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Equal Footing
The equal footing doctrine, also known as equality of the states, is the principle in United States constitutional law that all states admitted to the Union under the Constitution since 1789 enter on equal footing with the 13 states already in the Union at that time. The Constitution grants to Congress the power to admit new states in Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, which states: In each act of admission since that of Tennessee in 1796, Congress has specified that the new state joins the Union "on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever". Previously, when Vermont was admitted in 1791, its act of admission said Vermont was to be "a new and entire member" of the United States. Background At the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a proposal to include the phrase, "new States shall be admitted on the same terms with the original States", was defeated. It was feared that the political power of future new western states would eventually overwhelm that of th ...
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United States
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. The United States is also in free association with three Pacific Island sovereign states: the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. It is the world's third-largest country by both land and total area. It shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south and has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 333 million, it is the most populous country in the Americas and the third most populous in the world. The national capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. and its most populous city and principal financial center is New York City. Pale ...
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Coyle V
Coyle is a surname of Irish origin. People sharing this surname *Andrew Coyle (contemporary), British law professor and prison official * Anthony Coyle (American football) (born 1996), American football player * Bill Coyle (baseball) (1871–1941), American baseball player * Bill Coyle (born ?), American poet *Brendan Coyle (born 1963), English actor * Brian Coyle (1944–1991), American gay rights activist * Brock Coyle (born 1990) American Football Player * Charles Delmer Coyle (1887–1954), Canadian politician from Ontario; MP from Elgin 1945–54 * Charlie Coyle (born 1992), American ice hockey player * Charlotte Coyle (born 1982), Northern Ireland plus-size model *Cleo Coyle or Alice Alfonsi, American author * Colm Coyle (born 1965), Irish Gaelic football player and manager * Craig Coyle (born 1980), Scottish footballer * Dallas Coyle (contemporary), American guitarist * David Coyle (born 1970) Scottish guitarist and music producer * Denise Coyle (born 1953), American pol ...
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Equal Footing Doctrine
The equal footing doctrine, also known as equality of the states, is the principle in United States constitutional law that all states admitted to the Union under the Constitution since 1789 enter on equal footing with the 13 states already in the Union at that time. The Constitution grants to Congress the power to admit new states in Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, which states: In each act of admission since that of Tennessee in 1796, Congress has specified that the new state joins the Union "on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever". Previously, when Vermont was admitted in 1791, its act of admission said Vermont was to be "a new and entire member" of the United States. Background At the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a proposal to include the phrase, "new States shall be admitted on the same terms with the original States", was defeated. It was feared that the political power of future new western states would eventually overwhelm that of th ...
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Symmetric Federalism
Symmetric federalism refers to a federal system of government in which each constituent state to the federation possess equal powers. In a symmetric federalism no distinction is made between constituent states. This is in contrast to asymmetric federalism, where a distinction is made between constituent states. Examples Australia Australia is a symmetric federation, as each of the 6 states are given equal levels of autonomy and representation in the Parliament, aside from differences in their representation in the House of Representatives that are due to their different populations. United States The United States is a symmetric federation, as each of the 50 states in the Union has the same standing and powers under the United States Constitution. This was affirmed in Coyle v. Smith when the U. S. Supreme Court declared a provision of the Oklahoma Enabling Act which required the State capital be located in Guthrie, Oklahoma until at least 1913, as being unconstitutional. How ...
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Idaho V
Idaho ( ) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canada–United States border with the province of British Columbia. It borders the states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. With an area of , Idaho is the 14th largest state by land area, but with a population of approximately 1.8 million, it ranks as the 13th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. For thousands of years, and prior to European colonization, Idaho has been inhabited by native peoples. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area of dispute between the U.S. and the British Empire. It officially became U.S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead ...
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Pollard V
Pollard may refer to: Places in the United States * Pollard, Alabama, a town * Pollard, Arkansas, a city * Pollard, Kansas, an unincorporated community People * Pollard (surname), a list of people with the surname * Pollard Hopewell (between 1786 and 1789 – 1813), midshipman in the United States Navy * Charles Pollard Olivier (1884–1975), American astronomer * James Pollard Espy (1785–1860), American meteorologist * Ngoia Pollard Napaltjarri (born c. 1948), Australian indigenous (Warlpiri people) artist * Thomas Pollard Sampson (1875–1961), Australian architect Flora and fauna *Pollard, an animal or a tree which has been polled (had its antlers or horns, or branches removed): **Pollard, a deer which has cast its antlers **Pollard or polled livestock, hornless livestock of normally-horned species **Pollard, a tree affected by pollarding, a method for shaping trees, cropping the branches above head-height * Pollard, the European chub (''Squalius cephalus''), a freshwa ...
