A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational
institution. In the United Kingdom, those attending university are
termed "students" while "pupil" refers to an attendee of a lower
educational institute; the same was typically true in the United
States previously where student was considered a more lofty and
ambitious title, one who was actively seeking knowledge, not just
learning it because they were required to. In the United States, and
more recently also in the UK, the term "student" is applied to both
categories: school and university students. In its widest use, student
is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who
are taking vocational education or returning to university. When
speaking about learning outside an institution, "student" is also used
to refer to someone who is learning a topic or who is "a student of" a
certain topic or person. In the widest sense of the word, a student is
anyone seeking to learn or to grow by experience, such as a student of
School of Hard Knocks.
Chilean school students during a class photograph, 2002
3.2 New Zealand
4.7 United Kingdom
5.2 United States
5.2.1 First year
5.2.2 Second year
5.2.3 Post-second year
5.2.4 Graduate Students
5.2.5 Vocational School
7 Mature students
9 Other terms
10 Idiomatic use
11 International Students' Day
12 See also
In Nigeria, education is classified into four system known as 6-3-3-4
system of education. It implies six years in primary school, three
years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four
years in the university. However, the number of years to be spent in
university is mostly determined by the course of study. Some courses
have longer study length than others. Those in primary school are
often referred to as pupils. Those in university, as well as those in
secondary school, are being referred to as students.
Six years of primary school education in Singapore is compulsory.
School (Primary 1 to 6)
School ( Secondary 1 to 4 or 5)
College 1 to 2 - Optional)
There are also schools which have the integrated program, such as
River Valley High
School (Singapore), which means they stay in the
same school from Secondary 1 to Junior
College 2, without having to
take the "O" level examinations which most students take at the end of
International Schools are subject to overseas curriculums, such as the
British, American, Canadian or Australian Boards.
Primary education is compulsory in Bangladesh. It's a near crime to
not to send children to primary school when they are of age. But it is
not a punishable crime (sending children to work instead of school is
a crime). Because of the socio-economic state of Bangladesh, child
labour is sometimes legal. But the guardian must ensure the primary
education. Everyone who is learning in any institute or even online
may be called student in Bangladesh. Sometimes students taking
undergraduate education is called undergraduates and students taking
post-graduate education may be called post-graduates.
Education System Of Bangladesh:
Primary (elementary school)
1 to 5
6 to 10
Junior Secondary (middle school)
6 to 8
11 to 13
Secondary (high school)
9 to 10
14 to 15
Higher Secondary (college / university)
11 to 12
16 to 17
Education is free in Brunei. Darussalam not limited to government
educational institutions but also private educational institutions.
There are mainly two types of educational institutions: government or
public, and private institutions. Several stages have to be undergone
by the prospective students leading to higher qualifications, such as
School (Year 1 to 6)
School (Year 7 to 11)
School [or also known as the Sixth Form Centers] (Year 12 to 13)
University to Diploma)
University Level (Undergraduate,
Postgraduate and Professional)
It takes six and five years to complete the primary and secondary
levels respectively. Upon completing these two crucial stages,
students/pupils have freedom to progress to sixth-form centers,
colleges or probably straight to employment. Students are permitted to
progress towards university level programs in both government and
private university colleges.
Cambodia is free for all the students who study in
Primary School, Secondary
School or High School.
School (Grade 1 to 6)
School (Grade 7 to 9)
School (Grade 10 to 12)
College (Year 1 to 3)
University (Year 1 to 4 or 5)
After basic education, students can opt to take a bachelor's
(undergraduate) degree at a higher education institution (i.e. a
college or university), which normally lasts for four years though the
length of some courses may be longer or shorter depending on the
Girls in school uniform in Delhi, India
India school is categorized in these stages: Pre-primary (Nursery,
Kindergarten or LKG, Upper
Kindergarten or UKG), Primary (Class
1-5), Secondary (6-10) and Higher Secondary (11-12). For undergraduate
it is 3 years except Engineering (BTech or BE) which is of 4 years
degree course, Architecture (B.Arch) which is 5 years degree course
and Medical (MBBS) which is of 4.5 years degree course and 1 year
Internship, so 5.5 years.
Nepal 12-year school is categorized in three stages: Primary
Secondary school and Higher Secondary school. For college it
averages 4 years for bachelor's degree (except MBBS which is 5 and
half years programme) and 2 years master's degree.
