Capacitance
Capacitance is the capability of a material object or device to store electric charge. It is measured by the change in charge in response to a difference in electric potential, expressed as the ratio of those quantities. Commonly recognized are two closely related notions of capacitance: ''self capacitance'' and ''mutual capacitance''. An object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance, for which the electric potential is measured between the object and ground. Mutual capacitance is measured between two components, and is particularly important in the operations of the capacitor, a device designed for this purpose as an elementary linear electronic component. Capacitance is a function only of the geometry of the design of the capacitor, e.g., the opposing surface area of the plates and the distance between them, and the permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates. For many dielectric materials, the permittivity and thus the capacitance, is in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Supercapacitors
A supercapacitor (SC), also called an ultracapacitor, is a highcapacity capacitor, with a capacitance value much higher than other capacitors but with lower voltage limits. It bridges the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries. It typically stores 10 to 100 times more energy per unit volume or mass than electrolytic capacitors, can accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerates many more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries. Supercapacitors are used in applications requiring many rapid charge/discharge cycles, rather than longterm compact energy storage — in automobiles, buses, trains, cranes and elevators, where they are used for regenerative braking, shortterm energy storage, or burstmode power delivery. Smaller units are used as power backup for static randomaccess memory (SRAM). Unlike ordinary capacitors, supercapacitors do not use the conventional solid dielectric, but rather, they use electrost ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capacitor
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by virtue of accumulating electric charges on two close surfaces insulated from each other. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as the condenser, a term still encountered in a few compound names, such as the ''condenser microphone''. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parasitic Capacitance
Parasitic capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other. When two electrical conductors at different voltages are close together, the electric field between them causes electric charge to be stored on them; this effect is capacitance. All practical circuit elements such as inductors, diodes, and transistors have internal capacitance, which can cause their behavior to depart from that of ideal circuit elements. Additionally, there is always nonzero capacitance between any two conductors; this can be significant with closely spaced conductors, such as wires or printed circuit board traces. The parasitic capacitance between the turns of an inductor or other wound component is often described as ''selfcapacitance''. However, in electromagnetics, the term selfcapacitance more correctly refers to a different phenomenon: the capacitance of a c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Farad
The farad (symbol: F) is the unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge, in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday (1791–1867). In SI base units 1 F = 1 kg−1⋅ m−2⋅ s4⋅ A2. Definition The capacitance of a capacitor is one farad when one coulomb of charge changes the potential between the plates by one volt. Equally, one farad can be described as the capacitance which stores a onecoulomb charge across a potential difference of one volt. The relationship between capacitance, charge, and potential difference is linear. For example, if the potential difference across a capacitor is halved, the quantity of charge stored by that capacitor will also be halved. For most applications, the farad is an impractically large unit of capacitance. Most electrical and electronic applications are covered by the following SI prefixes: *1 mF (millifarad, one thousandth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elastance
Electrical elastance is the reciprocal of capacitance. The SI unit of elastance is the inverse farad (F−1). The concept is not widely used by electrical and electronic engineers. The value of capacitors is invariably specified in units of capacitance rather than inverse capacitance. However, it is used in theoretical work in network analysis and has some niche applications at microwave frequencies. The term ''elastance'' was coined by Oliver Heaviside through the analogy of a capacitor as a spring. The term is also used for analogous quantities in some other energy domains. It maps to stiffness in the mechanical domain, and is the inverse of compliance in the fluid flow domain, especially in physiology. It is also the name of the generalised quantity in bondgraph analysis and other schemes analysing systems across multiple domains. Usage The definition of capacitance (''C'') is the charge (''Q'') stored per unit voltage (''V''). : C = \ , Elastance (''S'') is the r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relative Permittivity
The relative permittivity (in older texts, dielectric constant) is the permittivity of a material expressed as a ratio with the electric permittivity of a vacuum. A dielectric is an insulating material, and the dielectric constant of an insulator measures the ability of the insulator to store electric energy in an electrical field. Permittivity is a material's property that affects the Coulomb force between two point charges in the material. Relative permittivity is the factor by which the electric field between the charges is decreased relative to vacuum. Likewise, relative permittivity is the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor using that material as a dielectric, compared with a similar capacitor that has vacuum as its dielectric. Relative permittivity is also commonly known as the dielectric constant, a term still used but deprecated by standards organizations in engineering as well as in chemistry. Definition Relative permittivity is typically denoted as (somet ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electrical Resonance
