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The CARIBBEAN (/ˌkærᵻˈbiːən/ or /kəˈrɪbiən/ ) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea , its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean ) and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America , and north of South America .

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate , the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets , reefs and cays . (See the list .) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles ), are part of the somewhat larger WEST INDIES grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands ) north of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea . In a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize , Guyana , Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states , overseas departments , and dependencies . From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English -speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and pronunciation * 2 Definition

* 3 Geography and geology

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Island groups * 3.3 Historical groupings * 3.4 Modern-day island territories * 3.5 Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands

* 4 Biodiversity

* 4.1 Plants and animals

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Indigenous groups * 5.2 Language * 5.3 Religion

* 6 Politics

* 6.1 Regionalism

* 6.1.1 United States effects on regionalism * 6.1.2 Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and Association of Caribbean States * 6.1.3 Venezuela\'s effects on regionalism

* 7 Regional institutions

* 8 Cuisine

* 8.1 Favorite or national dishes

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND PRONUNCIATION

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs , an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of America .

The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" are _KARR-ə-BEE-ən_ , with the primary accent on the third syllable, and _kə-RIB-ee-ən_ , with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer _KARR-ə-BEE-ən_ while North American speakers more typically use _kə-RIB-ee-ən_ , although not all sources agree. Usage is split within Caribbean English itself.

DEFINITION

Map of the Caribbean

The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery , European colonisation and the plantation system .

* The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas . * Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean , which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America . * Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana , the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands , which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. * Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) consists of almost every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador , which lies solely on the Pacific Ocean. According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people.

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

The Caribbean Plate

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados , Bonaire , the Cayman Islands , Saint Croix , the Bahamas , and Antigua . Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba , Hispaniola , Puerto Rico , Jamaica , Dominica , Montserrat , Saba , Saint Kitts , Saint Lucia , Saint Thomas , Saint John , Tortola , Grenada , Saint Vincent , Guadeloupe , Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago . Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago , Venezuela .

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench , located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

CLIMATE

The climate of the area is tropical to subtropical in Cuba, the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east creating rain forest /semi desert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional north westerlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half.

Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.

Water temperatures vary from 31 °C (88 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F) all around the year. The air temperature is warm, in the 20s and 30s °C (70s, 80s and 90s °F) during the year, only varies from winter to summer about 2–5 degrees on the southern islands and about 10–20 degrees difference can occur in the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.

ARUBA: LATITUDE 12°N

CLIMATE DATA FOR ORANJESTAD, ARUBA (1981–2010, EXTREMES 1951–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 34.9 (94.8) 35.2 (95.4) 35.3 (95.5) 36.1 (97) 36.5 (97.7) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 30.4 (86.7) 30.9 (87.6) 31.5 (88.7) 32.0 (89.6) 32.2 (90) 32.0 (89.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 32.1 (89.8) 31.3 (88.3) 30.4 (86.7) 31.5 (88.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 27.2 (81) 27.9 (82.2) 28.5 (83.3) 28.7 (83.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.1 (84.4) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.1 (82.6) 27.2 (81) 28.1 (82.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 24.5 (76.1) 24.7 (76.5) 25.0 (77) 25.8 (78.4) 26.5 (79.7) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.8 (80.2) 26.9 (80.4) 26.4 (79.5) 25.8 (78.4) 25.0 (77) 25.9 (78.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 21.3 (70.3) 20.6 (69.1) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 21.8 (71.2) 22.7 (72.9) 21.2 (70.2) 21.3 (70.3) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 22.0 (71.6) 20.5 (68.9) 20.5 (68.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 39.3 (1.547) 20.6 (0.811) 8.7 (0.343) 11.6 (0.457) 16.3 (0.642) 18.7 (0.736) 31.7 (1.248) 25.8 (1.016) 45.5 (1.791) 77.8 (3.063) 94.0 (3.701) 81.8 (3.22) 471.8 (18.575)

Source: DEPARTAMENTO METEOROLOGICO ARUBA, (extremes)

