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Universal Data Element Framework
The Universal Data Element Framework (UDEF) was a controlled vocabulary developed by The Open Group. It provided a framework for categorizing, naming, and indexing data. It assigned to every item of data a structured alphanumeric tag plus a controlled vocabulary name that describes the meaning of the data. This allowed relating data elements to similar elements defined by other organizations. UDEF defined a Dewey-decimal like code for each concept. For example, an "employee number" is often used in human resource management. It has a UDEF tag a.5_12.35.8 and a controlled vocabulary description "Employee.PERSON_Employer.Assigned.IDENTIFIER". UDEF has been superseded by thOpen Data Element Framework (O-DEF) Examples In an application used by a hospital, the last name and first name of several people could include the following example concepts: *Patient Person Family Name – find the word “Patient” under the UDEF object “Person” and find the word “Family” under the U ...
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Controlled Vocabulary
Control may refer to: Basic meanings Economics and business * Control (management), an element of management * Control, an element of management accounting * Comptroller (or controller), a senior financial officer in an organization * Controlling interest, a percentage of voting stock shares sufficient to prevent opposition * Foreign exchange controls, regulations on trade * Internal control, a process to help achieve specific goals typically related to managing risk Mathematics and science * Control (optimal control theory), a variable for steering a controllable system of state variables toward a desired goal * Controlling for a variable in statistics * Scientific control, an experiment in which "confounding variables" are minimised to reduce error * Control variables, variables which are kept constant during an experiment * Biological pest control, a natural method of controlling pests * Control network in geodesy and surveying, a set of reference points of known geospatial ...
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Data Element
In metadata, the term data element is an atomic unit of data that has precise meaning or precise semantics. A data element has: # An identification such as a data element name # A clear data element definition # One or more representation terms # Optional enumerated values Code (metadata) # A list of synonyms to data elements in other metadata registries Synonym ring Data elements usage can be discovered by inspection of software applications or application data files through a process of manual or automated Application Discovery and Understanding. Once data elements are discovered they can be registered in a metadata registry. In telecommunication, the term data element has the following components: #A named unit of data that, in some contexts, is considered indivisible and in other contexts may consist of data items. #A named identifier of each of the entities and their attributes that are represented in a database. #A basic unit of information built on standard structures h ...
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Open Group Standards
Open or OPEN may refer to: Music * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies album), 2001 * ''Open'' (YFriday album), 2001 * ''Open'' (Shaznay Lewis album), 2004 * ''Open'' (Jon Anderson EP), 2011 * ''Open'' (Stick Men album), 2012 * ''Open'' (The Necks album), 2013 * ''Open'', a 1967 album by Julie Driscoll, Brian Auger and the Trinity * ''Open'', a 1979 album by Steve Hillage * "Open" (Queensrÿche song) * "Open" (Mýa song) * "Open", the first song on The Cure album ''Wish'' Literature * ''Open'' (Mexican magazine), a lifestyle Mexican publication * ''Open'' (Indian magazine), an Indian weekly English language magazine featuring current affairs * ''OPEN'' (North Dakota magazine), an out-of-print magazine that was printed in the Fargo, North Dakota area of the U.S. * Open: An Autobiography, Andre Agassi's 2009 memoir Comput ...
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Knowledge Representation
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can use to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of ''reasoning'', such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets. Examples of knowledge representation formalisms include semantic nets, systems architecture, frames, rules, and ontologies. Examples of automated reasoning engines include inference engines, theorem provers, and classifiers. History The earliest work in computerized knowledge represe ...
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Interoperability
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system to work with other products or systems. While the term was initially defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system-to-system performance. Types of interoperability include syntactic interoperability, where two systems can communicate with each other, and cross-domain interoperability, where multiple organizations work together and exchange information. Types If two or more systems use common data formats and communication protocols and are capable of communicating with each other, they exhibit ''syntactic interoperability''. XML and SQL are examples of common data formats and protocols. Lower-level data formats also contribute to syntactic interoperability, ensuring that alphabetical characters are stored in the same ASCII or a Unicode format in all the commun ...
