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Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53.47944°N 2.24528°W / 53.47944; -2.24528

Manchester

City
City
and Metropolitan borough

Clockwise from top: Skyline of Manchester
Manchester
City
City
Centre, Beetham Tower, Manchester
Manchester
Civil Justice Centre, Midland Hotel, One Angel Square, Manchester
Manchester
Town Hall

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): "Cottonopolis", "Warehouse City", Madchester, "The Rainy City"

Motto(s): "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort"

Manchester
Manchester
shown within Greater Manchester

Manchester

Location of Manchester
Manchester
within the United Kingdom Show map of North West of England

Manchester

Manchester
Manchester
(the United Kingdom) Show map of the United Kingdom

Manchester

Manchester
Manchester
(Europe) Show map of Europe

Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53.47944°N 2.24528°W / 53.47944; -2.24528

Sovereign state United Kingdom

Constituent country England

Region North West England

City
City
region Manchester

Ceremonial county Greater Manchester

Historic county Salford Hundred, Lancashire (north of River Mersey) Cheshire (south of River Mersey)

Founded 1st century

Town charter 1301

City
City
status 29 March 1853

Administrative HQ Manchester
Manchester
(Town Hall)

Government

 • Type Metropolitan borough

 • Body Manchester
Manchester
City
City
Council

 • Leadership Leader and Cabinet

 • Executive Labour

 • Leader Sir Richard Leese

 •  Lord
Lord
Mayor Cllr Eddy Newman[1]

 • Chief Executive Joanne Roney

Area

 • City 44.7 sq mi (115.7 km2)

 • Urban 243.4 sq mi (630.3 km2)

Area rank 204th

Elevation 125 ft (38 m)

Population (mid-2016 est.)

 • City 541,300

 • Rank 5th

 • Density 12,100/sq mi (4,680/km2)

 • Urban 2,553,379 (2nd)

 • Urban density 10,490/sq mi (4,051/km2)

 • Metro 2,794,000 (3rd)

 • Ethnicity[2] White groups (66.7% ) Asian (14.4%) Black (8.6%) Mixed (4.7%) Chinese (2.7%) Arab (1.9%) Other (1.2%)

Demonym(s) Mancunian Manc (colloq.)

Time zone Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(UTC+0)

 • Summer (DST) British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(UTC+1)

Postcode areas M

Dialling code 0161

ISO 3166 code GB-MAN

GSS code E08000003

NUTS 3 code UKD33

OS grid reference SJ838980

Motorways M56 M60 A57(M) A635(M)

Trunk primary routes A5103

Major railway stations Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
(B) Manchester
Manchester
Oxford
Oxford
Road (C1) Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly (A) Manchester
Manchester
Victoria (B)

Tramways Metrolink

International airports Manchester
Manchester
(MAN)

GDP US$ 92.3 billion[3]

– Per capita US$ 35,029[3]

MPs Graham Stringer
Graham Stringer
(L) Lucy Powell
Lucy Powell
(L) Afzal Khan (L) Jeff Smith (L) Mike Kane
Mike Kane
(L)

Councillors 96

European Parliament North West England

Police area Greater Manchester

Fire service Greater Manchester

Ambulance service North West

Website www.manchester.gov.uk

Manchester
Manchester
(/ˈmæntʃɪstər, -tʃɛs-/)[4][5] is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300 as of 2015[update].[6] It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million.[7] Manchester
Manchester
is fringed by the Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester
Manchester
City Council. The recorded history of Manchester
Manchester
began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium
Mamucium
or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. It was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire
Cheshire
south of the River Mersey
River Mersey
were incorporated in the 20th century.[8] Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester
Manchester
remained a manorial township but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution,[9] and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.[10] Manchester
Manchester
achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester
Port of Manchester
and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles (58 km) to the west. Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.[11] In 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
ranked Manchester
Manchester
as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London.[12] Manchester
Manchester
is the third-most visited city in the UK, after London
London
and Edinburgh.[13] It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station
Manchester Liverpool Road railway station
was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station and scientists first split the atom, developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Industrial Revolution 2.3 Manchester
Manchester
Blitz 2.4 Post-Second World War 2.5 Since 2000

