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Computational Photography
Computational photography refers to digital image capture and processing techniques that use digital computation instead of optical processes. Computational photography can improve the capabilities of a camera, or introduce features that were not possible at all with film based photography, or reduce the cost or size of camera elements. Examples of computational photography include in-camera computation of digital panoramas A panorama (formed from Greek language, Greek Omnipresence, πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any Obtuse angle, wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a th ..., high-dynamic-range images, and light field cameras. Light field cameras use novel optical elements to capture three dimensional scene information which can then be used to produce 3D images, enhanced depth-of-field illustrating the effect of depth of field on a tilted object. For many cameras, depth of fie ...
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Process Nocomparam
A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process, activities that produce a specific service or product for customers *Business process modeling, activity of representing processes of an enterprise in order to deliver improvements *Manufacturing process management, a collection of technologies and methods used to define how products are to be manufactured. *Process architecture, structural design of processes, applies to fields such as computers, business processes, logistics, project management *Process costing, a cost allocation procedure of managerial accounting *Process management (Project Management), Process management, ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process or manufacturing processes *Process management (Project Management), a systematic series of act ...
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3D Scanner
3D scanning is the process of analyzing a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour). The collected data can then be used to construct digital 3D modelling, 3D models. A 3D scanner can be based on many different technologies, each with its own limitations, advantages and costs. Many limitations in the kind of objects that can be digitization, digitised are still present. For example, optical technology may encounter many difficulties with shiny, reflective or transparent objects. For example, industrial computed tomography scanning and structured-light 3D scanners can be used to construct digital 3D modeling, 3D models, without non-destructive testing, destructive testing. Collected 3D data is useful for a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by the entertainment industry in the production of movies and video games, including virtual reality. Other common applications of this technology includ ...
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3D Reconstruction
In computer vision Computer vision is an interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ... and computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ..., 3D reconstruction is the process of capturing the shape and appearance of real objects. This process can be accomplished either by active or passive methods. If the model is allowed to change its shape in time, this is referred to as non-rigid or spatio-temporal reconstruction. Motivation and applications The research of 3D reconstruction has always been a difficult goal. Using 3D reconstruction one can determine any object's 3D profile, a ...
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Broadband Mask
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth (signal processing), bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than Dial-up Internet access, dial-up access over traditional plain old telephone service, analog or ISDN public switched telephone network, PSTN services. Overview Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its origin is in physics, acoustics, and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband", or in the context of audio noise reduction systems, where it indicated a single-band rather than a multiple-audio-band system design of the compander. Later, with the advent of Data transmission, digital telecommunications, the term was mainly used for transmi ...
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Well-conditioned Problem
In the field of numerical analysis, the condition number of a function (mathematics), function measures how much the output value of the function can change for a small change in the input argument. This is used to measure how sensitivity analysis, sensitive a function is to changes or errors in the input, and how much error in the output results from an error in the input. Very frequently, one is solving the inverse problem: given f(x) = y, one is solving for ''x,'' and thus the condition number of the (local) inverse must be used. In linear regression the condition number of the moment matrix can be used as a diagnostic for multicollinearity. The condition number is an application of the derivative, and is formally defined as the value of the asymptotic worst-case relative change in output for a relative change in input. The "function" is the solution of a problem and the "arguments" are the data in the problem. The condition number is frequently applied to questions in linear alge ...
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Motion Blur
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph A photograph (also known as a photo) is an image An SAR radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is visible as the purple and white ... or a sequence of frames, such as a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ... or animation Animation is a method in which are manipulated to appear as moving images. In , images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent to be photographed and exhibited on . Today, most animations are made with (CGI). can be very detailed , whil .... It results when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single exposure, due to rapid mov ...
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Deconvolution
In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ..., deconvolution is the operation inverse to convolution In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). .... Both operations are used in signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetis ... and image processing Digital image processing is the use of a digital computer A computer is a machine A mac ...
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Coded Aperture
Coded apertures or coded-aperture masks are grids, gratings, or other patterns of materials opaque to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The wavelengths are usually high-energy radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays. By blocking radiation in a known pattern, a coded "shadow" is cast upon a plane. The properties of the original radiation sources can then be mathematically reconstructed from this shadow. Coded apertures are used in X- and gamma ray imaging systems, because these high-energy rays cannot be focused with lenses or mirrors that work for visible light. Rationale Imaging is usually done at optical wavelengths using lenses and mirrors. However, the energy of hard X-rays and γ-rays is too high to be reflected or refracted, and simply passes through the lenses and mirrors of optical telescopes. Image modulation by apertures is therefore often used instead. The pinhole camera is the most basic form of such a modulation imager, but its disadvantage is low thr ...
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Image Deblurring
Deblurring is the process of removing blurring artifacts from images. Deblurring recovers a sharp image ''S'' from a blurred image ''B'', where ''S'' is convolved with ''K'' (the blur Kernel (image processing), kernel) to generate ''B''. Mathematically, this can be represented as B=S*K (where * represents convolution). While this process is sometimes known as ''unblurring'', ''deblurring'' is the correct technical word. The blur K is typically modeled as point spread function and is convolved with a hypothetical sharp image ''S'' to get ''B'', where both the ''S'' (which is to be recovered) and the point spread function ''K'' are unknown. This is an example of an inverse problem. In almost all cases, there is insufficient information in the blurred image to uniquely determine a plausible original image, making it an ill-posed problem. In addition the blurred image contains additional noise which complicates the task of determining the original image. This is generally solved by ...
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Epsilon Photography
Epsilon photography is a form of computational photography wherein multiple images are captured with slightly varying camera parameters (each image varying the parameter by a small amount ''ε'', hence the name) such as aperture, exposure (photography), exposure, focus, film speed and viewpoint for the purpose of enhanced post-capture flexibility. The term was coined by Prof. Ramesh Raskar. The technique has been developed as an alternative to light-field camera, light field photography that requires no specialized equipment. Examples of epsilon photography include focal stack photography, High dynamic range imaging, High dynamic range (HDR) photography, lucky imaging, multi-image panorama stitching and confocal stereo. The common thread for all the aforementioned imaging techniques is that multiple images are captured in order to produce a composite image of higher quality, such as richer color information, wider-field of view, more accurate depth map, less noise/blur and greater re ...
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Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF; f_(\omega_,\, \omega_) ) is a function of four real variables that defines how light is reflected at an opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opacity (optics), property or degree of blocking the transmission of light * Metaphors derived from literal optics: ** Opaque con ... surface. It is employed in the optics Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes t ... of real-world light, in computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applicatio ...
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