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Academic Excellence
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement. Academic achievement is commonly measured through examinations A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be administered verba ... or continuous assessment Continuous assessment is a form of educational examination that evaluates a student's progress throughout a prescribed course. It is often used as an alternative to the final Test (assessment), examination system. Proponents of continuous assessme ...s but there is no general agreement on how it is best evaluated or which aspects are most important—procedural know ...
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Test (assessment)
A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ... intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ..., skill A skill is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into Departmentalization, domain-general and domain-specific skills. ..., aptitude An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of Labour (economics), work ...
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Socio-economic Status
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic access to resources and social position in relation to others. When analyzing a family's SES, the household income, earners' education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ..., and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, whereas for an individual's SES only their own attributes are assessed. Recently, research has revealed a lesser recognized attribute of SES as perceived financial stress, as it defines the "balance between income and necessary expenses". Perceived financial stress can be tested by deciphering whether a person at the end of each month has more than enough, just enough, or not enough money ...
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Educational Attainment
Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticians A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, ... to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed as defined by the US Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ... Glossary. See also *Academic achievement Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's deg ... *Academic degree An a ...
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Extracurricular Activity
An extracurricular activity (ECA) or extra academic activity (EAA) or cultural activities is an activity, performed by student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries h ...s, that falls outside the realm of the normal curriculum In education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educat ... of school, college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ... or university A university ...
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Stanford Marshmallow Experiment
The Stanford marshmallow experiment was a study on delayed gratification in 1972 led by psychologist Walter Mischel, a professor at Stanford University. In this study, a child was offered a choice between one small but immediate reward, or two small rewards if they waited for a period of time. During this time, the researcher left the room for about 15 minutes and then returned. The reward was either a marshmallow or pretzel stick, depending on the child's preference. In follow-up studies, the researchers found that children who were able to wait longer for the preferred rewards tended to have better life outcomes, as measured by SAT scores, educational attainment, Body mass index, body mass index (BMI), and other life measures. A replication attempt with a sample from a more diverse population, over 10 times larger than the original study, showed only half the effect of the original study. The replication suggested that economic background, rather than willpower, explained the o ...
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Self-control
Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspe ..., is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ... in the face of temptations and impulses. As an executive function Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognition, cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that ..., it is a cognitive process Cognition () refers to " ...
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Motivation
Motivation is what explains why people or animals initiate, continue or terminate a certain behavior at a particular time. Motivational states are commonly understood as forces acting within the agent that create a disposition to engage in goal-directed behavior. It is often held that different mental states A mental state, or a mental property, is a state of mind of a person. Mental states comprise a diverse class including perception, pain experience, belief, desire, intention, emotion, and memory. There is controversy concerning the exact definition ... compete with each other and that only the strongest state determines behavior. This means that we can be motivated to do something without actually doing it. The paradigmatic mental state providing motivation is desire Desires are states of mind that are expressed by terms like "wanting", "wishing", "longing" or "craving". A great variety of features is commonly associated with desires. They are seen as propositional attitude ...
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Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy, a concept originally proposed by the psychologist Albert Bandura Albert Bandura (; born December 4, 1925) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of t ..., refers to an individual's belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconsci ... in their capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments. Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs a person holds regarding their power to affect situations, self-efficacy strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely t ...
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Journal Of Labor Economics
The ''Journal of Labor Economics'' is an academic journal published quarterly by the University of Chicago Press on international research examining issues affecting the economy as well as social and private behavior. It covers various aspects of labor economics, including supply and demand of labor services, personnel economics, distribution of income, Trade union, unions and collective bargaining, and labor markets and demographics. It is an official publication of the Society of Labor Economists. The Journal was first published in January 1983. Since then, 28 volumes and 120 issues have been published (as of August 19, 2010). In a 2009 working paper conducted by an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, The Journal of Labor Economics was ranked 8th out of 30 economic journals in terms of number of articles and citations. (The analysis included publications of these 30 journals between 2001 and 2008.) According to the ''Journal Citat ...
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Working Memory
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-term memory Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental Phenomenon, phenomena. Often the term is also ..., but some theorists consider the two forms of memory distinct, assuming that working memory allows for the manipulation of stored information, whereas short-term memory only refers to the short-term storage of information. Working memory is a theoretical concept central to cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experienc ...
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Attention Span
Attention span is the amount of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ... spent concentrating on a task before becoming distracted. Distractibility occurs when attention is uncontrollably diverted to another activity or sensation. Most educators and psychologists agree that the ability to focus and sustain attention is crucial for a person to achieve 75% their goals. Attention training is said to be part of education, particularly in the way students are trained to remain focused on a topic of observation or discussion for extended periods, developing listening and analytical skills in the process. Human Attention Span Over Time Estimates for the length of the human attention span are subject to high variability and depend on the precise definition of attention ...
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Executive Brain
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognition, cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions include basic cognitive processes such as attentional control, cognitive inhibition, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Higher-order executive functions require the simultaneous use of multiple basic executive functions and include planning and fluid intelligence (e.g., reasoning and problem-solving). Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual. Both neuropsychological tests (e.g., the Stroop test) and rating scales (e.g., the Be ...
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