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Aeroacoustics
Aeroacoustics is a branch of acoustics that studies noise generation via either turbulent fluid motion or aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces. Noise generation can also be associated with periodically varying flows. A notable example of this phenomenon is the Aeolian tones produced by wind blowing over fixed objects. Although no complete scientific theory of the generation of noise by aerodynamic flows has been established, most practical aeroacoustic analysis relies upon the so-called '' aeroacoustic analogy'', proposed by Sir James Lighthill in the 1950s while at the University of Manchester. whereby the governing equations of motion of the fluid are coerced into a form reminiscent of the wave equation of "classical" (i.e. linear) acoustics in the left-hand side with the remaining terms as sources in the right-hand side. History The modern discipline of aeroacoustics can be said to have originated with the first publication of Lighthill in the early 1950s, when noise g ...
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Lighthill Equation
Aeroacoustics is a branch of acoustics that studies noise generation via either turbulent fluid motion or aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces. Noise generation can also be associated with periodically varying flows. A notable example of this phenomenon is the Aeolian tones produced by wind blowing over fixed objects. Although no complete scientific theory of the generation of noise by aerodynamic flows has been established, most practical aeroacoustic analysis relies upon the so-called '' aeroacoustic analogy'', proposed by Sir James Lighthill in the 1950s while at the University of Manchester. whereby the governing equations of motion of the fluid are coerced into a form reminiscent of the wave equation of "classical" (i.e. linear) acoustics in the left-hand side with the remaining terms as sources in the right-hand side. History The modern discipline of aeroacoustics can be said to have originated with the first publication of Lighthill in the early 1950s, when noise g ...
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Lighthill Turbulence Stress Tensor
Aeroacoustics is a branch of acoustics that studies noise generation via either turbulent fluid motion or aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces. Noise generation can also be associated with periodically varying flows. A notable example of this phenomenon is the Aeolian tones produced by wind blowing over fixed objects. Although no complete scientific theory of the generation of noise by aerodynamic flows has been established, most practical aeroacoustic analysis relies upon the so-called '' aeroacoustic analogy'', proposed by Sir James Lighthill in the 1950s while at the University of Manchester. whereby the governing equations of motion of the fluid are coerced into a form reminiscent of the wave equation of "classical" (i.e. linear) acoustics in the left-hand side with the remaining terms as sources in the right-hand side. History The modern discipline of aeroacoustics can be said to have originated with the first publication of Lighthill in the early 1950s, when noise g ...
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Aeroacoustic Analogy
Acoustic analogies are applied mostly in numerical aeroacoustics to reduce aeroacoustic sound sources to simple emitter types. They are therefore often also referred to as aeroacoustic analogies. In general, aeroacoustic analogies are derived from the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NSE). The compressible NSE are rearranged into various forms of the inhomogeneous acoustic wave equation. Within these equations, source terms describe the acoustic sources. They consist of pressure and speed fluctuation as well as stress tensor and force terms. Approximations are introduced to make the source terms independent of the acoustic variables. In this way, linearized equations are derived which describe the propagation of the acoustic waves in a homogeneous, resting medium. The latter is excited by the acoustic source terms, which are determined from the turbulent fluctuations. Since the aeroacoustics are described by the equations of classical acoustics, the methods are called aer ...
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James Lighthill
Sir Michael James Lighthill (23 January 1924 – 17 July 1998) was a British applied mathematician, known for his pioneering work in the field of aeroacoustics and for writing the Lighthill report on artificial intelligence. Biography James Lighthill was born to Ernest Balzar Lichtenberg and Marjorie Holmes: an Alsatian mining engineer who changed his name to Lighthill in 1917, and the daughter of an engineer. The family lived in Paris until 1927, when the father retired and returned to live in England. As a young man, James Lighthill was known as Michael Lighthill. Lighthill was educated at Winchester College, and graduated with a BA from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1943. He specialised in fluid dynamics, and worked at the National Physical Laboratory at Trinity. Between 1946 and 1959 he was Beyer Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Manchester. Lighthill then moved from Manchester to become director of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnbor ...
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Aeolian Sound
Aeolian sound or Aeolian tone is sound that is produced by wind when it passes over or through objects. History Historically, Aeolus was the Greek ruler of the winds, and the Ancient Greeks believed these sounds were the voice of Aeolus. The earliest known observations about Aeolian sounds from a "scientific" viewpoint were made by Athanasius Kircher in 1650. Physical cause An Aeolian tone is produced when air passes over an obstacle, resulting in trailing vortices with oscillatory behavior. These eddies can have strong periodic components, resulting in a steady tone. This phenomenon is the main topic of aeroacoustics; For air moving over a cylinder, empirical data shows that an Aeolian tone will be produced with the frequency : f_\ =\ \frac, where V is the air velocity, D is the diameter of the cylinder, and \mbox is the Strouhal number, which has a value of about 0.2. Notable occurrences Aeolian sounds can be produced in the rigging of a sail-powered ship. The vortex trails ...
