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Dioxygenyl Hexafluoroplatinate
Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate is a compound with formula O2PtF6. It is a hexafluoroplatinate of the unusual dioxygenyl cation, O2+, and is the first known compound containing this cation. It can be produced by the reaction of dioxygen with platinum hexafluoride. The fact that is strong enough to oxidise , whose first ionization potential is 12.2  eV, led Neil Bartlett to correctly surmise that it might be able to oxidise xenon (first ionization potential 12.13 eV). This led to the discovery of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, which proved that the noble gases, previously thought to be inert, are able to form chemical compounds. Preparation Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate can be synthesized from the elements by the action of a mixture of oxygen and fluorine gas on platinum sponge at 450 °C. It can also be prepared by the reaction of oxygen difluoride () with platinum sponge. At 350 °C, platinum tetrafluoride is produced; above 400 °C, dioxygenyl hexafluor ...
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Compound (chemistry)
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) containing atoms from more than one chemical element held together by chemical bonds. A molecule consisting of atoms of only one element is therefore not a compound. A compound can be transformed into a different substance by a chemical reaction, which may involve interactions with other substances. In this process, bonds between atoms may be broken and/or new bonds formed. There are four major types of compounds, distinguished by how the constituent atoms are bonded together. Molecular compounds are held together by covalent bonds; ionic compounds are held together by ionic bonds; intermetallic compounds are held together by metallic bonds; coordination complexes are held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Non-stoichiometric compounds form a disputed marginal case. A chemical formula specifies the number of atoms of each element in a compound molecule, using the s ...
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Oxygen Difluoride
Oxygen difluoride is a chemical compound with the formula . As predicted by VSEPR theory, the molecule adopts a "bent" molecular geometry. It is strong oxidizer and has attracted attention in rocketry for this reason. With a boiling point of -144.75 °C, OF2 is the most volatile (isolable) triatomic compound. Preparation Oxygen difluoride was first reported in 1929; it was obtained by the electrolysis of molten potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid containing small quantities of water. The modern preparation entails the reaction of fluorine with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, with sodium fluoride as a side-product: : Structure and bonding Its powerful oxidizing properties are suggested by the oxidation number of +2 for the oxygen atom instead of its normal −2. Reactions Above 200 °C, decomposes to oxygen and fluorine by a radical mechanism. : reacts with many metals to yield oxides and fluorides. Nonmetals also react: phosphorus reacts with to form ...
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Oxygen Compounds
The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides. Compounds containing oxygen in other oxidation states are very uncommon: − (superoxides), − (ozonides), 0 (elemental, hypofluorous acid), + ( dioxygenyl), +1 ( dioxygen difluoride), and +2 (oxygen difluoride). Oxygen is reactive and will form oxides with all other elements except the noble gases helium, neon, argon and krypton. Oxides Water () is the oxide of hydrogen and most familiar oxygen compound. Its bulk properties partly result from the interaction of its component atoms, oxygen and hydrogen, with atoms of nearby water molecules. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional attraction (about 23.3 kJ·mol−1 per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule. These hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them approximately 15% closer ...
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Fluoro Complexes
Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative reactive element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements except for the light inert gases. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb meaning 'flow' gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern pro ...
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Iodine Heptafluoride
Iodine heptafluoride, also known as iodine(VII) fluoride or iodine fluoride, is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula I F7. It has an unusual pentagonal bipyramidal structure, as predicted by VSEPR theory. The molecule can undergo a pseudorotational rearrangement called the Bartell mechanism, which is like the Berry mechanism but for a heptacoordinated system. It forms colourless crystals, which melt at 4.5 °C: the liquid range is extremely narrow, with the boiling point at 4.77 °C. The dense vapor has a mouldy, acrid odour. The molecule has D5h symmetry. Preparation IF7 is prepared by passing F2 through liquid IF5 at 90 °C, then heating the vapours to 270 °C. Alternatively, this compound can be prepared from fluorine and dried palladium or potassium iodide to minimize the formation of IOF5, an impurity arising by hydrolysis. Iodine heptafluoride is also produced as a by-product when dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate is used to prepare ot ...
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Academic Press
Academic Press (AP) is an academic book publisher founded in 1941. It was acquired by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1969. Reed Elsevier bought Harcourt in 2000, and Academic Press is now an imprint of Elsevier. Academic Press publishes reference books, serials and online products in the subject areas of: * Communications engineering * Economics * Environmental science * Finance * Food science and nutrition * Geophysics * Life sciences * Mathematics and statistics * Neuroscience * Physical sciences * Psychology Well-known products include the ''Methods in Enzymology'' series and encyclopedias such as ''The International Encyclopedia of Public Health'' and the ''Encyclopedia of Neuroscience''. See also * Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft (AVG) — the German predecessor, founded in 1906 by Leo Jolowicz (1868–1940), the father of Walter Jolowicz Walter may refer to: People * Walter (name), both a surname and a given name * Little Walter, American blues harmonica player ...
