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Bill Of Exchange
A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, whose payer is usually named on the document. More specifically, it is a document contemplated by or consisting of a contract, which promises the payment of money without condition, which may be paid either on demand or at a future date. The term has different meanings depending on the use of the term as it is used in the application of different laws, and depending in which country and context it is used. Concept of negotiability William Searle Holdsworth defines the concept of negotiability as follows: #Negotiable instruments are transferable under the following circumstances: they are transferable by delivery where they are made payable to the bearer, they are transferable by delivery and endorsement where they are made payable to order. # Consideration is presumed. #The transferee acquires a good title, even though the transferor had a defective or ...
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R1000 Rangoon 1939 Promissory Note
R1, R.I., R01 or R-1 may refer to: Military equipment * R-1 tank, a Romanian tank from World War II * R-1 (missile), a post World War II Russian rocket * AEG R.I, a 1918 German super-heavy bomber design * DFW R.I, a 1916 German prototype bomber aircraft * HMS Caprice, a destroyer originally designated with Pennant Number R01 * Linke-Hofmann R.I, a World War I German prototype bomber aircraft * Polikarpov R-1, a Soviet Union copy of the 1931 British Airco DH.9A light bomber aircraft * USS R-1 (SS-78), a 1918 United States Navy R-class coastal and harbor defense submarine * a South African made version of the FN FAL battle rifle * a version of the 1942 German Rheintochter ground-to-air missile * Sentinel R1, a British airborne radar platform * a Romanian designation of the Czechoslovak-designed tankette AH-IV Transportation Automobiles * Jaguar R1, a British 1999 Formula One racing car * Javan R1, a British sports car * Nuro R1, an American autonomous van * Ora R1, a Chinese elec ...
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Richard II Of England
Richard II (6 January 1367 – ), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan, Countess of Kent. Richard's father died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III; upon the latter's death, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne. During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of regency councils, influenced by Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. A major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, and the young king played a central part in the successful suppression of this crisis. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War. A firm believer in the royal prerogative, Richard restrained the power of the aristocracy ...
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Bank Notes
A banknote—also called a bill (North American English), paper money, or simply a note—is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, which were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks or monetary authorities. National banknotes are often – but not always – legal tender, meaning that courts of law are required to recognize them as satisfactory payment of money debts. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment. This practice of "backing" notes with something of substance is t ...
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Order Instrument
Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood * Heterarchy, a system of organization wherein the elements have the potential to be ranked a number of different ways * Hierarchy, an arrangement of items that are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another * an action or inaction that must be obeyed, mandated by someone in authority People * Orders (surname) Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Order'' (album), a 2009 album by Maroon * "Order", a 2016 song from '' Brand New Maid'' by Band-Maid * ''Orders'' (1974 film), a 1974 film by Michel Brault * ''Orders'', a 2010 film by Brian Christopher * ''Orders'', a 2017 film by Eric Marsh and Andrew Stasiulis * ''Jed & Order'', a 2022 film by Jedman Business * Blanket order, purchase order to allow multiple delivery dates over a period of time * Money order or postal order, a financial instrument usually inten ...
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Set-off (law)
In law, set-off or netting are legal techniques applied between persons or businesses with mutual rights and liabilities, replacing gross positions with net positions. It permits the rights to be used to discharge the liabilities where cross claims exist between a plaintiff and a respondent, the result being that the gross claims of mutual debt produce a single net claim. The net claim is known as a net position. In other words, a set-off is the right of a debtor to balance mutual debts with a creditor. Any balance remaining due either of the parties is still owed, but the mutual debts have been set off. The power of net positions lies in reducing credit exposure, and also offers regulatory capital requirement and settlement advantages, which contribute to market stability. Difference between set-off and netting Whilst netting and set-off are often used interchangeably, a legal distinction is made between ''netting'', which describes the procedure for and outcome of implement ...
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Holder In Due Course
In commercial law, a holder in due course (HDC) is someone who takes a negotiable instrument in a value-for-value exchange without reason to doubt that the instrument will be paid. If the instrument is later found not to be payable as written, a holder in due course can enforce payment by the person who originated it and all previous holders, regardless of any competing claims those parties may have against each other. This right shields a holder in due course from the risk of taking instruments without full knowledge of their history. Rights The rights of a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument are qualitatively, as matters of law, superior to those provided by ordinary species of contracts: * The rights to payment are not subject to set-off, and do not rely on the validity of the underlying contract giving rise to the debt (for example if a cheque was drawn for payment for goods delivered but defective, the drawer is still liable on the cheque). * No notice need be gi ...
