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Illiciaceae
Illiciaceae Albert Charles Smith, A.C.Sm. was a family of flowering plants recognized in a number of systems of plant taxonomy. The Illiciaceae is not recognized as a distinct family by the APG III system of plant taxonomy, the most well accepted system in use today. The APG II system treated Illiciaceae as a family that may either be treated as part of another family, the Schisandraceae or allows for the optional segregate (taxonomy), segregation of the Illiciaceae from the Schisandraceae. The Illiciaceae as an optional segregate family then has the traditional circumscription of other taxonomic systems, consisting of a single genus, ''Illicium''. The updated APG III system of 2009 does not recognize this family and includes ''Illicium'' in the Schisandraceae. Description The family consists of shrubs or small trees usually with Aroma compound, volatile aromatic compounds. The leaves are evergreen, simple, alternate, spiral (sometimes crowded towards the tips of the twigs), l ...
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Illicium Anisatum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-075
''Illicium'' is a genus of flowering plants treated as part of the family Schisandraceae,''Illicium''.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
or alternately as the sole genus of the Illiciaceae.Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. 1992 onwards
Illiciaceae Van Tiegh.
The Families of Flowering Plants. Version: 19 August 2013.
It has a disjunct distribution, with most species native to eastern Asia and several in parts of North America, including the southeastern United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean. General common names include star anise
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Carpel
Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ... that produce ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...s and ultimately develop into the fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ... and seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by exper ...
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Illicium Floridanum
''Illicium floridanum'' (also known as purple anise, Florida anise, stink-bush, or star-anise) is an evergreen shrub native to the Gulf Coast area of the Southern United States, from Florida to Louisiana. Description The Florida anise tree has large evergreen lance shaped leaves that are lustrous and dark green. When crushed the leaf has a sweet odor, described as being "anise-like". The leaf of this plant has a parallel main vein. Within the leaf of this shrub, a flower also grows. The flower has 20 to 30 maroon-colored petals. The petals are typically in diameter. The flower is attractive, and it is often overlooked within the lush shiny foliage, but has a fish-like odor. If the flower is ripe, the seed explodes out of the star-shaped fruit. This plant has a variety that can be produced in cultivation through selective breeding. Depending on the breeding, white flowers can be observed. Taxonomy The ''Illicium floridanum'' plant was first discovered in 1765 by the servant of ...
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Illicium Verum
''Illicium verum'' is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China. A spice commonly called star anise, staranise, star anise seed, star aniseed, Chinese star anise, or badian that closely resembles anise in flavor is obtained from the star-shaped pericarps of the fruit of ''I. verum'' which are harvested just before ripening. Star anise oil is a highly fragrant oil used in cooking, perfumery, soaps, toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. Until 2012, when they switched to using a bacterial source, Roche Pharmaceuticals used up to 90% of the world's annual star anise crop to produce shikimic acid, a chemical intermediate used in the synthesis of oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Etymology and Nomenclature ''Illicium'' comes from the Latin ''illicio'' meaning "entice" or "seduce".Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. (hardback), (paperback). pp 210, 400 ''Verum'' means "true" or "genuine". The name "badian" appea ...
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Mexico
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ... in the southern portion of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen .... It is bordered to the north by the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the l ...
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Caribbean
The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Pequeñas Antillas; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, An ..., Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento Papiamento () or Papiamentu (; nl, Papiaments) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch Caribbean. It is the most widely spoken language on the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; als ...: ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ... that comprises the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Ca ...
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United States
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen .... It consists of 50 states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ..., a federal district A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include Capital districts and territori ..., five major unincorporate ...
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ..., to the west by South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ... and the Bay of Bengal The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the thir ...
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Shikimic Acid
Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its ion, anionic form shikimate, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. It is an important biochemical metabolite in plants and microorganisms. Its name comes from the Japanese flower ''shikimi'' (, the Japanese star anise, ''Illicium anisatum''), from which it was first isolated in 1885 by Johan Fredrik Eykman. The elucidation of its structure was made nearly 50 years later. Biosynthesis Phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate condense to form 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate, 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP), in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme DAHP synthase. DAHP is then transformed to 3-Dehydroquinic acid, 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), in a reaction catalyzed by DHQ synthase. Although this reaction requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor, the enzymic mechanism regenerates it, resulting in the net use of no NAD. : DHQ is dehydrated to 3-dehydroshikimic acid by t ...
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Anethole
Anethole (also known as anise camphor) is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, and syntheses of organic compounds compr ... that is widely used as a flavoring Flavor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is ... substance. It is a derivative of phenylpropene Phenylpropene is the organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ..., a type of aromatic compound that occurs widely in nature, in essential oil An essenti ...
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Quercetin
Quercetin is a plant flavonol Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name : 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one). Their diversity stems from the different positions of the phenols, phenolic hydroxyl, -OH groups. They are distinct from fl ... from the flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol un ... group of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring s characterized by multiples of units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Polyphenols include s, , and , some of which have been used historically as s and for . Et ...s. It is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, seeds, and grains; capers, red onions, and kale Kale (), or leaf cabbage, belongs to a group of cabbage (''Bras ...
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Kaempferol
Kaempferol (3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, found in a variety of plants and plant-derived foods including kale, beans, tea, spinach, and broccoli. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting point of . It is slightly soluble in water and highly soluble in hot ethanol, ethers, and Dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO. Kaempferol is named for 17th-century German naturalist Engelbert Kaempfer.Kaempferol
at Merriam-Webster.com; retrieved October 20, 2017


Natural occurrence

Kaempferol is a secondary metabolite found in many plants, plant-derived foods, and traditional medicines. Its flavor is considered bitter.


In plants and food

Kaempferol is common in Pteridophyta, Pinophyta, and Angiospermae. Within Pteridophyta and Pinophyta, kaemp ...
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