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Navigability
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and calm enough for a water vessel (e.g. boats) to pass safely. Such a navigable water is called a ''waterway'', and is preferably with few obstructions against direct traverse that needed avoiding, such as rocks, reefs or trees. Bridges built over waterways must have sufficient clearance. High flow speed may make a channel unnavigable due to risk of ship collisions. Waters may be unnavigable because of ice, particularly in winter or high-latitude regions. Navigability also depends on context: a small river may be navigable by smaller craft such as a motorboat or a kayak, but unnavigable by a larger freighter or cruise ship. Shallow rivers may be made navigable by the installation of locks that regulate flow and increase upstream water level, or by dredging that deepens parts of the stream bed. Inland water transport systems Inland Water Transport (IWT) Systems have been used for centuries in ...
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Mud Lake, Minnesota
Mud Lake is an unorganized territory located in Marshall County, Minnesota, United States. In both the 2000 and 2010 U.S. censuses, the unorganized territory recorded a population of 0. History Mud Lake was organized as Mud Lake Township, and named for a former lake that has since been drained. Geography According to the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the ..., the unorganized territory has a total area of 36.0 square miles (93.2 km2), of which 31.3 square miles (81.1 km2) is land and 4.7 square miles (12.1 km2) (13.03%) is water. Demographics As of the census of 2000, there were no people living in the unorganized territory. References {{authority control Populated places in Marshall County, Minneso ...
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Minnesota
Minnesota () is a state in the upper midwestern region of the United States. It is the 12th largest U.S. state in area and the 22nd most populous, with over 5.75 million residents. Minnesota is home to western prairies, now given over to intensive agriculture; deciduous forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed, and settled; and the less populated North Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation. Roughly a third of the state is covered in forests, and it is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes" for having over 14,000 bodies of fresh water of at least ten acres. More than 60% of Minnesotans live in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, known as the "Twin Cities", the state's main political, economic, and cultural hub. With a population of about 3.7 million, the Twin Cities is the 16th largest metropolitan area in the U.S. Other minor metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas in the state include Duluth, Mankato, Moorhead, Rocheste ...
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Red Lake Indian Reservation
The Red Lake Indian Reservation (Ojibwe: ''Miskwaagamiiwi-zaaga'iganing'') covers in parts of nine counties in northwestern Minnesota, United States. It is made up of numerous holdings but the largest section is an area about Red Lake, in north-central Minnesota, the largest lake in the state. This section lies primarily in the counties of Beltrami and Clearwater. Land in seven other counties is also part of the reservation. The reservation population was 5,506 in the 2020 census. The second-largest section () is much farther north, in the Northwest Angle of Lake of the Woods County near the Canada–United States border. It has no permanent residents. Between these two largest sections are hundreds of mostly small, non-contiguous reservation exclaves in the counties of Beltrami, Clearwater, Lake of the Woods, Koochiching, Roseau, Pennington, Marshall, Red Lake, and Polk. Home to the federally recognized Red Lake Band of Chippewa, it is unique as the only "clos ...
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Oklahoma Enabling Act
The Enabling Act of 1906, in its first part, empowered the people residing in Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory to elect delegates to a state constitutional convention and subsequently to be admitted to the union as a single state. The act, in its second part, also enabled the people of New Mexico Territory and of Arizona Territory to form a constitution and State government and be admitted into the Union, requiring a referendum to determine if both territories should be admitted as a single state.Everett, Dianna. ''Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture''. "Enabling Act (1906)." Retrieved January 10, 2012. Background The Oklahoma Organic Act of 1890 contemplated admitting Oklahoma and Indian Territories as a single state. However, residents of Indian Territory sponsored a bill to admit Indian Territory as the State of Sequoyah, which was defeated in the U. S. Congress in 1905. President Theodore Roosevelt then proposed a compromise that would join Indian Territory wi ...
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Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City (), officially the City of Oklahoma City, and often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, it ranks 20th among United States cities in population, and is the 8th largest city in the Southern United States. The population grew following the 2010 census and reached 687,725 in the 2020 census. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,396,445, and the Oklahoma City–Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,469,124, making it Oklahoma's largest municipality and metropolitan area by population. Oklahoma City's city limits extend somewhat into Canadian, Cleveland, and Pottawatomie counties, though much of those areas outside the core Oklahoma County area are suburban tracts or protected rural zones ( watershed). The city is the eighth-largest in the United States by area including consolidated city-counties; it is the second-largest, after Houston, not ...
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