PUERTO RICO: LATITUDE 18°N

CLIMATE DATA FOR MAYAGüEZ, PUERTO RICO

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 35 (95) 36 (96) 36 (97) 37 (98) 37 (98) 37 (98) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (98) 36 (97) 37 (99)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 28 (83) 29 (85) 31 (87) 31 (88) 32 (89) 33 (91) 33 (92) 33 (92) 33 (92) 32 (90) 32 (89) 30 (86) 31.4 (88.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 17 (63) 18 (64) 19 (66) 21 (69) 23 (73) 23 (74) 24 (75) 24 (76) 24 (76) 23 (74) 21 (70) 19 (67) 21.3 (70.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 9 (48) 6 (43) 10 (50) 14 (57) 14 (57) 16 (60) 18 (64) 18 (65) 15 (59) 16 (61) 8 (47) 13 (55) 6 (43)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 28 (1.1) 52 (2.05) 39 (1.54) 123 (4.84) 271 (10.67) 131 (5.16) 168 (6.61) 299 (11.77) 321 (12.64) 189 (7.44) 198 (7.8) 123 (4.84) 1,713 (67.44)

Source: The Weather Channel

CUBA: AT LATITUDE 22°N

CLIMATE DATA FOR HAVANA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 35.9 (96.6) 36.4 (97.5) 36.9 (98.4) 37.2 (99) 38.0 (100.4) 36.1 (97) 37.5 (99.5) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 34.8 (94.6) 38 (100.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 27.6 (81.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.8 (85.6) 30.5 (86.9) 31.3 (88.3) 31.6 (88.9) 31.0 (87.8) 29.2 (84.6) 27.7 (81.9) 26.5 (79.7) 28.8 (83.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 22.4 (72.3) 23.7 (74.7) 24.8 (76.6) 26.1 (79) 27.0 (80.6) 27.6 (81.7) 27.9 (82.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.1 (79) 24.5 (76.1) 23.0 (73.4) 25.2 (77.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 18.6 (65.5) 19.7 (67.5) 20.9 (69.6) 22.4 (72.3) 23.4 (74.1) 23.8 (74.8) 24.1 (75.4) 23.8 (74.8) 23.0 (73.4) 21.3 (70.3) 19.5 (67.1) 21.6 (70.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 5.6 (42.1) 5.4 (41.7) 11.5 (52.7) 16.8 (62.2) 19.7 (67.5) 18.2 (64.8) 19.3 (66.7) 19.1 (66.4) 11.9 (53.4) 10.0 (50) 7.5 (45.5) 4 (39.2)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 64.4 (2.535) 68.6 (2.701) 46.2 (1.819) 53.7 (2.114) 98.0 (3.858) 182.3 (7.177) 105.6 (4.157) 99.6 (3.921) 144.4 (5.685) 180.5 (7.106) 88.3 (3.476) 57.6 (2.268) 1,189.2 (46.817)

Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN ), Climate-Charts.com

Puerto Rico 's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya Puerto Cruz beach in Margarita Island , Venezuela Beach in San Andrés , Colombia . A popular Caribbean tropical portrait: the island of San Andrés . Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe . A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts .

ISLAND GROUPS

LUCAYAN ARCHIPELAGO

* The Bahamas * Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)

GREATER ANTILLES

* Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) * Cuba

* Hispaniola

* Haiti * Dominican Republic

* Jamaica

* Puerto Rico (U.S. Commonwealth )

* Spanish Virgin Islands

LESSER ANTILLES

* LEEWARD ISLANDS

* United States Virgin Islands (U.S.)

* Saint Croix * Saint Thomas * Saint John * Water Island

* British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)

* Tortola * Virgin Gorda * Anegada * Jost Van Dyke

* Anguilla (United Kingdom)

* Antigua and Barbuda

* Antigua * Barbuda * Redonda

* Saint Martin , politically divided between

* Saint Martin (France) * Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands )

* Saba (BES islands , Netherlands) * Sint Eustatius (BES islands , Netherlands) * Saint Barthélemy ( French Antilles , France)

* Saint Kitts and Nevis

* Saint Kitts * Nevis

* Montserrat (United Kingdom)

* Guadeloupe ( French Antilles , France) including

* Les Saintes * Marie-Galante * La Désirade

* WINDWARD ISLANDS

* Dominica * Martinique ( French Antilles , France) * Saint Lucia

* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

* Saint Vincent * The Grenadines

* Grenada

* Grenada * Carriacou and Petite Martinique

* Barbados

* Trinidad and Tobago

* Tobago * Trinidad

* LEEWARD ANTILLES

* Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands ) * Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands ) * Bonaire (BES islands , Netherlands)