3 Governance 4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Green belt

5 Demography 6 Economy 7 Landmarks 8 Transport

8.1 Rail 8.2 Metrolink (tram) 8.3 Bus 8.4 Air 8.5 Canal

9 Culture

9.1 Music 9.2 Performing arts 9.3 Museums and galleries 9.4 Literature 9.5 Nightlife 9.6 Gay Village

10 Education 11 Sport 12 Media 13 Twin cities and consulates 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Name[edit] The name Manchester
Manchester
originates from the Latin
Latin
name Mamucium
Mamucium
or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians (/mænˈkjuːniən/). These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill") or from mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh.[14] The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English
Old English
ceaster ("fort; fortified town").[15] History[edit] Main article: History of Manchester See also: Timeline of Manchester
Manchester
history Early history[edit] Main article: Mamucium The Brigantes
Brigantes
were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral
Manchester Cathedral
now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.[16] Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium
Mamucium
in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix
(Chester) and Eboracum
Eboracum
(York) were protected from the Brigantes.[16] Central Manchester
Manchester
has been permanently settled since this time.[17] A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. The Roman habitation of Manchester
Manchester
probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.[18] After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans
Normans
after 1066.[19] Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.[20][21]

A map of Manchester
Manchester
c. 1650

Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor, founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.[19][22] The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom.[23] Manchester
Manchester
is mentioned as having a market in 1282.[24] Around the 14th century, Manchester
Manchester
received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry.[25] Manchester
Manchester
became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire."[19] The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester.[20]

A map of Manchester
Manchester
and Salford from 1801

During the English Civil War
English Civil War
Manchester
Manchester
strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire
Cheshire
and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.[26] Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance.[19] The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester
Manchester
to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley
Worsley
to central Manchester. The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn
Runcorn
by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton.[19][22] Manchester
Manchester
became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns.[19] A commodities exchange, opened in 1729,[20] and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. In 1780, Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill.[20][22] In the early 1800s, John Dalton
John Dalton
formulated his atomic theory in Manchester.

Cotton mills in Ancoats
Ancoats
about 1820

Industrial Revolution[edit] Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire
Lancashire
and north Cheshire, and Manchester
Manchester
was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,[27] and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.[19][28] Manchester
Manchester
was dubbed "Cottonopolis" and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era.[27] In Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and South Africa, the term "manchester" is still used for household linen: sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc.[29] The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester
Manchester
and was key to the increase in Manchester's population. Manchester
Manchester
began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England
England
as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.[30][31][32] It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 " Manchester
Manchester
was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world."[28] Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance.

View from Kersal Moor
Kersal Moor
towards Manchester
Manchester
by Thomas Pether, circa 1820, then still a rural landscape.

Manchester
Manchester
from Kersal
Kersal
Moor, by William Wyld
William Wyld
in 1857, a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.

Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester
Manchester
became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
Railway. Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down.[19] In 1878 the GPO (the forerunner of British Telecom) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester.[33] The Manchester Ship Canal
Manchester Ship Canal
was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 36 miles (58 km)[34] from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port
Port
of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford
Trafford
Park.[19] Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world. A centre of capitalism, Manchester
Manchester
was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre
Peterloo Massacre
of 16 August 1819. The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester
Manchester
was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League
Anti-Corn Law League
from 1838 onward.

The Peterloo Massacre
Peterloo Massacre
of 1819 resulted in 15 deaths and several hundred injured

Manchester
Manchester
has a notable place in the history of Marxism
Marxism
and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
in 1844; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,[35] and when Karl Marx
Karl Marx
visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet.[23] The first Trades Union Congress
Trades Union Congress
was held in Manchester
Manchester
(at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester
Manchester
was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette
Suffragette
Movement.[36] At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester
Manchester
School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester
Manchester
does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow."[37] Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Many of the great public buildings (including Manchester
Manchester
Town Hall) date from then. The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé
Hallé
Orchestra. In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.

