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Contrast (linguistics)
In semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ..., contrast is a relationship between two discourse segments. On contrast Contrast is often overtly marked by markers such as ''but'' or ''however'', such as in the following examples: # It's raining, ''but'' I am not taking an umbrella. # We will be giving a party for our new students. We won't, ''however'', be serving drinks. # The student knew about the test on Friday, ''but'' still he did not study. In the first clause, ''It's raining'' implies that the speaker knows the weather situation and so will prepare for it, while the second clause ''I am not taking an umbrella'' implies that the speaker will still get wet. ''Both clauses'' (or discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation ...
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Semantics
Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second object. It is called a ''name ..., meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * Meaning (non-linguistic), a general ter ..., or truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In .... The term can be used to refer to subfields of several distinct disciplines, including philosophy Phil ...
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Discourse
Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner tho ... to any form of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b .... Discourse is a major topic in social theory, with work spanning fields such as sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ..., anthropology Anthropology is the scientific s ...
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Discourse Relation
A discourse relation (or rhetorical relation) is a description of how two segments of discourse are logically and/or structurally connected to one another. It is widely accepted that Coherence (linguistics), coherence in text is established through text relations that constitute paratactic (coordinate) or hypotactic (subordinate) relations that hold across two or more text spans. Selected theories and annotation frameworks of discourse relations include: * Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) that uses rhetorical relations as a systematic way for an analyst to analyse the text. An analysis is usually built by reading the text and constructing a tree using the relations. * Segmented discourse representation theory" (SDRT) SDRT Asher and Lascarides categorize the discourse relations formalized in SDRT into five classes. Content-level relations Text structuring relations Divergent relations Metatalk relations * Consequence*(α,β)Asher and Lascarides (2003): 333 * Exp ...
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Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ..., morphology () is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words such as stems, root words, prefix A prefix is an which is placed before the of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix ''un-'' is added to the word ''happy'', it creates the word ''unhappy''. Particularly in t ...es, and suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
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Minimal Pair
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, spoken or Sign language, signed, that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings. They are used to demonstrate that two phone (phonetics), phones are two separate phonemes in the language. Many phonologists in the middle part of the 20th century had a strong interest in developing techniques for discovering the phonemes of unknown languages, and in some cases, they set up writing systems for the languages. The major work of Kenneth Pike on the subject is ''Phonemics: a technique for reducing languages to writing''. The minimal pair was an essential tool in the discovery process and was found by substitution or commutation tests. As an example for English language, English vowels, the pair "let" + "lit" can be used to demonstrate that the phones (in let) and (in lit) actually represent distinct phonemes and . An example for English c ...
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Linguistic Morphology
In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ..., morphology () is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words such as stems, root words, prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...es, and suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
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