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Two-up Two-down
Two-up two-down is a type of small house with two rooms on the ground floor and two bedrooms upstairs. There are many types of terraced houses in the United Kingdom, and these are among the most modest. Those built before 1875, the pre-regulation terraces, shared one toilet between several households. Those built after the passage of the Public Health Act 1875, the so-called byelaw terraced houses, each had its own toilet, usually outside. The rapid urbanisation of Britain during the Industrial Revolution meant that these small cheap terraces were widespread in towns and cities. In the 20th century, and early in the 21st, areas of this type of dwelling were often targeted for demolition and redevelopment, under a slum clearance programme, but in some areas local community groups campaigned to save them, such as Toxteth Street in Openshaw, Manchester Manchester () is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the ...
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Two Up, Two Down
''Two Up, Two Down'' is a British sitcom starring Paul Nicholas and Su Pollard. It aired for one series in 1979 and marked the television comedy debut of Su Pollard, later to become well known as Peggy in ''Hi-de-Hi!''. It was written by Janey Preger. Cast *Paul Nicholas - Jimmy *Su Pollard - Flo * Norman Tipton - Stan *Claire Faulconbridge - Sheila Plot When Stan and Sheila, both fairly strait-laced, move into their new house in Manchester, they discover a pair of hippies, Jimmy and Flo, squatting in their bedroom. As the law will not remove them quickly, they decide to share the house. Stan and Sheila are soon fascinated by Jimmy's and Flo's relaxed lifestyle and philosophy. Episodes The series aired for six episodes broadcast on Fridays on BBC One at 8.30pm between 11 May 1979 and 15 June 1979. Theme The theme song, also called "Two Up, Two Down", was written by Dominic Bugatti and Frank Musker. It was sung by Paul Nicholas, and released as a single. Reception Hazel Holt ...
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Fredrick Street, Werneth, Oldham
Fredrick may refer to: * Fredrick (given name), a given name * Fredrick (surname), a surname * ''Fredrick'' (2016 film) See also * Frederick (other) Frederick may refer to: People * Frederick (given name), the name Nobility Anhalt-Harzgerode *Frederick, Prince of Anhalt-Harzgerode (1613–1670) Austria * Frederick I, Duke of Austria (Babenberg), Duke of Austria from 1195 to 1198 * Frederick ... * Fredricks {{Disambig ...
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Terraced Houses In The United Kingdom
Terraced houses have been popular in the United Kingdom, particularly England and Wales, since the 17th century. They were originally built as desirable properties, such as the Townhouse (Great Britain), townhouses for the nobility around Regent's Park in central London, and the Georgian architecture that defines the World Heritage Site of Bath, Somerset, Bath. The design became a popular way to provide high-density accommodation for the working class in the 19th century, when terraced houses were built extensively in urban areas throughout Victorian Britain. Though numerous terraces have been Slum clearance in the United Kingdom, cleared and demolished, many remain and have regained popularity in the 21st century. Definition Terraced houses, as defined by various bylaws established in the 19th century, particularly the Public Health Act 1875, are distinguished by properties connecting directly to each other in a row, sharing a party wall. A house may be several storeys high, tw ...
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Pre-regulation Terraced Houses In The United Kingdom
A pre-regulation terraced house is a type of dwelling constructed before Public Health Act 1875. It is a type of British terraced house at the opposite end of the social scale from the aristocratic townhouse, built as cheap accommodation for the urban poor of the Industrial Revolution. The term usually refers to houses built in the century before the 1875 Act, which imposed a duty on local authorities to regulate housing by the use of byelaws. Subsequently, all byelaw terraced housing was required to meet minimum standards of build quality, ventilation, sanitation and population density. Almost all pre-regulation terraced housing has been demolished through successive waves of slum clearance. History Between 1801 and 1901 the population increased fourfold, and during this period there was a migration from the land into towns (urbanisation), as the nature of work changed with the Industrial Revolution. Urban population increased tenfold, and there was a need to build houses for th ...