An oil painting of Oxford Road, Manchester
Oxford Road, Manchester
in 1910 by Valette

Although the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. Historian Simon Schama
Simon Schama
noted that " Manchester
Manchester
was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".[38] The number of cotton mills in Manchester
Manchester
itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853.[27] Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester
Manchester
was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton
Bolton
in the 1850s and Oldham
Oldham
in the 1860s.[27] However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of the city as the financial centre of the region.[27] Manchester
Manchester
continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area.[19] The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester
Manchester
suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture. Manchester
Manchester
Blitz[edit] Like most of the UK, the Manchester
Manchester
area was mobilised extensively during the Second World War. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock
Chorlton-on-Medlock
made barrage balloons; and just outside the city in Trafford
Trafford
Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers
Metropolitan-Vickers
made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster
Avro Lancaster
bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester
Manchester
was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. The biggest took place during the "Christmas Blitz" on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated 474 tonnes (467 long tons) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged.[39] Manchester Cathedral
Manchester Cathedral
was among the buildings seriously damaged; its restoration took 20 years.[40] Post-Second World War[edit] Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968.[19] By 1963 the port of Manchester
Manchester
was the UK's third largest,[41] and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982.[42] Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher's government after 1979. Manchester
Manchester
lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983.[19]

Corporation Street after the Manchester
Manchester
bombing on 15 June 1996. There were no fatalities, but it was one of the most expensive man-made disasters.[43] A large rebuilding project of Manchester
Manchester
ensued.

Regeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester
Manchester
Arena, and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.[44]

Oxford
Oxford
Road, one of the main thoroughfares into Manchester
Manchester
city centre.

Manchester
Manchester
has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs
Manchester Martyrs
of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) carried out the 1996 Manchester
Manchester
bombing, the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows 1⁄2 mile (800 m) away. The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards.[45] The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade.[46] Since 2000[edit] Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.[44] New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and the Corn Exchange have become popular shopping, eating and entertainment destinations. The Manchester Arndale
Manchester Arndale
is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre.[47] Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme
Hulme
has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The 169-metre tall, 47-storey Beetham Tower, completed in 2006, is the tallest building in the UK outside London
London
and when finished was the highest residential accommodation in Europe.[48] In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel awarded Manchester
Manchester
a licence to build the only supercasino in the UK,[49] however plans were officially abandoned in February 2008.[50] Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester
Manchester
has been regarded by sections of the international press,[51] British public,[52] and government ministers as being the second city of the United Kingdom.[53][54] The BBC
BBC
reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester
Manchester
is the second city of the UK.[55] Manchester
Manchester
and Birmingham
Birmingham
have traditionally competed as frontrunners for this unofficial title.[55] Governance[edit] Main articles: Politics in Manchester
Politics in Manchester
and Manchester
Manchester
City
City
Council See also: Manchester
Manchester
local elections, List of Lord
Lord
Mayors of Manchester, and Healthcare in Greater Manchester

Manchester Town Hall
Manchester Town Hall
in Albert Square, seat of local government, is an example of Victorian era
Victorian era
Gothic revival
Gothic revival
architecture.

The City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
is governed by the Manchester
Manchester
City
City
Council. The earlier Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
County Council was abolished in 1986, so it is effectively a unitary authority. Manchester
Manchester
has been a member of the English Core Cities Group
Core Cities Group
since its inception in 1995.[56] The town of Manchester
Manchester
was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts, the last of which was dissolved in 1846.[57] From a very early time, the township of Manchester
Manchester
lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.[57] Pevsner wrote "That [neighbouring] Stretford
Stretford
and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester
Manchester
is one of the most curious anomalies of England".[25] A stroke of a Norman baron's pen is said to have divorced Manchester
Manchester
and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of lords, that was separated from Salford.[58] It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester
Manchester
later formed its own Poor Law Union
Poor Law Union
using the name "Manchester".[57] In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as "Police Commissioners"—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester
Manchester
regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.[57] By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners". In 1853, Manchester
Manchester
was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom.[57] In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme
Rusholme
and parts of Moss Side
Moss Side
and Withington
Withington
townships became part of the City
City
of Manchester. In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire
Lancashire
towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council.[57] Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council, including former villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. In 1931, the Cheshire
Cheshire
civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden
Northenden
and Northen Etchells
Northen Etchells
from the south of the River Mersey
River Mersey
were added.[57] In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester.[57] That year, Ringway, the town where the Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
is located, was added to the City. In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area.[59] The move was dubbed "Devo Manc", a play on the phrase Devo Max.[60] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Greater Manchester