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Statute Of Frauds
The Statute of Frauds (29 Car 2 c 3) (1677) was an Act of the Parliament of England. It required that certain types of contracts, wills, and grants, and assignment or surrender of leases or interest in real property must be in writing and signed to avoid fraud on the court by perjury and subornation of perjury. It also required that documents of the courts be signed and dated. The attested date for the enactment of the Statute of Frauds is 16 April 1677 ( New Style). The Act is believed to have been primarily drafted by Lord Nottingham assisted by Sir Matthew Hale, Sir Francis North and Sir Leoline Jenkins. When the Statute of Frauds was originally enacted, its sections and the clauses within section 4 were not numbered. Numbers where added when the Act was republished in the '' Statutes at Large''. ''The Statute at Large'', Cambridge Edition published in 1770 divided the Act into 25 sections. The section on the sale of goods was section 17. In '' The Statutes of the R ...
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Bearer Instrument
A bearer instrument is a document that entitles the holder of the document to rights of ownership or title to the underlying property, such as shares or bonds. Unlike normal registered instruments, no record is kept of who owns bearer instruments or of transactions involving transfer of ownership, enabling the owner, as well as a purchaser, to deal with the property anonymously. Whoever physically holds the bearer document is assumed to be the owner of the property, and the rights arising therefrom, such as dividends. Bearer instruments are used especially by investors and corporate officers who wish to retain anonymity. The OECD in a 2003 report concluded that the use of bearer shares is "perhaps the single most important (and perhaps the most widely used) mechanism" to protect the anonymity of a ship's beneficial owner.OECD 2003, p. 8. Physically possessing a bearer share accords ownership of the corporation, which in turn owns the asset. There is no requirement for reporting th ...
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Offer And Acceptance
Offer and acceptance are generally recognised as essential requirements for the formation of a contract, and analysis of their operation is a traditional approach in contract law. The offer and acceptance formula, developed in the 19th century, identifies a moment of formation when the parties are of one mind. This classical approach to contract formation has been modified by developments in the law of estoppel, misleading conduct, misrepresentation, unjust enrichment, and power of acceptance. Offer Treitel defines an offer as "an expression of willingness to contract on certain terms, made with the intention that it shall become binding as soon as it is accepted by the person to whom it is addressed", the "offeree". An offer is a statement of the terms on which the offeror is willing to be bound. It is the present contractual intent to be bound by a contract with definite and certain terms communicated to the offeree. The expression of an offer may take different forms and ...
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British Foreign Bill Stamps On 1870 Oriental Bank Corporation Bill Of Exchange
British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles * Celtic Britons, an ancient ethno-linguistic group * Brittonic languages, a branch of the Insular Celtic language family (formerly called British) ** Common Brittonic, an ancient language Other uses *'' Brit(ish)'', a 2018 memoir by Afua Hirsch *People or things associated with: ** Great Britain, an island ** United Kingdom, a sovereign state ** Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800) ** United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922) See also * Terminology of the British Isles * Alternative names for the British * English (other) * Britannic (other) * British Isles * Brit (other) * Briton ( ...
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University Of Pennsylvania Law Review
The ''University of Pennsylvania Law Review'' is a law review published by an organization of second and third year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. It is the oldest law journal in the United States, having been published continuously since 1852. Currently, seven issues are published each year with the last issue traditionally featuring papers from symposia held by the review each year. It is one of the four law reviews responsible for publication of the ''Bluebook''. It is one of seven official scholarly journals at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and was the third most cited law journal in the world in 2006. In addition to the print edition, the ''University of Pennsylvania Law Review'' also publishes the ''University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online'', formerly named ''PENNumbra'', an online supplement, which publishes debates, essays, case notes, and responses to articles that appeared in the print edition. History The journal was found ...
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Lombards
The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written between 787 and 796) that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,: "From Proto-Germanic '' winna-'', meaning "to fight, win" who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (''Scadanan'') before migrating to seek new lands. By the time of the Roman-era - historians wrote of the Lombards in the 1st century AD, as being one of the Suebian peoples, in what is now northern Germany, near the Elbe river. They continued to migrate south. By the end of the fifth century, the Lombards had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids. The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552, and his successor ...
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