HISTORICAL GROUPINGS

Main article: History of the Caribbean Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600. Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories :

* BRITISH WEST INDIES /ANGLOPHONE CARIBBEAN – Anguilla , Antigua and Barbuda , Bahamas , Barbados , Bay Islands , Guyana , Belize , British Virgin Islands , Cayman Islands , Dominica , Grenada , Jamaica , Montserrat , Saint Croix (briefly), Saint Kitts and Nevis , Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Trinidad and Tobago (from 1797) and the Turks and Caicos Islands * DANISH WEST INDIES – Possession of Denmark-Norway before 1814 , then Denmark , present-day United States Virgin Islands * DUTCH WEST INDIES – Aruba , Bonaire , Curaçao , Saba , Sint Eustatius , Sint Maarten , Bay Islands (briefly), Saint Croix (briefly), Tobago , Surinam and Virgin Islands * FRENCH WEST INDIES – Anguilla (briefly), Antigua and Barbuda (briefly), Dominica , Dominican Republic (briefly), Grenada , Haiti (formerly Saint-Domingue ), Montserrat (briefly), Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Sint Eustatius (briefly), Sint Maarten , St. Kitts (briefly), Tobago (briefly), Saint Croix , the current French overseas _départements_ of Martinique and Guadeloupe (including Marie-Galante , La Désirade and Les Saintes ), the current French overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin * PORTUGUESE WEST INDIES – present-day Barbados , known as _Os Barbados_ in the 16th century when the Portuguese claimed the island en route to Brazil. The Portuguese left Barbados abandoned in 1533, nearly a century before the British arrived. * SPANISH WEST INDIES – Cuba , Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic , Haiti (until 1659 to France), Puerto Rico , Jamaica (until 1655 to Great Britain), the Cayman Islands (until 1670 to Great Britain) Trinidad (until 1797 to Great Britain) and Bay Islands (until 1643 to Great Britain), coastal islands of Central America (except Belize), and some Caribbean coastal islands of Panama , Colombia , Mexico , and Venezuela . * SWEDISH WEST INDIES – present-day French Saint-Barthélemy , Guadeloupe (briefly) and Tobago (briefly). * COURLANDER WEST INDIES – Tobago (until 1691)

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches , One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals . The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana , the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

MODERN-DAY ISLAND TERRITORIES

Islands in and near the Caribbean Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations Main article: List of islands in the Caribbean See also: Caribbean South America and Caribbean basin

* ANGUILLA ( British overseas territory ) * ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA (Constitutional monarchy ) * ARUBA (Kingdom of the Netherlands ) * BAHAMAS (Constitutional monarchy ) * BARBADOS (Constitutional monarchy ) * BONAIRE (special municipality of the Netherlands) * BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS (British overseas territory) * CAYMAN ISLANDS (British overseas territory) * CUBA ( Republic ) * CURAçAO (Kingdom of the Netherlands ) * DOMINICA (Republic) * DOMINICAN REPUBLIC * GRENADA (Constitutional monarchy )

* GUADELOUPE (overseas department of France) including

* les Saintes * Marie-Galante * la Désirade

* HAITI (Republic) * JAMAICA (Constitutional monarchy ) * MARTINIQUE (overseas department of France) * MONTSERRAT (British overseas territory) * PUERTO RICO (commonwealth of the United States) * SABA (special municipality of the Netherlands) * SAINT BARTHéLEMY (overseas collectivity of France) * SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS (Constitutional monarchy ) * SAINT LUCIA (Constitutional monarchy ) * SAINT MARTIN (overseas collectivity of France) * SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES (Constitutional monarchy ) * SINT EUSTATIUS (special municipality of the Netherlands) * SINT MAARTEN (Kingdom of the Netherlands ) * TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (Republic) * TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS (British overseas territory) * UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS (territory of the United States)

CONTINENTAL COUNTRIES WITH CARIBBEAN COASTLINES AND ISLANDS

* BELIZE

* Ambergris Caye * Belize City * Big Creek * Caye Caulker * Glover\'s Reef * Dangriga * Hick\'s Cayes * Hopkins * Lighthouse Reef * Placencia * Punta Gorda * St. George\'s Caye * Tobacco Caye * Turneffe Atoll

