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Affluent Society
An affluent society is form of society characterized by material abundance for broad segments of the population. A typical image for the affluent society is the literary topos of the Cockaigne, a mythical land of luxury goods. Similar terms, used more in a negative context, are throw-away society and consumer society. History of the term A popular description of the land of Cockaigne is found in 14th century Ireland as the eponymous poem ''The Land of Cokaygne'', which was a fictional country located to the west of Spain. The concept of the affluent society was borrowed from an economic work by the U.S. economist John Kenneth Galbraith called ''The Affluent Society'' and appears only sporadically in sociological or socio-critical works. Poverty in affluent societies Open poverty in the U.S. entered the public consciousness in 1962 with the book by the left-wing Catholic Michael Harrington ''The Other America''. He found 50 million poor people in a country of then 200 million ...
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Society
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Societies construct patterns of behavior by deeming certain actions or concepts as acceptable or unacceptable. These patterns of behavior within a given society are known as societal norms. Societies, and their norms, undergo gradual and perpetual changes. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would otherwise be difficult on an indiv ...
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Lyndon B
Lyndon may refer to: Places * Lyndon, Alberta, Canada * Lyndon, Rutland, East Midlands, England * Lyndon, Solihull, West Midlands, England United States * Lyndon, Illinois * Lyndon, Kansas * Lyndon, Kentucky * Lyndon, New York * Lyndon, Ohio * Lyndon, Pennsylvania * Lyndon, Vermont * Lyndon, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, a town * Lyndon, Juneau County, Wisconsin, a town Other uses * Lyndon State College, a public college located in Lyndonville, Vermont People * Lyndon (name), given name and surname See also * Lyndon School (other) * Lyndon Township (other) * * Lydon (other) * Lynden (other) * Lindon (other) * Linden (other) Linden may refer to: Trees * ''Tilia'' (also known as lime and basswood Basswood), a genus ** American linden, a common name for ''Tilia americana'' ** Large-leaved linden, a common name for ''Tilia platyphyllos'' ** Little-leaf linden, a comm ...
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Post-scarcity Economy
Post-scarcity is a theoretical economic situation in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely. Post-scarcity does not mean that scarcity has been eliminated for ''all'' goods and services, but that all people can easily have their basic survival needs met along with some significant proportion of their desires for goods and services. Writers on the topic often emphasize that some commodities will remain scarce in a post-scarcity society. Models Speculative technology Futurists who speak of "post-scarcity" suggest economies based on advances in automated manufacturing technologies, often including the idea of self-replicating machines, the adoption of division of labour which in theory could produce nearly all goods in abundance, given adequate raw materials and energy. More speculative forms of nanotechnology such as molecular assemblers or nanofactories, which ...
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Countermeasure
A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one. As a general concept, it implies precision and is any technological or tactical solution or system designed to prevent an undesirable outcome in the process. The first known use of the term was in 1923.Merriam-Webster Dictionary
"Countermeasure" defined Countermeasures can refer to the following disciplinary spectrum: * Medicine * Materials engineering * Electro-magnetic engineering * Policing * Information technology * Law * security * Pollution prevention * Aviation Defense countermeasures are often divided into ...
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Anti-consumerism
Anti-consumerism is a sociopolitical ideology that is opposed to consumerism, the continual buying and consuming of material possessions. Anti-consumerism is concerned with the private actions of business corporations in pursuit of financial and economic goals at the expense of the public welfare, especially in matters of environmental protection, social stratification, and ethics in the governing of a society. In politics, anti-consumerism overlaps with environmental activism, anti-globalization, and animal-rights activism; moreover, a conceptual variation of anti-consumerism is '' post-consumerism'', living in a material way that transcends consumerism. Anti-consumerism arose in response to the problems caused by the long-term mistreatment of human consumers and of the animals consumed, and from the incorporation of consumer education to school curricula; examples of anti-consumerism are the book '' No Logo'' (2000) by Naomi Klein, and documentary films such as '' The Corp ...
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Economism
Economism, sometimes spelled economicism, is a term referring to the distraction of working class political activism from a global political project to purely economic demands. The concept encompasses rewarding workers in socialism with money incentives, rather than incentivizing workers through revolutionary politics. The term is originally associated with Vladimir Lenin's critique of trade unionism. In Marxist analysis The term economism was used by Lenin in his critique of the trade union movement, in reference to how working class demands for a more global political project can become supplanted by purely economic demands. Economistic demands include higher wages, shorter working hours, secure employment, health care, and other benefits. In his criticism of economism, Lenin's view was that the political figure of the worker could not necessarily be inferred from the worker's social position. Under capitalism, the worker's labor power is commodified and sold in exchange for ...
