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Heat Exchanger
A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between a source and a working fluid. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant. Flow arrangement Image:Heat_exc_1-1.svg, Fig. 1: Shell and tube heat exchanger, single pass (1 ...
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Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Theory and application Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat exchanger. One flows through the tubes (the tube side) and the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell (the shell side). Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa. The fluids can be either liquids or g ...
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Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Theory and application Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat exchanger. One flows through the tubes (the tube side) and the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell (the shell side). Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa. The fluids can be either liquids or g ...
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Tubular Heat Exchanger
Tubular may refer to: *having the form of a hollow cylinder, or tube *having the form of a cylinder *''Tubular'', a television-related entertainment blog on the ''Houston Chronicle'' website *''Tubular'', a level in the video game ''Super Mario World'' * Tubular, surf culture slang for cool or awesome, derived from catching a wave and getting in the tube * Tubular people, a former ethnic group in Russia The adjective is often applied to items which are somewhat tubular in shape: *Tubular bells, musical instruments (also known as chimes) in the percussion family * Tubular bridge, a bridge built as a rigid box girder section, with the traffic carried within the section *Tubular chassis or superleggera, a type of automobile construction technique used only in expensive sports cars *Tubular Gallery, a large diameter, round, tubular steel structure used to enclose a troughed conveyor belt *Tubular pin tumbler lock, or tubular lock, a type of lock using a tubular key *Tubular NDT, nondes ...
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Plate Frame 2
Plate may refer to: Cooking * Plate (dishware), a broad, mainly flat vessel commonly used to serve food * Plates, tableware, dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining * Plate, the content of such a plate (for example: rice plate) * Plate, to present food, on a plate * Plate, a forequarter cut of beef Places * Plate, Germany, a municipality in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany * River Plate (other) * Tourelle de la Plate, a lighthouse in France Science and technology Biology and medicine * Plate (anatomy), several meanings * Dental plate, also known as dentures * Dynamic compression plate, a metallic plate used in orthopedics to fix bone * Microtiter plate (or microplate or microwell plate), a flat plate with multiple "wells" used as small test tubes * Petri dish or Petri plate, a shallow dish on which biological cultures may be grown and/or viewed Geology * Tectonic plate, are pieces of Earth's crust and uppermost mantl ...
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Plate Frame 1
Plate may refer to: Cooking * Plate (dishware), a broad, mainly flat vessel commonly used to serve food * Plates, tableware, dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining * Plate, the content of such a plate (for example: rice plate) * Plate, to present food, on a plate * Plate, a forequarter cut of beef Places * Plate, Germany, a municipality in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany * River Plate (other) * Tourelle de la Plate, a lighthouse in France Science and technology Biology and medicine * Plate (anatomy), several meanings * Dental plate, also known as dentures * Dynamic compression plate, a metallic plate used in orthopedics to fix bone * Microtiter plate (or microplate or microwell plate), a flat plate with multiple "wells" used as small test tubes * Petri dish or Petri plate, a shallow dish on which biological cultures may be grown and/or viewed Geology * Tectonic plate, are pieces of Earth's crust and uppermost mantl ...
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Copper In Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat to achieve desired heating or cooling. An important design aspect of heat exchanger technology is the selection of appropriate materials to conduct and transfer heat fast and efficiently. Copper has many desirable properties for thermally efficient and durable heat exchangers. First and foremost, copper is an excellent conductor of heat. This means that copper's high thermal conductivity allows heat to pass through it quickly. Other desirable properties of copper in heat exchangers include its corrosion resistance, biofouling resistance, maximum allowable stress and internal pressure, creep rupture strength, fatigue strength, hardness, thermal expansion, specific heat, antimicrobial properties, tensile strength, yield strength, high melting point, alloy, ease of fabrication, and ease of joining. The combination of these properties enable copper to be specified for heat exchangers in industrial facilities, HVAC systems, vehicular coole ...
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Baffle (heat Exchanger)
Baffles are flow-directing or obstructing vanes or panels used to direct a flow of liquid or gas. It is used in some household stoves and in some industrial process vessels (tanks), such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, and static mixers. Baffles are an integral part of the shell and tube heat exchanger design. A baffle is designed to support tube bundles and direct the flow of fluids for maximum efficiency. Baffle design and tolerances for heat exchangers are discussed in the standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA). Use of baffles The main roles of a baffle in a shell and tube heat exchanger are to: * Hold tubes in position (preventing sagging), both in production and operation * Prevent the effects of steam starvation, which is increased with both fluid velocity and the length of the exchanger * Direct shell-side fluid flow along tube field. This increases fluid velocity and the effective heat transfer co-efficient of the ...
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Plenum Chamber
A plenum chamber is a pressurised housing containing a fluid (typically air) at positive pressure. One of its functions is to equalise pressure for more even distribution, compensating for irregular supply or demand. It is typically relatively large in volume and thus has relatively low velocity compared to the system's other components. In wind tunnels, rockets, and many flow applications, it is a chamber upstream on the fluid flow where the fluid initially resides (approximately at rest). It can also work as an acoustic silencer. Examples of plenum chambers include those used with: * Superchargers * Hovercraft * Corliss steam engines * Raised floors and false ceilings in equipment rooms * Some organs (to supplement the bellows) * A number of aerophones, such as the bag of bagpipes and the ''slow air chamber'' of the Native American flute * Plenum chamber anesthetic vaporizers * Rocket motor combustion chambers, which may have a section near the nozzle that is free of the ...
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Internal Combustion Engine
An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high- pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is typically applied to pistons ( piston engine), turbine blades (gas turbine), a rotor (Wankel engine), or a nozzle ( jet engine). This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into kinetic energy which is used to propel, move or power whatever the engine is attached to. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where the weight or size of an engine was more important. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by √Čtienne Lenoir around 1860, and the first modern internal combustion engi ...
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Charge Air Cooler
An intercooler is a heat exchanger used to cool a gas after compression. Often found in turbocharged engines, intercoolers are also used in air compressors, air conditioners, refrigeration and gas turbines. Internal combustion engines Most commonly used with turbocharged engines, an intercooler is used to counteract the heat of compression and heat soak in the pressurised intake air. By reducing the temperature of the intake air, the air becomes denser (allowing more fuel to be injected, resulting in increased power) and less likely to suffer from pre-ignition or knocking. Additional cooling can be provided by externally spraying a fine mist onto the intercooler surface, or even into the intake air itself, to further reduce intake charge temperature through evaporative cooling. Intercoolers can vary dramatically in size, shape and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the system. Many passenger cars use either ''front-mounted intercoolers'' locat ...
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Intercooler
An intercooler is a heat exchanger used to cool a gas after compression. Often found in turbocharged engines, intercoolers are also used in air compressors, air conditioners, refrigeration and gas turbines. Internal combustion engines Most commonly used with turbocharged engines, an intercooler is used to counteract the heat of compression and heat soak in the pressurised intake air. By reducing the temperature of the intake air, the air becomes denser (allowing more fuel to be injected, resulting in increased power) and less likely to suffer from pre-ignition or knocking. Additional cooling can be provided by externally spraying a fine mist onto the intercooler surface, or even into the intake air itself, to further reduce intake charge temperature through evaporative cooling. Intercoolers can vary dramatically in size, shape and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the system. Many passenger cars use either ''front-mounted intercoolers ...
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