* COLOMBIA

* Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina * Rosario Islands

* COSTA RICA * FRENCH GUIANA * GUATEMALA * GUYANA

* HONDURAS

* Islas de la Bahía

* Cayos Cochinos * Guanaja * Roatán * Swan Islands * Útila

* MEXICO

* Quintana Roo

* Cozumel * Isla Contoy * Isla Mujeres

* NICARAGUA

* Corn Islands * Miskito Cays * Pearl Cays

* PANAMA

* Panama City * Archipelago off Guna Yala coast (including the San Blas Islands ) * Bocas del Toro Archipelago (approximately 300 islands)

* SURINAME

* VENEZUELA

* Blanquilla Island * Coche Island * Cubagua Island * Isla Aves * Islas Los Frailes * Isla Margarita * La Orchila * La Sola Island * La Tortuga Island * Las Aves archipelago * Los Hermanos Archipelago * Los Monjes Archipelago * Los Roques archipelago * Los Testigos Islands * Patos Island

BIODIVERSITY

The Caribbean islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International 's biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands . The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefs along with extensive seagrass meadows, both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations. That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered. Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island; for Puerto Rico , the number is 789 species; for the Dominican Republic , the number is 699 species; for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation , pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths . The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon , two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile . Saona Island , Dominican Republic

The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishes have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification. According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar . The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture , for example Dominica , which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles , Aruba , Bonaire and Curaçao , are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism . This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.

PLANTS AND ANIMALS

*

Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica . *

A green and black poison frog, _ Dendrobates auratus _ *

_ Caesalpinia pulcherrima_, Guadeloupe . *

_ Costus speciosus _, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe . *

An Atlantic ghost crab (_Ocypode quadrata_) in Martinique . *

_ Crescentia cujete _, or calabash fruit, Martinique . *

_ Thalassoma bifasciatum _ (bluehead wrasse fish), over _Bispira brunnea _ (social feather duster worms). *

Two _ Stenopus hispidus _ (banded cleaner shrimp) on a _Xestospongia muta _ (giant barrel sponge). *

A pair of _ Cyphoma signatum _ (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti . *

The Martinique amazon , _Amazona martinicana_, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. *

_ Anastrepha suspensa_, a Caribbean fruit fly. *

_ Hemidactylus mabouia_, a tropical gecko, in Dominica .

DEMOGRAPHICS

A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago . Street scene, Matanzas , Cuba

At the time of European contact , the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Taíno of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles , the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity) led to a decline in the Amerindian population. From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa such as the Kongo , Igbo , Akan , Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland , who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England . Immigrants from Britain , Italy , France , Spain , the Netherlands , Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800. Immigrants from India , China , Indonesia , and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants. After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade , the population increased naturally. The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.

The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean , Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean , there are minorities of mixed-race (including Mulatto -Creole , Dougla , Mestizo , Quadroon , Cholo , Castizo , Criollo , Zambo , Pardo , Asian Latin Americans , Chindian , Cocoa panyols , and Eurasian ); and European people of Spanish , Dutch , English , French , Italian , and Portuguese ancestry. Asians , especially those of Chinese , Indian descent, and Javenese Indonesians , form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. Indians form a majority of the population in Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname . Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. One third of Cuba's (largest Caribbean island) population is of African descent, with a sizable Mulatto (mixed African–European) population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans , and Amerindians. Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago

Larger islands such as Jamaica , have a very large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, and has Chinese , Europeans , Indians , Latinos , Jews , and Arabs populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize , Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago . Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans , Indians , Chinese , Arabs , Jews , Spanish , Portuguese , and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla , Chindian , Mulatto -Creole , Afro- Asians , Eurasian , Cocoa panyols , and Asian Latin Americans

INDIGENOUS GROUPS

* Arawak peoples

* Igneri * Taíno

* Caquetio people * Ciboney * Ciguayo * Garifuna * Kalina * Kalinago * Lucayan * Macorix * Raizal

LANGUAGE

Main article: Languages of the Caribbean

Spanish , English , Portuguese , French , Dutch , Haitian Creole , Antillean Creole French , and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani , Tamil , Telugu , Danish , Italian , Irish , Swedish , Arabic , Chinese , Indonesian , Javanese , Yoruba , Yiddish , Hebrew , Amerindian languages , other African languages , other European languages , other Indian languages , and other Indonesian languages can also be found.