Electrical resonance occurs in an electric circuit at a particular ''resonant frequency'' when the impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other. In some circuits, this happens when the impedance between the input and output of the circuit is almost zero and the transfer function is close to one. Resonant circuits exhibit ringing and can generate higher voltages or currents than are fed into them. They are widely used in wireless (radio) transmission for both transmission and reception. LC circuits Resonance of a circuit involving capacitors and inductors occurs because the collapsing magnetic field of the inductor generates an electric current in its windings that charges the capacitor, and then the discharging capacitor provides an electric current that builds the magnetic field in the inductor. This process is repeated continually. An analogy is a mechanical pendulum, and both are a form of simple harmonic oscillator. At resonance, the series impedance of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dielectric
In electromagnetism, a dielectric (or dielectric medium) is an electrical insulator that can be polarised by an applied electric field. When a dielectric material is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor, because they have no loosely bound, or free, electrons that may drift through the material, but instead they shift, only slightly, from their average equilibrium positions, causing dielectric polarisation. Because of dielectric polarisation, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the field and negative charges shift in the direction opposite to the field (for example, if the field is moving parallel to the positive ''x'' axis, the negative charges will shift in the negative ''x'' direction). This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polaris ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Permittivity
In electromagnetism, the absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity and denoted by the Greek letter ''ε'' (epsilon), is a measure of the electric polarizability of a dielectric. A material with high permittivity polarizes more in response to an applied electric field than a material with low permittivity, thereby storing more energy in the material. In electrostatics, the permittivity plays an important role in determining the capacitance of a capacitor. In the simplest case, the electric displacement field D resulting from an applied electric field E is :\mathbf = \varepsilon \mathbf. More generally, the permittivity is a thermodynamic function of state. It can depend on the frequency, magnitude, and direction of the applied field. The SI unit for permittivity is farad per meter (F/m). The permittivity is often represented by the relative permittivity ''ε''r which is the ratio of the absolute permittivity ''ε'' and the vacuum permittivity ''ε''0 :\kapp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Circuit
A linear circuit is an electronic circuit which obeys the superposition principle. This means that the output of the circuit ''F(x)'' when a linear combination of signals ''ax1(t) + bx2(t)'' is applied to it is equal to the linear combination of the outputs due to the signals ''x1(t)'' and ''x2(t)'' applied separately: :F(ax_1 + bx_2) = aF(x_1) + bF(x_2)\, It is called a linear circuit because the output voltage and current of such a circuit are linear functions of its input voltage and current. This kind of linearity is not the same as that of straightline graphs. In the common case of a circuit in which the components' values are constant and don't change with time, an alternate definition of linearity is that when a sinusoidal input voltage or current of frequency ''f'' is applied, any steadystate output of the circuit (the current through any component, or the voltage between any two points) is also sinusoidal with frequency ''f''. A linear circuit with constant comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electrical Impedance
In electrical engineering, impedance is the opposition to alternating current presented by the combined effect of resistance and reactance in a circuit. Quantitatively, the impedance of a twoterminal circuit element is the ratio of the complex representation of the sinusoidal voltage between its terminals, to the complex representation of the current flowing through it. In general, it depends upon the frequency of the sinusoidal voltage. Impedance extends the concept of resistance to alternating current (AC) circuits, and possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude. Impedance can be represented as a complex number, with the same units as resistance, for which the SI unit is the ohm (). Its symbol is usually , and it may be represented by writing its magnitude and phase in the polar form . However, Cartesian complex number representation is often more powerful for circuit analysis purposes. The notion of impedance is useful for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vacuum Permittivity
Vacuum permittivity, commonly denoted (pronounced "epsilon nought" or "epsilon zero"), is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum. It may also be referred to as the permittivity of free space, the electric constant, or the distributed capacitance of the vacuum. It is an ideal (baseline) physical constant. Its CODATA value is: : (farads per meter), with a relative uncertainty of It is a measure of how dense of an electric field is "permitted" to form in response to electric charges, and relates the units for electric charge to mechanical quantities such as length and force. For example, the force between two separated electric charges with spherical symmetry (in the vacuum of classical electromagnetism) is given by Coulomb's law: :F_\text = \frac \frac Here, ''q''1 and ''q''2 are the charges, ''r'' is the distance between their centres, and the value of the constant fraction 1/4 \pi \varepsilon_0 (known as the Coulomb constant, ''k''e) is ap ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 