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Saral Sarkar
Saral Sarkar (Bengali সরল সরকার), born 10 May 1936 in West Bengal, is an Indian-German academic and eco-socialist political activist. Sarkar taught at the Goethe Institute in Hyderabad from 1966 to 1981, as a lecturer in German. Since 1982, Sarkar has been based in Cologne, and has been a prominent figure in the European ecology and peace movement. Sarkar was also the secretary of the local Green Party of Cologne. In the 1980s, The United Nations University commissioned Sarkar to conduct an authoritative study of the Green movement in West Germany. His resultant two-volume study, ''Green-Alternative Politics in Federal Republic of Germany'' was published in 1993. Sarkar was prominent in the anti-globalization movement from 1997 to 2005 and in active in political debate. Sarkar's writings, in both English and German have been widely disseminated in numerous journals and his works have been published in English, Chinese, French and German. Personal life Sarkar ...
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Per Capita Income
Per capita income (PCI) or total income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is often used to measure a sector's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is also often used to measure a country's standard of living. It is usually expressed in terms of a commonly used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, and is useful because it is widely known, is easily calculable from readily available gross domestic product (GDP) and population estimates, and produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status. It is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. ...
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Simon Smith Kuznets
Simon Smith Kuznets (; rus, Семён Абра́мович Кузне́ц, p=sʲɪˈmʲɵn ɐˈbraməvʲɪtɕ kʊzʲˈnʲɛts; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was an American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history. Biography Early life Simon Kuznets was born in Pinsk in 1901, in the Russian Empire, or what is today Belarus, to Lithuanian-Jewish parents. He completed his schooling, first at the Rivne, then, Kharkiv Realschule of present-day Ukraine. In 1918, Kuznets entered the Kharkiv Institute of Commerce where he studied economic sciences, statistics, history and mathematics under the guidance of pr ...
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Gabriel Kolko
Gabriel Morris Kolko (August 17, 1932 – May 19, 2014) was an American historian. His research interests included American capitalism and political history, the Progressive Era, and U.S. foreign policy in the 20th century. One of the best-known revisionist historians to write about the Cold War, he had also been credited as "an incisive critic of the Progressive Era and its relationship to the American empire." U.S. historian Paul Buhle summarized Kolko's career when he described him as "a major theorist of what came to be called Corporate Liberalism... nda very major historian of the Vietnam War and its assorted war crimes." Background and education Kolko was of Jewish heritage. He was born in Paterson, New Jersey, the son of two teachers: Philip and Lillian (née Zadikow) Kolko. Kolko attended Kent State University, where he studied American economic history (BA 1954). Next he attended the University of Wisconsin where he studied American social history (MS 1955). He rece ...
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Great Society
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. The term was first coined during a 1964 commencement address by President Lyndon B. Johnson at the University of Michigan and came to represent his domestic agenda. The main goal was the total elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major federal programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, rural poverty, and transportation were launched during this period. The program and its initiatives were subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s and years following. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Some Great Society proposals were stalled initiatives from John F. Kennedy's New Frontier. Johnson's success depended on his skills of persuasion, coupled with the Democratic landslide victory in the 1964 elections that bro ...
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Cockaigne
Cockaigne or Cockayne () is a land of plenty in medieval myth, an imaginary place of extreme luxury and ease where physical comforts and pleasures are always immediately at hand and where the harshness of medieval peasant life does not exist. Specifically, in poems like ''The Land of Cockaigne'', it is a land of contraries, where all the restrictions of society are defied (abbots beaten by their monks), sexual liberty is open (nuns flipped over to show their bottoms), and food is plentiful (skies that rain cheese). Writing about Cockaigne was commonplace in Goliard verse. It represented both wish fulfillment and resentment at scarcity and the strictures of asceticism. Etymology While the first recorded uses of the word are the Latin ''Cucaniensis'' and the Middle English ''Cokaygne'', one line of reasoning has the name tracing to Middle French ''(pays de) cocaigne'' "(land of) plenty", ultimately adapted or derived from a word for a small sweet cake sold to children at a fa ...
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