RELIGION

See also: Religion in the Caribbean Temple in the Sea , a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago . Holy Trinity Cathedral , an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago . Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago . A Jewish synagogue in Suriname . A Rastafarian man wearing a Rastafarian cap. A Haitian Vodou alter. A Santería alter in Cuba .

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%). Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism , Islam , Judaism , Rastafarianism , Buddhism , Chinese folk religion ( Taoism and Confucianism ), Bahá\'í , Jainism , Sikhism , Zorastrianism , Kebatinan , Traditional African religions , Afro-American religions , Yoruba ( Santería , Trinidad Orisha , Palo , Umbanda , Brujería , Hoodoo , Candomblé , Quimbanda , Orisha , Xangô de Recife, Xangô do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo , Santo Daime , Obeah , Candomblé , Abakuá , Kumina , Winti , Sanse, Cuban Vodú , Dominican Vudú , Louisiana Voodoo , Haitian Vodou , and Vodun ).

POLITICS

REGIONALISM

Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM) Insignia of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens. The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community ( CARICOM ) which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways." The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action." These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean." The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union 's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.

United States Effects On Regionalism

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention , which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply. The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement .

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.

Caribbean Financial Action Task Force And Association Of Caribbean States

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

Venezuela\'s Effects On Regionalism

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (March 2012)_

The President of Venezuela , Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.

REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

* Association of Caribbean States (ACS), Trinidad and Tobago * Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Trinidad and Tobago * Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organizations (CANTO), Trinidad and Tobago * Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Guyana * Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), Barbados * Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDERA), Barbados * Caribbean Educators Network * Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC), Saint Lucia * Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), Barbados and Jamaica * Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), Trinidad and Tobago * Caribbean Food Crops Society , Puerto Rico * Caribbean Football Union (CFU), Jamaica * Caribbean Hotel "> Doubles , one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago . Arroz con gandules , one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico .

* Anguilla – rice, peas and fish * Antigua and Barbuda – fungee and pepperpot * Bahamas - Guava duff , Conch Salad, and Conch Fritters * Barbados – cou-cou and flying fish * Belize - rice and beans, stew chicken with potato salad ; white rice, stew beans and fry fish with cole slaw * British Virgin Islands – fish and fungee * Cayman Islands – turtle stew, turtle steak, grouper * Colombian Caribbean – rice with coconut milk, arroz con pollo , sancocho, Arab cuisine (due to the large Arab population) * Cuba – platillo Moros y Cristianos , ropa vieja , lechon , maduros , ajiaco * Dominica – mountain chicken , rice and peas, dumplings, saltfish, dashin, bakes (fried dumplings), coconut confiture, curry goat, cassava farine , oxtail * Dominican Republic – arroz con pollo with stewed red kidney beans , pan fried or braised beef, salad/ ensalada de coditos, empanadas , mangú * Grenada – oil down * Guyana – pepperpot , cookup rice, roti and curry , methem, polourie * Haiti – griot (fried pork) served with du riz a pois or diri ak pwa (rice and beans ) * Jamaica – ackee and saltfish , callaloo , jerk chicken , curry chicken * Montserrat Goat water * Puerto Rico – yellow rice with green pigeon peas , saltfish stew, roasted pork shoulder, chicken fricassée, mofongo, tripe soup, alcapurria, coconut custard, rice pudding, guava turnovers, Mallorca bread * Saint Kitts and Nevis – coconut dumplings, spicy plantain , saltfish , breadfruit * Saint Lucia – callaloo , dal roti , dried and salted cod , green bananas , rice and beans * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – roasted breadfruit and fried jackfish * Trinidad and Tobago – callaloo , doubles ]], aloo pie , phulourie , bake and shark , macroni pie , curry , roti (paratha , fried bake , dal bhat , crab and dumpling, saheena, baiganee, pulao or pilao * United States Virgin Islands – stewed goat, oxtail or beef, seafood, callaloo , fungee

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Islands portal * North America portal * Caribbean portal