In Pakistan, 12-year school is categorized in three stages: Primary
Secondary school and Higher Secondary school. It takes 5 years
for a student to graduate from Primary school, 5 years for Secondary
school and 2 years for Higher
Secondary school (also called College).
Most bachelor's degrees span over four years, followed by 2 years
master's degree.
The Philippines is currently in the midst of a transition to a K-12
(also called K+12) basic education system. Education ideally
begins with one year of kinder. Once the transition is complete,
elementary or grade school comprises grades 1 to 6. Although the term
student may refer to learners of any age or level, the term 'pupil' is
used by the Department of Education to refer to learners in the
elementary level, particularly in public schools. Secondary level or
high school comprises two major divisions: grades 7 to 10 will be
collectively referred to as 'junior high school', whereas grades 11 to
12 will be collectively referred to as 'senior high school'. The
Department of Education refers to learners in grade 7 and above as
After basic education, students can opt to take a bachelor's
(undergraduate) degree at a higher education institution (i.e. a
college or university), which normally lasts for four years though the
length of some courses may be longer or shorter depending on the
An Iranian student going to her classmate's house for evening studies,
In Iran 12-year school is categorized in 2 stages: Elementary school
and High school. It takes 6 years for a student to graduate from
elementary school and 5 years for high school and 1 year for
pre-university college( independed on your field) . After graduating
from high school(or pre-university if needed), students acquire a
diploma. Having a diploma, a student can participate in the Iranian
University Entrance Exam or Konkoor. The university entrance exam is
conducted every year by National Organization of Education
Assessment, an organization under the supervision of the Ministry
of Science, Research and Technology. Members of the Bahá'í
religion, a much-persecuted minority are officially forbidden to
attend university, in order to prevent members of the faith becoming
doctors, lawyers or other professionals.
Students of Stony Creek State School, Queensland, 1939
In Australia, Pre-school is optional for three and four year olds. At
age five, children begin compulsory education at Primary School, known
Kindergarten in New South Wales, Preparatory
School (prep) in
Victoria, and Reception in South Australia, students then continue to
year one through six (ages 6 to 12). Before 2014, primary school
continued on to year seven in Western Australia, South
Queensland. However, the state governments agreed that by 2014, all
primary schooling will complete at year six. Students attend High
School in year seven through twelve (ages 13 – 18). After year
twelve, students may attend tertiary education at
vocational training at TAFE (Technical and Further Education).
In New Zealand, after kindergarten or pre-school, which is attended
from ages three to five, children begin primary school, 'Year One', at
five years of age. Years One to Six are Primary School, where children
commonly attend local schools in the area for that specific year
group. Then Year Seven and Year Eight are Intermediate, and from Year
Nine until Year Thirteen, a student would attend a secondary school or
a college. Primary
School children are known as Pupils and
School children are known as Students.[citation
Europe uses the traditional, first form, second form, third form,
fourth form, fifth form and six form grade system which is up to age
Students in a lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki
In Finland a student is called "opiskelija" (plural being
'opiskelijat'), though children in compulsory education are called
"oppilas" (plural being 'oppilaat'). First level of education is
"esikoulu" (literally 'preschool'), which used to be optional, but has
been compulsory since the beginning of year 2015. Children attend
esikoulu the year they turn six, and next year they start attending
"peruskoulu" (literally "basic school", corresponds to American
elementary school, middle school and junior high), which is
compulsory. Peruskoulu is divided to "alakoulu" (years 1 through 6)
and "yläkoulu" (years 7 through 9). After compulsory education most
children attend second level education (toisen asteen koulutus),
either lukio (corresponds to high school) or ammattikoulu (Vocational
School), at which point they are called students (opiskelija). Some
attend "kymppiluokka", which is a retake on some yläkoulu's
To attend ammattikorkeakoulu (
University of applied sciences) or a
university a student must have a second level education. The
recommended graduation time is five years. First year students are
called "fuksi" and students that have studied more than five years are
called "N:nnen vuoden opiskelija" (Nth year student).
The generic term "étudiant" (lit. student) applies only to someone
University or a school of a similar level, that is to sat
pupils in a cursus reserved to people already owning a
Baccalauréat. The general term for a person going to
primary or seconodary school is élève.In some French higher
education establishments, a bleu or "bizuth" is a first-year student.
