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Characteristic Function (probability Theory)
In probability theory and statistics, the characteristic function of any real-valued random variable completely defines its probability distribution. If a random variable admits a probability density function, then the characteristic function is the Fourier transform of the probability density function. Thus it provides an alternative route to analytical results compared with working directly with probability density functions or cumulative distribution functions. There are particularly simple results for the characteristic functions of distributions defined by the weighted sums of random variables. In addition to univariate distributions, characteristic functions can be defined for vector- or matrix-valued random variables, and can also be extended to more generic cases. The characteristic function always exists when treated as a function of a real-valued argument, unlike the moment-generating function. There are relations between the behavior of the characteristic func ...
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Sinc Simple
In mathematics, physics and engineering, the sinc function, denoted by , has two forms, normalized and unnormalized.. In mathematics, the historical unnormalized sinc function is defined for by \operatornamex = \frac. Alternatively, the unnormalized sinc function is often called the sampling function, indicated as Sa(''x''). In digital signal processing and information theory, the normalized sinc function is commonly defined for by \operatornamex = \frac. In either case, the value at is defined to be the limiting value \operatorname0 := \lim_\frac = 1 for all real . The normalization causes the definite integral of the function over the real numbers to equal 1 (whereas the same integral of the unnormalized sinc function has a value of ). As a further useful property, the zeros of the normalized sinc function are the nonzero integer values of . The normalized sinc function is the Fourier transform of the rectangular function with no scaling. It is used in the c ...
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Imaginary Unit
The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number () is a solution to the quadratic equation x^2+1=0. Although there is no real number with this property, can be used to extend the real numbers to what are called complex numbers, using addition and multiplication. A simple example of the use of in a complex number is 2+3i. Imaginary numbers are an important mathematical concept; they extend the real number system \mathbb to the complex number system \mathbb, in which at least one root for every nonconstant polynomial exists (see Algebraic closure and Fundamental theorem of algebra). Here, the term "imaginary" is used because there is no real number having a negative square. There are two complex square roots of −1: and -i, just as there are two complex square roots of every real number other than zero (which has one double square root). In contexts in which use of the letter is ambiguous or problematic, the letter or the Greek \iota is sometimes used instead. For exa ...
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Stochastic Process
In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic () or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. Examples include the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule. Stochastic processes have applications in many disciplines such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, physics, image processing, signal processing, control theory, information theory, computer science, cryptography and telecommunications. Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial markets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance. Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include the Wiener process or Brownia ...
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Complex Random Vector
In probability theory and statistics, a complex random vector is typically a tuple of complex-valued random variables, and generally is a random variable taking values in a vector space over the field of complex numbers. If Z_1,\ldots,Z_n are complex-valued random variables, then the ''n''-tuple \left( Z_1,\ldots,Z_n \right) is a complex random vector. Complex random variables can always be considered as pairs of real random vectors: their real and imaginary parts. Some concepts of real random vectors have a straightforward generalization to complex random vectors. For example, the definition of the mean of a complex random vector. Other concepts are unique to complex random vectors. Applications of complex random vectors are found in digital signal processing. Definition A complex random vector \mathbf = (Z_1,\ldots,Z_n)^T on the probability space (\Omega,\mathcal,P) is a function \mathbf \colon \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb^n such that the vector (\Re,\Im,\ldots,\Re,\Im)^T ...
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Real Part
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= -1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every non-constant polynomial equation with rea ...
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Complex Conjugate
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. That is, (if a and b are real, then) the complex conjugate of a + bi is equal to a - bi. The complex conjugate of z is often denoted as \overline or z^*. In polar form, the conjugate of r e^ is r e^. This can be shown using Euler's formula. The product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number: a^2 + b^2 (or r^2 in polar coordinates). If a root of a univariate polynomial with real coefficients is complex, then its complex conjugate is also a root. Notation The complex conjugate of a complex number z is written as \overline z or z^*. The first notation, a vinculum, avoids confusion with the notation for the conjugate transpose of a matrix, which can be thought of as a generalization of the complex conjugate. The second is preferred in physics, where dagger (†) is used for the conjugate ...
