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Energy Efficiency (physics)
Energy conversion efficiency (''η'') is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. The input, as well as the useful output may be chemical, electric power, mechanical work, light (radiation), or heat. The resulting value, ''η'' (eta), ranges between 0 and 1. Overview Energy conversion efficiency depends on the usefulness of the output. All or part of the heat produced from burning a fuel may become rejected waste heat if, for example, work is the desired output from a thermodynamic cycle. Energy converter is an example of an energy transformation. For example, a light bulb falls into the categories energy converter. \eta = \frac Even though the definition includes the notion of usefulness, efficiency is considered a technical or physical term. Goal or mission oriented terms include effectiveness and efficacy. Generally, energy conversion efficiency is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1.0, or 0% to 100%. Ef ...
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Process Efficiency Diagram
A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process, activities that produce a specific service or product for customers *Business process modeling, activity of representing processes of an enterprise in order to deliver improvements *Manufacturing process management, a collection of technologies and methods used to define how products are to be manufactured. *Process architecture, structural design of processes, applies to fields such as computers, business processes, logistics, project management *Process costing, a cost allocation procedure of managerial accounting * Process management, ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process or manufacturing processes *Process management (project management), a systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result in engineeri ...
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Dimensionless
A dimensionless quantity (also known as a bare quantity, pure quantity, or scalar quantity as well as quantity of dimension one) is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned, with a corresponding SI unit of measurement of one (or 1), ISBN 978-92-822-2272-0. which is not explicitly shown. Dimensionless quantities are widely used in many fields, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, and economics. Dimensionless quantities are distinct from quantities that have associated dimensions, such as time (measured in seconds). Dimensionless units are dimensionless values that serve as units of measurement for expressing other quantities, such as radians (rad) or steradians (sr) for plane angles and solid angles, respectively. For example, optical extent is defined as having units of metres multiplied by steradians. History Quantities having dimension one, ''dimensionless quantities'', regularly occur in sciences, and are formally treated within the field ...
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Luminous Efficiency
Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light. It is the ratio of luminous flux to power, measured in lumens per watt in the International System of Units (SI). Depending on context, the power can be either the radiant flux of the source's output, or it can be the total power (electric power, chemical energy, or others) consumed by the source. Which sense of the term is intended must usually be inferred from the context, and is sometimes unclear. The former sense is sometimes called luminous efficacy of radiation,International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary''ref. 845-21-090, Luminous efficacy of radiation (for a specified photometric condition)/ref> and the latter luminous efficacy of a light sourceInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary''ref. 845-21-089, Luminous efficacy (of a light source)/ref> or overall luminous efficacy. Not all wavelength ...
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Cogeneration
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel or heat, because otherwise- wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating. This is also called combined heat and power district heating. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures (100–180 °C, 212–356 °F) can also be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling. The supply of high-temperature heat first drives a gas or steam turbine-powered generator. The resulting low-temperature waste heat is then used for water or space heating. At smaller scales (typically below 1 MW), a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Cogeneration is also common with geothermal power plants as they often produce relativel ...
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Fuel
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy, such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels can be converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times, the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that accompanies combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related organic molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or d ...
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Work Output
In physics, ''work output'' is the work done by a simple machine, compound machine, or any type of engine model. In common terms, it is the energy output, which for simple machines is always less than the energy input, even though the forces may be drastically different. In hermodynamics work output can refer to the thermodynamic work done by a heat engine, in which case the amount of work output must be less than the input as energy is lost to heat, as determined by the engine's efficiency Efficiency is the often measurable ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do things well, successfully, and without .... References * Thermodynamics {{thermodynamics-stub ...
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Work (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, work is one of the principal processes by which a thermodynamic system can interact with its surroundings and exchange energy. An exchange of energy is facilitated by a mechanism through which the system can spontaneously exert macroscopic forces on its surroundings, or vice versa. In the surroundings, this mechanical work can lift a weight, for example. The externally measured forces and external effects may be electromagnetic,Guggenheim, E.A. (1985). ''Thermodynamics. An Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists'', seventh edition, North Holland, Amsterdam, .Jackson, J.D. (1975). ''Classical Electrodynamics'', second edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, .Konopinski, E.J. (1981). ''Electromagnetic Fields and Relativistic Particles'', McGraw-Hill, New York, . gravitational,North, G.R., Erukhimova, T.L. (2009). ''Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Elementary Physics and Chemistry'', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), . or mechanical (such as pressure-v ...
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Fuel Efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio of effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is often illustrated as a continuous energy profile. Non-transportation applications, such as industry, benefit from increased fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process. In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, given as a ratio of distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. It is dependent on several factors including engine efficiency, transmission design, and tire design. In most countries, using the metric system, fuel economy is stated as "fuel consumption" in liters per 100 kilometers (L/100 km) or kilom ...
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Thermal Efficiency
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, steam turbine, steam engine, boiler, furnace, refrigerator, ACs etc. For a heat engine, thermal efficiency is the ratio of the net work output to the heat input; in the case of a heat pump, thermal efficiency (known as the ''coefficient of performance'') is the ratio of net heat output (for heating), or the net heat removed (for cooling) to the energy input (external work). The efficiency of a heat engine is fractional as the output is always less than the input while the COP of a heat pump is more than 1. These values are further restricted by the Carnot theorem. Overview In general, energy conversion efficiency is the ratio between the useful output of a device and the input, in energy terms. For thermal efficiency, the input, Q_, to the device is heat, or the heat-content of a fuel that is consumed. The des ...
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Mechanical Work
In physics, work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a displacement. In its simplest form, for a constant force aligned with the direction of motion, the work equals the product of the force strength and the distance traveled. A force is said to do ''positive work'' if when applied it has a component in the direction of the displacement of the point of application. A force does ''negative work'' if it has a component opposite to the direction of the displacement at the point of application of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done by the gravitational force on the ball as it falls is positive, and is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground (a displacement). If the ball is thrown upwards, the work done by its weight is negative, and is equal to the weight multiplied by the displacement in the upwards direction. When the force is consta ...
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Mechanical Efficiency
In mechanical engineering, mechanical efficiency is a dimensionless number that measures the effectiveness of a mechanism or machine in transforming the power input to the device to power output. A machine is a mechanical linkage in which force is applied at one point, and the force does work moving a load at another point. At any instant the power input to a machine is equal to the input force multiplied by the velocity of the input point, similarly the power output is equal to the force exerted on the load multiplied by the velocity of the load. The mechanical efficiency of a machine (often represented by the Greek letter eta \eta) is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 that is the ratio between the power output of the machine and the power input :\eta = \frac Since a machine does not contain a source of energy, nor can it store energy, from conservation of energy the power output of a machine can never be greater than its input, so the efficiency can never be greater th ...
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Electrical Efficiency
The efficiency of a system in electronics and electrical engineering is defined as useful power output divided by the total electrical power consumed (a fractional expression), typically denoted by the Greek small letter eta (η – ήτα). : \mathrm=\frac If energy output and input are expressed in the same units, efficiency is a dimensionless number. Where it is not customary or convenient to represent input and output energy in the same units, efficiency-like quantities have units associated with them. For example, the heat rate of a fossil fuel power plant may be expressed in BTU per kilowatt-hour. Luminous efficacy of a light source expresses the amount of visible light for a certain amount of power transfer and has the units of lumens per watt. Efficiency of typical electrical devices ''Efficiency'' should not be confused with ''effectiveness'': a system that wastes most of its input power but produces exactly what it is meant to is effective but not efficient. T ...
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