Second-year students are sometimes called "carrés" (squares). Some
other terms may apply in specific schools, some depending on the
classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles attended.
In Germany, the German cognate term
Student (male) or "Studentin"
(female) is reserved for those attending a university. University
students in their first year are colloquially called Ersties
("firsties"). Different terms for school students exist, depending on
which kind of school is attended by the student. The general term for
a person going to school is Schüler or Schülerin. Students attending
a university preparatory school are called Gymnasiasten, while those
attending other schools are called Hauptschüler or Realschüler.
Students who graduate with the
Abitur are called Abiturienten. The
abbreviation stud. + the abbreviation of the faculty p. e. phil. for
philosophiae is a post-nominal for all students of a baccalaureus
course. The abbreviation cand. for candidatus + the abbreviation of
the faculty is given as a post-nominal to those close to the final
exams. First name surname, stud. phil. or First name surname, cand.
In Ireland, pupils officially start with primary school which consists
of eight years: junior infants, senior infants, first class to sixth
class (ages 5–11). After primary school, pupils proceed to the
secondary school level. Here they first enter the junior cycle, which
consists of first year to third year (ages 11–14). At the end of
third year, all students must sit a compulsory state examination
called the Junior Certificate. After third year, pupils have the
option of taking a "transition year" or fourth year (usually at age
15-16). In transition year pupils take a break from regular studies to
pursue other activities that help to promote their personal, social,
vocational and educational development, and to prepares them for their
role as autonomous, participative and responsible members of society.
It also provides a bridge to enable pupils to make the transition from
the more dependent type of learning associated with the Junior Cert.
to the more independent learning environment associated with the
senior cycle.
After the junior cycle pupils advance to the senior cycle, which
consists of fifth year and sixth year (usually ages between 16 and
18). At the end of the sixth year a final state examination is
required to be sat by all pupils, known as the Leaving Certificate.
The Leaving Cert. is the basis for all Irish pupils who wish to do so
to advance to higher education via a points system. A maximum of 625
points can be achieved. All higher education courses have a minimum of
points needed for admission.
Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin under-graduate students are formally called
"junior freshmen", "senior freshmen", "junior sophister" or "senior
sophister", according to the year they have reached in the typical
four year degree course. Sophister is another term for a sophomore,
though the term is rarely used in other institutions and is largely
limited to Trinity
At university, the term "fresher" is used to describe new students who
are just beginning their first year. The term, "first year" is the
more commonly used and connotation-free term for students in their
first year. The week at the start of a new year is called "Freshers'
Week" or "Welcome Week", with a programme of special events to welcome
new students. An undergraduate in the last year of study before
graduation is generally known as a "finalist."
Admission of a student in "Germanic Nation",
University of Bologna,
In Italian, a matricola is a first-year student. Some other terms may
apply in specific schools, some depending on the liceo classico or
liceo scientifico attended.
According to the goliardic initiation traditions the grades granted
(following approximately the year of enrollment at university) are:
matricola (freshman), fagiolo (sophomore), colonna (junior), and
anziano (senior), but most of the distinctions are rarely used outside
In Sweden, only those studying at university level are called students
(student, plural studenter). To graduate from upper secondary school
(gymnasium) is called ta studenten (literally "to take the student"),
but after the graduation festivities, the graduate is no longer a
student unless he or she enrolls at university-level education. At
lower levels, the word elev (plural elever) is used. As a general term
for all stages of education, the word studerande (plural also
studerande) is used, meaning 'studying [person]'.
The new graduates of the
Europa-Institut in Germany gather to throw
their mortar boards in the air as part of a graduation ceremony
Traditionally, the term "student" is reserved for people studying at
university level in the United Kingdom.
At universities in the UK, the term "fresher" is used informally to
describe new students who are just beginning their first year.
Although it is not unusual to call someone a fresher after their first
few weeks at university, they are typically referred to as "first
years" or "first year students".
The ancient Scottish
University of St Andrews uses the terms "bejant"
for a first year (from the French "bec-jaune" – "yellow beak",
"fledgling"). Second years are called "semi-bejants", third years are
known as "tertians", and fourth years, or others in their final year
of study, are called "magistrands".