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Complex Random Variable
In probability theory and statistics, complex random variables are a generalization of real-valued random variables to complex numbers, i.e. the possible values a complex random variable may take are complex numbers. Complex random variables can always be considered as pairs of real random variables: their real and imaginary parts. Therefore, the distribution of one complex random variable may be interpreted as the joint distribution of two real random variables. Some concepts of real random variables have a straightforward generalization to complex random variables—e.g., the definition of the mean of a complex random variable. Other concepts are unique to complex random variables. Applications of complex random variables are found in digital signal processing, quadrature amplitude modulation and information theory. Definition A complex random variable Z on the probability space (\Omega,\mathcal,P) is a function Z \colon \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb such that both its real p ...
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Trace (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the trace of a square matrix , denoted , is defined to be the sum of elements on the main diagonal (from the upper left to the lower right) of . The trace is only defined for a square matrix (). It can be proved that the trace of a matrix is the sum of its (complex) eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities). It can also be proved that for any two matrices and . This implies that similar matrices have the same trace. As a consequence one can define the trace of a linear operator mapping a finite-dimensional vector space into itself, since all matrices describing such an operator with respect to a basis are similar. The trace is related to the derivative of the determinant (see Jacobi's formula). Definition The trace of an square matrix is defined as \operatorname(\mathbf) = \sum_^n a_ = a_ + a_ + \dots + a_ where denotes the entry on the th row and th column of . The entries of can be real numbers or (more generally) complex numbers. The trace is not ...
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Random Matrix
In probability theory and mathematical physics, a random matrix is a matrix-valued random variable—that is, a matrix in which some or all elements are random variables. Many important properties of physical systems can be represented mathematically as matrix problems. For example, the thermal conductivity of a lattice can be computed from the dynamical matrix of the particle-particle interactions within the lattice. Applications Physics In nuclear physics, random matrices were introduced by Eugene Wigner to model the nuclei of heavy atoms. Wigner postulated that the spacings between the lines in the spectrum of a heavy atom nucleus should resemble the spacings between the eigenvalues of a random matrix, and should depend only on the symmetry class of the underlying evolution. In solid-state physics, random matrices model the behaviour of large disordered Hamiltonians in the mean-field approximation. In quantum chaos, the Bohigas–Giannoni–Schmit (BGS) conjecture asse ...
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Transpose
In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal; that is, it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix, often denoted by (among other notations). The transpose of a matrix was introduced in 1858 by the British mathematician Arthur Cayley. In the case of a logical matrix representing a binary relation R, the transpose corresponds to the converse relation RT. Transpose of a matrix Definition The transpose of a matrix , denoted by , , , A^, , , or , may be constructed by any one of the following methods: # Reflect over its main diagonal (which runs from top-left to bottom-right) to obtain #Write the rows of as the columns of #Write the columns of as the rows of Formally, the -th row, -th column element of is the -th row, -th column element of : :\left mathbf^\operatorname\right = \left mathbf\right. If is an matrix, then is an matrix. In the case of square matrices, ...
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Random Vector
In probability, and statistics, a multivariate random variable or random vector is a list of mathematical variables each of whose value is unknown, either because the value has not yet occurred or because there is imperfect knowledge of its value. The individual variables in a random vector are grouped together because they are all part of a single mathematical system — often they represent different properties of an individual statistical unit. For example, while a given person has a specific age, height and weight, the representation of these features of ''an unspecified person'' from within a group would be a random vector. Normally each element of a random vector is a real number. Random vectors are often used as the underlying implementation of various types of aggregate random variables, e.g. a random matrix, random tree, random sequence, stochastic process, etc. More formally, a multivariate random variable is a column vector \mathbf = (X_1,\dots,X_n)^\mathsf (or ...
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Continuous Dual
In mathematics, any vector space ''V'' has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear forms on ''V'', together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants. The dual space as defined above is defined for all vector spaces, and to avoid ambiguity may also be called the . When defined for a topological vector space, there is a subspace of the dual space, corresponding to continuous linear functionals, called the ''continuous dual space''. Dual vector spaces find application in many branches of mathematics that use vector spaces, such as in tensor analysis with finite-dimensional vector spaces. When applied to vector spaces of functions (which are typically infinite-dimensional), dual spaces are used to describe measures, distributions, and Hilbert spaces. Consequently, the dual space is an important concept in functional analysis. Early terms for ''dual'' include ''polarer Raum'' ahn 1 ...
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