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Public Health Act 1875
The Public Health Act 1875c 55 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, one of the Public Health Acts, and a significant step in the advancement of public health in England. Its purpose was to codify previous measures aimed at combating filthy urban living conditions, which caused various health threats, including the spread of many diseases such as cholera and typhus. Background Reformers had from the 1830s wanted to resolve sanitary problems in urban areas, because sewage was flowing down the street daily, including the presence of sewage in living quarters. In 1848 their efforts led to the establishment of a three-man Board of Health – if one with very limited powers. Many factors delayed effective implementation of reform, however, such as the fact that to perform a cleanup would cost money, and neither government, factory owners, or local authorities were keen to pay. Gradually, however, reformers helped to counteract the laissez-faire attitude of the governm ...
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Byelaw Terraced House
A byelaw terraced house is a type of dwelling built to comply with the Public Health Act 1875. It is a type of British terraced house at the opposite end of the social scale from the aristocratic townhouse, but a marked improvement on the pre-regulation house built as cheap accommodation for the urban poor of the Industrial Revolution. The term usually refers to houses built between 1875 and 1918. The 1875 Act imposed a duty on local authorities to regulate housing by the use of byelaws, and subsequently all byelaw terraced housing was required to have its own toilet. At first a "privy" or outhouse was built in the yard behind the house, relying on a pail closet system, with access for the municipal collection of the night soil. As universal town sewerage advanced, flush toilets (water closets) were built, but often still outside the house. The houses had to meet minimum standards of build quality, ventilation, sanitation and population density. Despite a century of slum clear ...
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Slum Clearance In The United Kingdom
Slum clearance in the United Kingdom has been used as an urban renewal strategy to transform low income settlements with poor reputation into another type of development or housing. Early mass clearances took place in the country's northern cities. Starting from 1930, councils were expected to prepare plans to clear slum dwellings, although progress stalled upon the onset of World War II. Clearance of slum areas resumed and increased after the war, while the 1960s saw the largest number of house renewal schemes pursued by local authorities, particularly in Manchester where it was reported around 27% 'may' have been unfit for human habitation - Although the majority were well built solid structures which could have been renovated or repurposed; housing, churches, schools and pubs which formed close-knit communities were devastated, with families dispersed across other areas. Towards the end of the decade, a housing act in 1969 provided financial encouragement for authorities and l ...
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Openshaw
Openshaw is a suburb of Manchester, England, about three miles east of the city centre. Historically part of Lancashire, Openshaw was incorporated into the city of Manchester in 1890. Its name derives from the Old English ''Opinschawe'', which means an open wood or coppice. During the Second Industrial Revolution, when Openshaw become an area of heavy industry, socialism and trade unionism flourished. In 1910 the Openshaw Socialists were formed; Keir Hardie, founder of the Labour Party, spoke at their inaugural meeting. Annie Lee became Manchester's first socialist woman alderman in 1936, having been secretary of the Openshaw Independent Labour Party since the 1890s. Following profound de-industrialisation. Openshaw is now predominantly an African ethnic area with diverse shops and services opening reflecting this rapid change in demographic. Industry There is little industry in the district now. Very large enterprises such as a government munitions factory (ordnance works) an ...
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Manchester
Manchester () is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and the neighbouring city of Salford to the west. The two cities and the surrounding towns form one of the United Kingdom's most populous conurbations, the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, which has a population of 2.87 million. The history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort (''castra'') of ''Mamucium'' or ''Mancunium'', established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Historically part of Lancashire, areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated into Manchester in the 20th century, including Wythenshawe in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unpl ...
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Architectural Design
Building design refers to the broadly based architectural, engineering and technical applications to the design of buildings. All building projects require the services of a building designer, typically a licensed architect. Smaller, less complicated projects often do not require a licensed professional, and the design of such projects is often undertaken by building designers, draftspersons, interior designers (for interior fit-outs or renovations), or contractors. Larger, more complex building projects require the services of many professionals trained in specialist disciplines, usually coordinated by an architect. Occupations Architect An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and supervision of the construction of buildings. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to prac ...
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