In England and Wales, primary school begins with an optional "nursery"
year followed by reception and then move on to "year one, year two"
and so on until "year six". In state schools, children join secondary
school when they are 11–12 years old in what used to be called
"first form" and is now known as "year 7". They go up to year 11
(formerly "fifth form") and then join the sixth form, either at the
same school or at a separate sixth form college. A pupil entering a
private, fee-paying school (usually at age 13) would join the "third
form" — equivalent to year 9. Many schools have an alternate name
for first years, some with a derogatory basis, but in others acting
merely as a description — for example "shells" (non-derogatory) or
Northern Ireland and Scotland, it is very similar but with some
differences. Pupils start off in nursery or reception aged 3 to 4, and
then start primary school in "P1" (P standing for primary) or year 1.
They then continue primary school until "P7" or year 7. After that
they start secondary school at 11 years old, this is called "1st year"
or year 8 in Northern Ireland, or "S1" in Scotland. They continue
secondary school until the age of 16 at "5th year", year 12 or "S5",
and then it is the choice of the individual pupil to decide to
continue in school and (in Northern Ireland) do AS levels (known as
"lower sixth") and then the next year to do A levels (known as "upper
sixth"). In Scotland, students aged 16–18 take Highers, followed by
Advanced Highers. Alternatively, pupils can leave and go into
full-time employment or to start in a technical college.
Large increases in the size of student populations in the UK and the
effect this has had on some university towns or on areas of cities
located near universities have become a concern in the UK since 2000.
A report by Universities UK, "Studentification: A Guide to
Opportunities, Challenges and Practice" (2006) has explored the
subject and made various recommendations. A particular problem in
many locations is seen as the impact of students on the availability,
quality and price of rented and owner-occupied property.
Further information: Education in Canada
Students of the Cégep de St-Hyacinthe in Quebec working in a computer
Education in Canada
Education in Canada is within the constitutional jurisdiction of the
provinces, and the overall curriculum is overseen by the provincial
governments. As there is no overall national coordinating authority,
the way the educational stages are grouped and named differs from
region to region. Education is generally divided into primary
education, followed by secondary education, and post-secondary
education. Primary and secondary education are generally divided into
numbered grades from 1 to 12, although the first grade may be preceded
by kindergarten (optional in many provinces). Ontario and Quebec offer
a pre-kindergarten, called a "junior kindergarten" in Ontario, and a
"garderie" in Quebec.
Education in Ontario once involved an
Ontario Academic Credit (OAC) as
university preparation, but that was phased out in 2007, and now all
provinces except Quebec have 12 grades. The OAC was informally known
as "grade 13" and the name was also used to refer to the students who
Education in Quebec differs from the other provinces in that it has an
école primaire (literally "primary school") consisting of grades 1-6,
and an école secondaire (literally "secondary school") consisting of
secondaries I-V. Secondaries I-V are equivalent to grades 7-11. A
student graduating from high school (grade 11) can then either
complete a three-year college program or attend a two-year
pre-university program required before attending university. In some
English High Schools, as well as in most French schools, high school
students will refer to secondary 1-5 as year one through five. So if
someone in Secondary three is asked "what grade/year are you in?" they
will reply "three" or "sec 3". It is presumed that the person asking
the question knows that they are not referring to "Grade 3" but rather
"Secondary 3". This can be confusing for those outside of Quebec.
In some provinces, grades 1 through 6 are called "elementary school",
grades 6 to 8 are called "middle school" or "junior high school", and
grades 9 to 12 are considered high school. Other provinces, such as
British Columbia, mainly divide schooling into elementary school
Kindergarten to grade 7) and secondary school (grades 8 through 12).
In Alberta and Nova Scotia, elementary consists of kindergarten
through grade 6. Junior high consists of Grades 7-9. High school
consists of Grades 10-12. In English provinces, the high school (known
as academy or secondary school) years can be referred to simply as
first, second, third and fourth year. Some areas call it by grade such
as grade 10, grade 11 and grade 12.
The difference between college and university is significantly
different from in the
United States or even the United Kingdom. A
Canadian college is more similar to an American community college but
also the British, French and other European and British Commonwealth
such as Australian and
New Zealand etc., on the other hand. In
contrast, a Canadian university is also quite comparable to an
American university as well as many other universities among the
English-speaking world and Francosphere. In Canada, colleges are
generally geared for individuals seeking applied careers, while
universities are geared for individuals seeking more academic careers.