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Iodine Pentafluoride
Iodine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with chemical formula IF5. It is one of the fluorides of iodine. It is a colorless liquid, although impure samples appear yellow. It is used as a fluorination reagent and even a solvent in specialized syntheses. Preparation It was first synthesized by Henri Moissan in 1891 by burning solid iodine in fluorine gas. This exothermic reaction is still used to produce iodine pentafluoride, although the reaction conditions have been improved. :I2 + 5 F2 → 2 IF5 Reactions IF5 reacts vigorously with water forming hydrofluoric acid and iodic acid: :IF5 + 3 H2O → HIO3 + 5 HF Upon treatment with fluorine, it converts to iodine heptafluoride: :IF5 + F2 → IF7 It has been used as a solvent for handling metal fluorides. For example, the reduction of osmium hexafluoride to osmium pentafluoride with iodine is conducted in a solution in iodine pentafluoride: :10 OsF6 + I2 → 10 OsF5 + 2 IF5 Primary amines react with iodine pentaf ...
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Potassium Fluoride
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective. Preparation Potassium fluoride is prepared by dissolving potassium carbonate in hydrofluoric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride. The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride: : K2CO3 + 4HF -> 2KHF2 + CO2 ^ + H2O : KHF2 -> KF + HF ^ Platinum or heat resistant plastic containers are often used for these operations. Potassium chloride converts to KF upon treatment with hydrogen fluoride. In this way, potassium fluoride is recyclable. Crystalline properties KF crystallizes in the cubic NaCl crystal structure. The lattice parameter at room temperature is 0.266 nm. ...
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Carbon Tetrafluoride
Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride or R-14, is the simplest perfluorocarbon ( C F4). As its IUPAC name indicates, tetrafluoromethane is the perfluorinated counterpart to the hydrocarbon methane. It can also be classified as a haloalkane or halomethane. Tetrafluoromethane is a useful refrigerant but also a potent greenhouse gas. It has a very high bond strength due to the nature of the carbon–fluorine bond. Bonding Because of the multiple carbon–fluorine bonds, and the high electronegativity of fluorine, the carbon in tetrafluoromethane has a significant positive partial charge which strengthens and shortens the four carbon–fluorine bonds by providing additional ionic character. Carbon–fluorine bonds are the strongest single bonds in organic chemistry. Additionally, they strengthen as more carbon–fluorine bonds are added to the same carbon. In the one carbon organofluorine compounds represented by molecules of fluoromethane, difluoromethane, triflu ...
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Potassium Hexafluoroplatinate(V)
Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin ''kalium'') and atomic number19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force. Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac- colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight), and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclas ...
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Rhombohedral
In geometry, a rhombohedron (also called a rhombic hexahedron or, inaccurately, a rhomboid) is a three-dimensional figure with six faces which are rhombi. It is a special case of a parallelepiped where all edges are the same length. It can be used to define the rhombohedral lattice system, a honeycomb with rhombohedral cells. A cube is a special case of a rhombohedron with all sides square. In general a ''rhombohedron'' can have up to three types of rhombic faces in congruent opposite pairs, ''C''''i'' symmetry, order 2. Four points forming non-adjacent vertices of a rhombohedron necessarily form the four vertices of an orthocentric tetrahedron, and all orthocentric tetrahedra can be formed in this way. Rhombohedral lattice system The rhombohedral lattice system has rhombohedral cells, with 6 congruent rhombic faces forming a trigonal trapezohedron: : Special cases by symmetry * Cube: with Oh symmetry, order 48. All faces are squares. * Trigonal trapezohedron (also c ...
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Platinum Tetrafluoride
Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula . In the solid state, the compound features platinum(IV) in octahedral coordination geometry. Preparation The compound was first reported by Henri Moissan by the fluorination of platinum metal in the presence of hydrogen fluoride. A modern synthesis involves thermal decomposition of platinum hexafluoride. Properties Platinum tetrafluoride vapour at 298.15 K consists of individual molecules. The enthalpy of sublimation is 210 kJmol−1. Original analysis of powdered PtF4 suggested a tetrahedral molecular geometry, but later analysis by several methods identified it as octahedral, with four of the six fluorines on each platinum bridging to adjacent platinum centres. Reactions A solution of platinum tetrafluoride in water is coloured reddish brown, but it rapidly decomposes, releasing heat and forming an orange coloured platinum dioxide hydrate precipitate and fluoroplatinic acid. When heated to a ...
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