* African diaspora * Anchor coinage * British African- Caribbean people * British Indo- Caribbean people * CONCACAF * Council on Hemispheric Affairs * Culture of the Caribbean * Economy of the Caribbean * Indian diaspora * Indo-Caribbean * Indo-Caribbean American * List of Caribbean music genres * List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Caribbean * NECOBELAC Project * Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin * Piracy in the Caribbean * Politics of the Caribbean * Tourism in the Caribbean

GEOGRAPHY:

* Americas (terminology) * List of archipelagos by number of islands * List of Caribbean islands * List of indigenous names of Eastern Caribbean islands * List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean * List of Ultras of the Caribbean * Middle America (Americas)

NOTES

* ^ The Lucayan Archipelago is excluded from some definitions of "Caribbean" and instead classified as Atlantic ; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or environmental distinction. * ^ Trinidad and Tobago is sometimes excluded from the definition of "Caribbean" on account of being part of the South American continental shelf . This is a geological distinction; cultural and environmental definitions generally include the country. * ^ The population throughout the country of Panama considers itself and is considered Caribbean.

REFERENCES

* ^ Country Comparison :: Population. CIA. The World Factbook * ^ McWhorter, John H. (2005). _Defining Creole_. Oxford University Press US. p. 379. ISBN 0-19-516670-1 . * ^ Engerman, Stanley L. (2000). "A Population History of the Caribbean". In Haines, Michael R.; Hall Steckel, Richard. _pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-49666-7 _. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521496667 . OCLC 41118518 . first2= missing last2= in Authors list (help ) * ^ Hillman, Richard S.; D'Agostino, Thomas J., eds. (2003). _Understanding the contemporary Caribbean_. London, UK: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 158826663X . OCLC 300280211 . * ^ Asann, Ridvan (2007). _A Brief History of the Caribbean_ (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 3. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2 . * ^ Higman, B. W. (2011). _A Concise History of the Caribbean_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 0521043484 . * ^ _Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)_, United Nations Statistics Division * ^ North America Atlas National Geographic * ^ "North America" Archived March 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . _Atlas of Canada_ * ^ "North America". _Britannica Concise Encyclopedia_; "... associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Aleutian Islands." * ^ _The World: Geographic Overview_, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency; " North America is commonly understood to include the island of Greenland, the isles of the Caribbean, and to extend south all the way to the Isthmus of Panama." * ^ The Netherlands Antilles: The joy of six, The Economist Magazine, April 29, 2010 * ^ "Carib". _ Encyclopædia Britannica _. Archived from the original on 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2008-02-20. inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighbouring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest. * ^ In the early 20th century, only the pronunciation with the primary stress on the first syllable was considered correct, according to Frank Horace Vizetelly , _A Desk- Book of Twenty-five Thousand Words Frequently Mispronounced_ (Funk and Wagnalls, 1917), p. 233. * ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Johnstone, Keith (2011). _A Course in Phonetics_. Cengage Learning. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9 . * ^ See, e.g., Elster, _supra_. * ^ Allsopp, Richard; Allsopp, Jeannette (2003). _Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage_. University of the West Indies Press. p. 136–. ISBN 978-976-640-145-0 . * ^ "Background of the business forum of the Greater Caribbean of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS)". Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2009-05-05. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ). acs-aec.org * ^ ten Brink, Uri. " Puerto Rico Trench 2003: Cruise Summary Results". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-02-21. * ^ "Summary Climatological Normals 1981–2010" (PDF). Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012. * ^ "Climate Data Aruba". Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012. * ^ "Average Weather for Mayaguez, PR - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved 2012-06-07. * ^ "World Weather Information Service – Havana". Cuban Institute of Meteorology. June 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-26. * ^ "Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Retrieved 2010-06-26. * ^ Mark Spalding; Corinna Ravilious; Edmund Peter Green (10 September 2001). _World Atlas of Coral Reefs_. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23255-6 . Retrieved 25 June 2012. * ^ Littler, D. and Littler, M. (2000) _ Caribbean Reef Plants_. OffShore Graphics, Inc., ISBN 0967890101 . * ^ Minter, D.W., Rodríguez Hernández, M. and Mena Portales, J. (2001) _Fungi of the Caribbean. An annotated checklist_. PDMS Publishing, ISBN 0-9540169-0-4 . * ^ Kirk, P. M.; Ainsworth, Geoffrey Clough (2008). _Ainsworth & Bisby\'s Dictionary of the Fungi_. CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8 . * ^ "Fungi of Cuba – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09. * ^ "Fungi of Puerto Rico – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09. * ^ "Fungi of the Dominican Republic – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09. * ^ "Fungi of Trinidad & Tobago – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09. * ^ "North American Extinctions v. World". Thegreatstory.org. Retrieved 2010-08-23. * ^ " Caribbean Coral Reefs". _coral-reef-info.com_. * ^ Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; et al. (2007). "Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification". _Science_. 318 (5857): 1737–42. PMID 18079392 . doi :10.1126/science.1152509 . * ^ " Caribbean coral reefs may disappear within 20 years: Report". _IANS_. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 3 July 2014. * ^ Rogoziński, Jan (2000). _A Brief History of the Caribbean_. Penguin. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-452-28193-6 . * ^ Rogoziński, Jan (2000). _A Brief History of the Caribbean_. Penguin. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-452-28193-6 . * ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). _Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M_. ABC-CLIO. p. 413. ISBN 0-313-34102-8 . * ^ Engerman, p. 486 * ^ The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, _U.S. Library of Congress_ * ^ Engerman, pp. 488–492 * ^ Engerman, Figure 11.1 * ^ Engerman, pp. 501–502 * ^ Engerman, pp. 504, 511 * ^ Table A.2, Database documentation, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008. * ^ Christianity in its Global Context * ^ Gowricharn, Ruben. _ Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion_, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. p. 5 ISBN 0-7391-1167-1 * ^ Hillman, p. 150 * ^ Hillman, p. 165 * ^ _A_ _B_ Serbin, Andres (1994). "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions". _Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs_. 36 (4): 61–90. JSTOR 166319 . * ^ Hillman, p. 123 * ^ "The U.S.-EU Banana Agreement". Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2008-11-23. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) See also: "Dominica: Poverty and Potential". BBC. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ "WTO rules against EU banana import practices". Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-11-23. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ). eubusiness.com (2007-11-29) * ^ "No truce in banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-08. Retrieved 2010-08-23. * ^ "World: Americas St Vincent hit by banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-13. Retrieved 2010-08-23. * ^ "Concern for Caribbean farmers". Bbc.co.uk. 2005-01-07. Retrieved 2010-08-23. * ^ Edmonds, Kevin (2012-03-06). "ALBA Expands its Allies in the Caribbean". Venezuela Analysis. Retrieved March 9, 2012. * ^ "CANTO Caribbean portal". Canto.org. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ " Caribbean Educators Network". CEN. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ "Carilec". Carilec.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ "About Us". Caribbean Hotel & Tourism Association. Retrieved 17 June 2014. * ^ " Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme". Crepnet.net. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ " Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism". Caricom-fisheries.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ "Official website of the RNM". Crnm.org. Retrieved 2008-12-06. * ^ "University of the West Indies". Uwi.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-06.

