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 picture info Uniform Continuity In mathematics, a real function f of real numbers is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a positive real number \delta such that function values over any function domain interval of the size \delta are as close to each other as we want. In other words, for a uniformly continuous real function of real numbers, if we want function value differences to be less than any positive real number \epsilon, then there is a positive real number \delta such that , f(x) - f(y), 0 there exists a real number \delta > 0 such that for every x,y \in X with d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every x,y \in X , , x - y, 0 \; \forall x \in X \; \forall y \in X : \, d_1(x,y) 0 , \forall x \in X , and \forall y \in X ) are used. * Alternatively, f is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a function of all positive real numbers \varepsilon, \delta(\varepsilon) representing the maximum positive real number, such that for every x,y \in X if d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every y \in X wit ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Uniform Continuity In mathematics, a real function f of real numbers is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a positive real number \delta such that function values over any function domain interval of the size \delta are as close to each other as we want. In other words, for a uniformly continuous real function of real numbers, if we want function value differences to be less than any positive real number \epsilon, then there is a positive real number \delta such that , f(x) - f(y), 0 there exists a real number \delta > 0 such that for every x,y \in X with d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every x,y \in X , , x - y, 0 \; \forall x \in X \; \forall y \in X : \, d_1(x,y) 0 , \forall x \in X , and \forall y \in X ) are used. * Alternatively, f is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a function of all positive real numbers \varepsilon, \delta(\varepsilon) representing the maximum positive real number, such that for every x,y \in X if d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every y \in X wit ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Continuity And Uniform Continuity 2 Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability distribution or random variable in probability and statistics ** Continuous game, a generalization of games used in game theory ** Law of Continuity, a heuristic principle of Gottfried Leibniz * Continuous function, in particular: ** Continuity (topology), a generalization to functions between topological spaces ** Scott continuity In mathematics, given two partially ordered sets ''P'' and ''Q'', a function ''f'': ''P'' → ''Q'' between them is Scott-continuous (named after the mathematician Dana Scott) if it preserves all directed suprema. That is, for every directed subse ..., for functions between posets ** Continuity (set theory), for functions between ordinals ** Continuity (category theory), for functors ** Graph continuity, for payoff functions in game theory * Continuity theorem may refer to one of two re ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Lipschitz Continuous In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixed-point theorem. We have the following chain of strict inclus ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Linear Function In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions: * In calculus and related areas, a linear function is a function (mathematics), function whose graph of a function, graph is a straight line, that is, a polynomial function of polynomial degree, degree zero or one. For distinguishing such a linear function from the other concept, the term Affine transformation, affine function is often used. * In linear algebra, mathematical analysis, and functional analysis, a linear function is a linear map. As a polynomial function In calculus, analytic geometry and related areas, a linear function is a polynomial of degree one or less, including the zero polynomial (the latter not being considered to have degree zero). When the function is of only one variable (mathematics), variable, it is of the form :f(x)=ax+b, where and are constant (mathematics), constants, often real numbers. The graph of a function, graph of such a function of one variable is a n ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Darboux Integral In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Darboux integral is constructed using Darboux sums and is one possible definition of the integral of a function. Darboux integrals are equivalent to Riemann integrals, meaning that a function is Darboux-integrable if and only if it is Riemann-integrable, and the values of the two integrals, if they exist, are equal. The definition of the Darboux integral has the advantage of being easier to apply in computations or proofs than that of the Riemann integral. Consequently, introductory textbooks on calculus and real analysis often develop Riemann integration using the Darboux integral, rather than the true Riemann integral. Moreover, the definition is readily extended to defining Riemann–Stieltjes integration. Darboux integrals are named after their inventor, Gaston Darboux (1842–1917). Definition The definition of the Darboux integral considers upper and lower (Darboux) integrals, which exist for any bounded real-valued ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Compact Set In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i.e. that the space not exclude any ''limiting values'' of points. For example, the open interval (0,1) would not be compact because it excludes the limiting values of 0 and 1, whereas