juan de Juni and Damián Forment .
There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School , to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School , to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.
Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena , Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán , Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo . In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González , Pablo Gargallo , Eduardo Chillida and Pablo Serrano .
Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as _Pan\'s Labyrinth _ and _ Volver _. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s ( La Movida Madrileña ). Mario Camus and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez .
Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón , Florián Rey , Luis García Berlanga , Carlos Saura , Julio Medem , Isabel Coixet , Alejandro Amenábar , Icíar Bollaín and brothers David Trueba and Fernando Trueba .
Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty . Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid , which built its famed palace complex in Granada .
Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.
The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in Barcelona , known as modernisme , produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC . Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo , Santiago Calatrava , Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.
MUSIC AND DANCE
Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco , a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.
In the field of classical music ,
Spain has produced a number of
noted composers such as
Isaac Albéniz ,
Manuel de Falla and Enrique
Granados and singers and performers such as
Plácido Domingo , José
Montserrat Caballé ,
Alicia de Larrocha ,
Alfredo Kraus ,
Pablo Casals ,
Ricardo Viñes ,
José Iturbi ,
Pablo de Sarasate ,
Jordi Savall and
Teresa Berganza . In
Spain there are over forty
professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de
Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica
Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.
The most popular traditional musical instrument , the guitar , originated in Spain. Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or _gaiteros _, mainly in Asturias and Galicia.
Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:
_MEDITERRANEAN_ Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as _pescaíto frito_ (fried fish); several cold soups like _gazpacho _; and many rice-based dishes like _paella _ from Valencia and _arròs negre _ (black rice) from Catalonia.
_INNER_ Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based _Castilian soup_, along with substantious stews such as _cocido madrileño _. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham , or immersed in olive oil , like Manchego cheese .
_ATLANTIC_ Spain – the whole Northern coast, including Asturian , Basque , Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like _caldo gallego _ and _marmitako _. Also, the lightly cured _lacón _ ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, like the Basque-style cod , albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based _polbo á feira _ and shellfish dishes.
While varieties of football had been played in
Spain as far back as
Roman times, sport in
Spain has been dominated by English style
association football since the early 20th century. Real
Basketball , tennis , cycling , handball , futsal , motorcycling and, lately, Formula One are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona , which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing .
Rafael Nadal is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won several Grand Slam titles including the Wimbledon 2010 men's singles. In north Spain, the game of pelota is very popular. Alberto Contador is the leading Spanish cyclist and has won several Grand Tour titles including two Tour de France titles.
PUBLIC HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS
Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic ), national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Spain's National Day (_Fiesta Nacional de España _) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain.
There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals. One of the most famous is San Fermín , in Pamplona . While its most famous event is the _encierro_, or the running of the bulls , which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway , which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.
* ^ _A_ _B_ The Spanish Constitution does not establish any official name for Spain, even though the terms _España_ (Spain), _Estado español_ (Spanish State) and _Nación española_ (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document. Nonetheless, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established in an ordinance published in 1984 that the denominations _España_ (Spain) and _Reino de España_ (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the official name by many international organisations.
* ^ _A_ _B_ In Spain, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages . In each of these, Spain's official name (Spanish: _Reino de España_, pronounced: ) is as follows:
* Aragonese : _Reino d’Espanya_, IPA: * Asturian : _Reinu d’España_, IPA: * Basque : _Espainiako Erresuma_, IPA:
* Catalan : _Regne d’Espanya_, IPA:
* Galician : _Reino de España_, IPA: * Occitan : _Reiaume d’Espanha_, IPA:
* ^ _A_ _B_ The official
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* ^ INE, 2011.
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* "Spain". The World Factbook _. Central Intelligence Agency . * Spain from _UCB Libraries GovPubs_ * Spain at DMOZ * Spain from the BBC News * Key Development Forecasts for Spain from International Futures
* E-Government portal for Spain
* Official tourism portal for Spain
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