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Speed Of Sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. At , the speed of sound in air is about , or one kilometre in or one mile in . It depends strongly on temperature as well as the medium through which a sound wave is propagating. At , the speed of sound in air is about . The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior. In colloquial speech, ''speed of sound'' refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: typically, sound travels most slowly in gases, faster in liquids, and fastest in solids. For example, while sound travels at in air, it travels at in water (almost 4.3 times as fast) and at in iron (almost 15 times as fast). In an exceptionally stiff material such as diamond, sound travels at , ...
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Cauchy Stress Tensor
In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor \boldsymbol\sigma, true stress tensor, or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy. The tensor consists of nine components \sigma_ that completely define the state of stress at a point inside a material in the deformed state, placement, or configuration. The tensor relates a unit-length direction vector e to the traction vector T(e) across an imaginary surface perpendicular to e: :\mathbf^ = \mathbf e \cdot\boldsymbol\quad \text \quad T_^= \sigma_e_i, or, :\leftright\leftrightcdot \leftright The SI units of both stress tensor and traction vector are N/m2, corresponding to the stress scalar. The unit vector is dimensionless. The Cauchy stress tensor obeys the tensor transformation law under a change in the system of coordinates. A graphical representation of this transformation law is the Mohr's circle for stress. The Cauchy stress tensor is used for stress analysis of mate ...
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Tensor
In mathematics, a tensor is an algebraic object that describes a multilinear relationship between sets of algebraic objects related to a vector space. Tensors may map between different objects such as vectors, scalars, and even other tensors. There are many types of tensors, including scalars and vectors (which are the simplest tensors), dual vectors, multilinear maps between vector spaces, and even some operations such as the dot product. Tensors are defined independent of any basis, although they are often referred to by their components in a basis related to a particular coordinate system. Tensors have become important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as mechanics ( stress, elasticity, fluid mechanics, moment of inertia, ...), electrodynamics (electromagnetic tensor, Maxwell tensor, permittivity, magnetic susceptibility, ...), general relativity (stress–energy tensor, curvat ...
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Tensor Product
In mathematics, the tensor product V \otimes W of two vector spaces and (over the same field) is a vector space to which is associated a bilinear map V\times W \to V\otimes W that maps a pair (v,w),\ v\in V, w\in W to an element of V \otimes W denoted v \otimes w. An element of the form v \otimes w is called the tensor product of and . An element of V \otimes W is a tensor, and the tensor product of two vectors is sometimes called an ''elementary tensor'' or a ''decomposable tensor''. The elementary tensors span V \otimes W in the sense that every element of V \otimes W is a sum of elementary tensors. If bases are given for and , a basis of V \otimes W is formed by all tensor products of a basis element of and a basis element of . The tensor product of two vector spaces captures the properties of all bilinear maps in the sense that a bilinear map from V\times W into another vector space factors uniquely through a linear map V\otimes W\to Z (see Universal property). Ten ...
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Divergence
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point. As an example, consider air as it is heated or cooled. The velocity of the air at each point defines a vector field. While air is heated in a region, it expands in all directions, and thus the velocity field points outward from that region. The divergence of the velocity field in that region would thus have a positive value. While the air is cooled and thus contracting, the divergence of the velocity has a negative value. Physical interpretation of divergence In physical terms, the divergence of a vector field is the extent to which the vector field flux behaves like a source at a given point. It is a local measure of its "outgoingness" – the extent t ...
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Acoustics
Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, medicine, architecture, industrial production, warfare and more. Likewise, animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or for marking territories. Art, craft, science and technology have prov ...
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Identity Matrix
In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n\times n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. Terminology and notation The identity matrix is often denoted by I_n, or simply by I if the size is immaterial or can be trivially determined by the context. I_1 = \begin 1 \end ,\ I_2 = \begin 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end ,\ I_3 = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end ,\ \dots ,\ I_n = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \end. The term unit matrix has also been widely used, but the term ''identity matrix'' is now standard. The term ''unit matrix'' is ambiguous, because it is also used for a matrix of ones and for any unit of the ring of all n\times n matrices. In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, \mathbf, or called "id" (short for identity). ...
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