the closed interval ,1would be compact. Similarly, the space of rational numbers \mathbb is not compact, because it has infinitely many "punctures" corresponding to the irrational numbers, and the space of real numbers \mathbb is not compact either, because it excludes the two limiting values +\infty and -\infty. However, the ''extended'' real number line ''would'' be compact, since it contains both infinities. There are many ways to make this heuristic notion precise. These ways usually agree in a metric space, but may not be equivalent in other topologic ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Heine–Cantor Theorem In mathematics, the Heine–Cantor theorem, named after Eduard Heine and Georg Cantor, states that if f \colon M \to N is a continuous function between two metric spaces M and N, and M is compact, then f is uniformly continuous. An important special case is that every continuous function from a closed bounded interval to the real numbers is uniformly continuous. Proof Suppose that M and N are two metric spaces with metrics d_M and d_N, respectively. Suppose further that a function f: M \to N is continuous and M is compact. We want to show that f is uniformly continuous, that is, for every positive real number \varepsilon > 0 there exists a positive real number \delta > 0 such that for all points x, y in the function domain M, d_M(x,y) 0 such that d_N(f(x),f(y)) < \varepsilon/2 when $d_M\left(x,y\right) < \delta _x$, i.e., a fact that $y$ is within $\delta_x$ of $x$ implies that $f\left(y\right)$ is within $\varepsilon / 2$ of < ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Euclidean Metric In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistics an ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Discrete Metric Discrete may refer to: *Discrete particle or quantum in physics, for example in quantum theory *Discrete device, an electronic component with just one circuit element, either passive or active, other than an integrated circuit *Discrete group, a group with the discrete topology *Discrete category, category whose only arrows are identity arrows *Discrete mathematics, the study of structures without continuity *Discrete optimization, a branch of optimization in applied mathematics and computer science *Discrete probability distribution In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon i ..., a random variable that can be counted *Discrete space, a simple example of a topological space *Discrete spline interpolation, the discrete analog of ordinary spline interpolation *Discrete time, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Totally Bounded Space In topology and related branches of mathematics, total-boundedness is a generalization of compactness for circumstances in which a set is not necessarily closed. A totally bounded set can be covered by finitely many subsets of every fixed “size” (where the meaning of “size” depends on the structure of the ambient space). The term precompact (or pre-compact) is sometimes used with the same meaning, but precompact is also used to mean relatively compact. These definitions coincide for subsets of a complete metric space, but not in general. In metric spaces A metric space (M,d) is ''totally bounded'' if and only if for every real number \varepsilon > 0, there exists a finite collection of open balls in ''M'' of radius \varepsilon whose union contains . Equivalently, the metric space ''M'' is totally bounded if and only if for every \varepsilon >0, there exists a finite cover such that the radius of each element of the cover is at most \varepsilon. This is equivale ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Cantor Function In mathematics, the Cantor function is an example of a function that is continuous, but not absolutely continuous. It is a notorious counterexample in analysis, because it challenges naive intuitions about continuity, derivative, and measure. Though it is continuous everywhere and has zero derivative almost everywhere, its value still goes from 0 to 1 as its argument reaches from 0 to 1. Thus, in one sense the function seems very much like a constant one which cannot grow, and in another, it does indeed monotonically grow. It is also called the Cantor ternary function, the Lebesgue function, Lebesgue's singular function, the Cantor–Vitali function, the Devil's staircase, the Cantor staircase function, and the Cantor–Lebesgue function. introduced the Cantor function and mentioned that Scheeffer pointed out that it was a counterexample to an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus claimed by Harnack. The Cantor function was discussed and popularized by , and . Defin ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Absolutely Continuous In calculus, absolute continuity is a smoothness property of functions that is stronger than continuity and uniform continuity. The notion of absolute continuity allows one to obtain generalizations of the relationship between the two central operations of calculus— differentiation and integration. This relationship is commonly characterized (by the fundamental theorem of calculus) in the framework of Riemann integration, but with absolute continuity it may be formulated in terms of Lebesgue integration. For real-valued functions on the real line, two interrelated notions appear: absolute continuity of functions and absolute continuity of measures. These two notions are generalized in different directions. The usual derivative of a function is related to the '' Radon–Nikodym derivative'', or ''density'', of a measure. We have the following chains of inclusions for functions over a compact subset of the real line: : ''absolutely continuous'' ⊆ ''uniformly continuous'' = ''cont ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]