University students are generally classified as first, second, third
or fourth-year students, and the American system of classifying them
as "freshmen", "sophomores", "juniors" and "seniors" is seldom used or
even understood in Canada. In some occasions, they can be called
"senior ones", "twos", "threes" and "fours".
In the United States, the first official year of schooling is called
kindergarten, which is why the students are called kindergarteners.
Kindergarten is optional in most states, but few students skip this
level. Pre-kindergarten, also known as "preschool" (and sometimes
shortened to "Pre-K") is becoming a standard of education as academic
expectations for the youngest students continue to rise. Many public
schools offer pre-kindergarten programs.
Students of USA's Tulane University: at its bookstore [top photo], in
a class photo (with their lady teacher sitting on extreme right)
[middle photo], and entering the class [bottom photo]
United States there are 12 years of mandatory schooling. The
first eight are solely referred to by numbers (e.g. 1st grade, 5th
grade) so students may be referred to as 1st graders, 5th graders,
then once in middle school before high school you are ratio referred
to as 6th, 7th, 8th graders. Upon entering high school, grades 9
through 12 (high school) also have alternate names for students,
namely freshman, sophomore, junior and senior. The actual divisions of
which grade levels belong to which division (whether elementary,
middle, junior high or high school) is a matter decided by state or
Accordingly, college students are often called Freshmen, Sophomores,
Juniors and Seniors (respectively), unless their undergraduate program
calls for more than the traditional 4 years.
The first year of college or high school is referred to as Freshman
year. A freshman (slang alternatives that are usually derogatory in
nature include "fish", "new-g", "fresher", "frosh", "newbie",
"freshie", "snotter", "fresh-meat", "skippie", etc.) is a first-year
student in college, university or high school.
In the U.S., a sophomore, also called a "soph," is a second-year
student. Outside the United States, the term Sophomore is rarely used,
with second-year students simply called "second years". Folk etymology
indicates that the word means "wise fool"; consequently "sophomoric"
means "pretentious, bombastic, inflated in style or manner; immature,
crude, superficial" (according to the Oxford English Dictionary). It
is widely assumed to be formed from Greek "sophos", meaning "wise",
and "moros" meaning "foolish", although the etymology suggests an
origin from the now-defunct "sophumer", an obsolete variant of
Students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In the U.S., a Junior is a student in the penultimate (usually third)
year and a Senior is a student in the last (usually fourth) year of
college, university, or high school. A student who takes more than the
normal number of years to graduate is sometimes referred to as a
"super senior". This term is often used in college, but can be
used in high school as well. The term underclassman is used to refer
collectively to Freshmen and Sophomores, and Upperclassman to refer
collectively to Juniors and Seniors, sometimes even Sophomores. The
term Middler is used to describe a third-year student of a school
(generally college) that offers five years of study. In this
situation, the fourth and fifth years would be referred to as Junior
and Senior years, respectively, and the first two years would be the
Freshman and Sophomore years.
A graduate student is a student who continues his/her education after
graduation. Some examples of graduate programs are: business school,
law school, medical school, and veterinary school. Degrees earned in
graduate programs include the Master’s degree, a research doctoral
degree, or a first professional degree.
Students attending vocational school focus on their jobs and learning
how to work in specific fields of work. A vocational program typically
takes much less time to complete than a four-year degree program,
lasting 12–24 months. Liberal Arts that are required in
four-year Universities are less important to these students because
the skills necessary for their careers take precedence in order for a
timely completion of the program.
Part of the Politics series on
United Kingdom student protests
2014 Hong Kong protests
Free school movement
Free Speech Movement
German student movement
May 1968 events in France
Port Huron Statement
Protests of 1968
Students for a Democratic Society
Concepts / Theory
Anarchistic free school
Freedom of speech
Minimally invasive education
Censorship of student media
School corporal punishment
School district drug policies
Student Bill of Rights
European Students' Union
Hong Kong Federation of Students
New Students for a Democratic Society
Student Press Law Center
Social movements portal
Students have their own current of politics and activism on and off
campus. The student rights movement has centered itself on the
empowerment of students similar to the labor movement.