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Data Management
Data management comprises all disciplines related to handling data as a valuable resource. Concept The concept of data management arose in the 1980s as technology moved from sequential processing (first punched cards, then magnetic tape) to random access storage. Since it was now possible to store a discrete fact and quickly access it using random access disk technology, those suggesting that data management was more important than business process management used arguments such as "a customer's home address is stored in 75 (or some other large number) places in our computer systems." However, during this period, random access processing was not competitively fast, so those suggesting "process management" was more important than "data management" used batch processing time as their primary argument. As application software evolved into real-time, interactive usage, it became obvious that both management processes were important. If the data was not well defined, the data wou ...
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Controlled Vocabulary
Control may refer to: Basic meanings Economics and business * Control (management), an element of management * Control, an element of management accounting * Comptroller (or controller), a senior financial officer in an organization * Controlling interest, a percentage of voting stock shares sufficient to prevent opposition * Foreign exchange controls, regulations on trade * Internal control, a process to help achieve specific goals typically related to managing risk Mathematics and science * Control (optimal control theory), a variable for steering a controllable system of state variables toward a desired goal * Controlling for a variable in statistics * Scientific control, an experiment in which "confounding variables" are minimised to reduce error * Control variables, variables which are kept constant during an experiment * Biological pest control, a natural method of controlling pests * Control network in geodesy and surveying, a set of reference points of known geospatial ...
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Representation Term
A representation term is a word, or a combination of words, that semantically represent the data type (value domain) of a data element. A representation term is commonly referred to as a ''class word'' by those familiar with data dictionaries. ISO/IEC 11179-5:2005 defines ''representation term'' as a ''designation of an instance of a representation class'' As used in ISO/IEC 11179, the representation term is that part of a data element name that provides a semantic pointer to the underlying data type. A '' Representation class'' is a class of representations. This ''representation class'' provides a way to classify or group data elements. A ''Representation Term'' may be thought of as an attribute of a data element in a metadata registry that classifies the data element according to the type of data stored in the data element. Representation terms are typically "approved" by the organization or standards body using them. For example, the UN publishes its approved list as ...
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The Open Group
The Open Group is a global consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications." It has over 840 member organizations and provides a number of services, including strategy, management, innovation and research, standards, certification, and test development. It was established in 1996 when X/Open merged with the Open Software Foundation. The Open Group is the certifying body for the UNIX trademark, and publishes the Single UNIX Specification technical standard, which extends the POSIX standards. The Open Group also develops and manages the TOGAF® standard, which is an industry standard enterprise architecture framework. Members The over 840 members include a range of technology vendors and buyers as well as government agencies, including, for example, Capgemini, Fujitsu, HPE, Orbus Software, IBM, Huawei, Philips, the U.S. Department of Defense, and NASA. There is no obligation ...
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Metadata
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata – the descriptive information about a resource. It is used for discovery and identification. It includes elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. * Structural metadata – metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships, and other characteristics of digital materials. * Administrative metadata – the information to help manage a resource, like resource type, permissions, and when and how it was created. * Reference metadata – the information about the contents and quality of statistical data. * Statistical metadata – also called process data, may describe processes that collect, process, or produce st ...
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National Information Exchange Model
NIEM ( ) originated as an XML-based information exchange framework from the United States. NIEM also supports NIEM JSON exchanges. NIEM is currently developinthe NIEM Metamodel and Common Model Formatwhich can be expressed in any data serialization that NIEM supports. NIEM represents a collaborative partnership of agencies and organizations across all levels of government (federal, state, tribal, and local) and with private industry. The purpose of this partnership is to effectively and efficiently share critical information at key decision points throughout the whole of the justice, public safety, emergency and disaster management, intelligence, and homeland security enterprise. NIEM is designed to develop, disseminate, and support enterprise-wide information exchange standards and processes that will enable jurisdictions to automate information sharing. NIEM is currently transitioning to an OASIS Open Project. This initiative will formalize NIEM's designation as an official ...
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