* ^ " West Indies Cricket Board WICB Official Website". Windiescricket.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Engerman, Stanley L. "A Population History of the Caribbean", pp. 483–528 in _A Population History of North America_ Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-49666-7 . * Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. _Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean_, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003 ISBN 1-58826-663-X .

FURTHER READING

* Develtere, Patrick R. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO, ISBN 90-334-3181-5 * Gowricharn, Ruben. _ Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion_. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. * Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. _Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean_. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2003. * Heuman, Gad. _The Caribbean: Brief Histories_. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006. * de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). _Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean_, Oxford University Press , 1972. * Knight, Franklin W. _The Modern Caribbean_ (University of North Carolina Press, 1989). * Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. _A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny_. Addison-Wesley Publishing. ISBN 0-201-52396-5 * Langley, Lester D. _The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century_. London: University of Georgia Press , 1989. * Maingot, Anthony P. _The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship_. Westview Press, 1994. * Palmie, Stephan, and Francisco A. Scarano, eds. _The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples_ (University of Chicago Press; 2011); 660 pp.; writings on the region since the pre-Columbia era. * Ramnarine, Tina K. _Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora_. London, Pluto Press, 2007. * Rowntree, Lester/Martin Lewis/Marie Price/William Wyckoff. _Diversity Amid Globalization: World Regions, Environment, Development_, 4th edition, 2008.

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