Main article: Adult learner
A mature, non-traditional, or adult student in tertiary education (at
a university or a college) is normally classified as an
(undergraduate) student who is at least 21–23 years old at the start
of their course and usually having been out of the education system
for at least two years. Mature students can also include students who
have been out of the education system for decades, or students with no
secondary education. Mature students also make up graduate and
postgraduate populations by demographic of age.
University students have been associated with pranks and japes since
the creation of universities in the Middle Ages.
These can often involve petty crime, such as the theft of traffic
cones and other public property, or hoaxes. It is also not
uncommon for students from one school to steal or deface the mascot of
a rival school. In fact, pranks play such a significant part in
student culture that numerous books have been published that focus on
Students who are repeating a grade level of schooling due to poor
grades are sometimes referred to as having been "held back" or "kept
back". In Singapore they are described as "retained". In the
Philippines they are called "repeater".
The term 'pupil' (originally a Latin term for a minor as the ward of
an adult guardian, etc.) is used in some Commonwealth primary and
secondary schools (particularly in England and Wales) instead of
"student", but once attending further education (at a sixth-form
college) or higher education (at university for example), the term
"student" is standard. The term pupil is also used in the Philippines
by the Department of Education to refer to learners currently in
elementary school; the term student is used for by the Department of
Education for learners in high school.
United States military academies officially use only numerical
terms, but there are colloquial expressions used in everyday speech.
In order from first year to fourth year, students are referred to as
"fourth-class", "third-class", "second-class", and "first-class"
cadets or midshipmen. Unofficially, other terms are used, for example
United States Military Academy, freshmen are called "plebes",
sophomores are called "yearlings" or "yuks", juniors are called
"cows", and seniors are called "firsties". Some universities also use
numerical terms to identify classes; students enter as "first-years"
and graduate as "fourth-years" (or, in some cases, "fifth-years",
"Freshman" and "sophomore" are sometimes used figuratively, almost
exclusively in the United States, to refer to a first or second effort
("the singer's sophomore album"), or to a politician's first or second
term in office ("freshman senator") or an athlete's first or second
year on a professional sports team. "Junior" and "senior" are not used
in this figurative way to refer to third and fourth years or efforts,
because of those words' broader meanings of "younger" and "older." A
junior senator is therefore not one who is in a third term of office,
but merely one who has not been in the Senate as long as the other
senator from their state. Confusingly, this means that it is possible
to be both a "freshman Senator" and a "senior Senator" simultaneously:
for example, if a Senator wins election in 2008, and then the other
Senator from the same state steps down and a new Senator elected in
2010, the former Senator is both senior Senator (as in the Senate for
two years more) and a freshman Senator (since still in the first
International Students' Day
International Students' Day (17 November) remembers the anniversary of
the 1939 Nazi storming of the
University of Prague after student
demonstrations against the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Germans closed all Czech universities and colleges, sent over 1200
students to Nazi concentration camps, and had nine student leaders
executed (on November 17).
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Learning resources from Wikiversity
Bullying in academia
Bullying in teaching
Student financial aid in the United States
University student retention
First-generation college students in the United States
^ "Bangladesh Education System".
^ K to 12 Toolkit Accessed 21 October 2016
^ K to 12 Curriculum Guides Accessed 21 October 2016
^ Republic Act 10533 Accessed 21 October 2016
^ "وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری - صفحات -
^ Studentification: A Guide to Opportunities, Challenges and Practice
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved
^ Definition of a super senior retrieved 5 October 2006.
^ "Minnesota Vocational Schools, Trade Schools, Technical Schools -
^ "Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library: FAQ
Princeton.edu. 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
^ "Blog Archive »
Student Pranks". Kiwiblog. 2006-10-21.
^ Watts, Jonathan, "
Student prank that gave the Chinese a fit of the
willies", The Guardian, London, 1 November 2003.
Student Pranks! Attention!". Essaymama. 2014-09-03.
^ Ayala, Jamie, "Sticky student prank injures teacher" Archived
2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., FOX11AZ.com, Tucson, Arizona, 14
^ "Nightmare on student street".
^ Miller, Eli, "Oski and Tree Have Rowdy, Long History", The Daily
Californian, 22 November 2002. Archived September 20, 2004, at the
^ Peterson, T.F., Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT,
^ Steinberg, Neil, If at All Possible, Involve a Cow: The Book
^ "The 17th of November: Remembering Jan Opletal, martyr of an