River Irwell
River Irwell
from Blackfriar's Bridge

Manchester

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    69     6 1

    50     7 1

    61     9 3

    51     12 4

    61     15 7

    67     18 10

    65     20 12

    79     20 12

    74     17 10

    77     14 8

    78     9 4

    78     7 2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Climate-Charts.com

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.7     43 34

    2     45 34

    2.4     48 37

    2     54 39

    2.4     59 45

    2.6     64 50

    2.6     68 54

    3.1     68 54

    2.9     63 50

    3     57 46

    3.1     48 39

    3.1     45 36

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

At 53°28′0″N 2°14′0″W / 53.46667°N 2.23333°W / 53.46667; -2.23333, 160 miles (260 km) northwest of London, Manchester
Manchester
lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennines, a mountain chain that runs the length of northern England, and to the south by the Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain. Manchester is 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-east of Liverpool
Liverpool
and 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-west of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres (115 to 138 feet) above sea level.[61] The River Mersey
River Mersey
flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.[62]

The City
City
of Manchester. The land use is overwhelmingly urban

The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
county and urban area. The " Manchester
Manchester
City
City
Zone", " Manchester
Manchester
post town" and the " Manchester
Manchester
Congestion Charge" are all examples of this. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester
Manchester
forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation. There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around 260 hectares (642 acres),[63] is Heaton Park. Manchester
Manchester
is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden
Northenden
and Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
respectively. Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly station. Climate[edit] Manchester
Manchester
experiences a temperate Oceanic climate, like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular. In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in)[64] compared to the UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in),[65] and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum,[64] compared to the UK average of 154.4.[65] Manchester
Manchester
has a relatively high humidity level and this, along with the abundant supply of soft water, was one of the factors that led to the localisation of the textile industry in the area.[66] Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors
West Pennine Moors
to the northwest, South Pennines
Pennines
to the northeast and Peak District
Peak District
to the east receive more snow, which can close roads leading out of the city.[67] They include the A62 via Oldham
Oldham
and Standedge,[68] the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield,[69] and the Pennine section of the M62.[70]

Climate data for Manchester
Manchester
(MAN), elevation: 69 m or 226 ft, 1981-2010 normals, extremes 1958-2004

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 16.5 (61.7) 21.7 (71.1) 25.1 (77.2) 26.7 (80.1) 31.3 (88.3) 32.2 (90) 33.7 (92.7) 28.4 (83.1) 25.6 (78.1) 17.7 (63.9) 15.1 (59.2) 33.7 (92.7)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 12.4 (54.3) 12.6 (54.7) 15.6 (60.1) 19.1 (66.4) 23.1 (73.6) 25.5 (77.9) 26.9 (80.4) 27.0 (80.6) 23.1 (73.6) 18.9 (66) 15.4 (59.7) 13.2 (55.8) 28.7 (83.7)

Average high °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 7.6 (45.7) 10.0 (50) 12.6 (54.7) 16.1 (61) 18.6 (65.5) 20.6 (69.1) 20.3 (68.5) 17.6 (63.7) 13.9 (57) 10.0 (50) 7.4 (45.3) 13.5 (56.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 4.6 (40.3) 6.7 (44.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.9 (53.4) 14.6 (58.3) 16.6 (61.9) 16.4 (61.5) 14.0 (57.2) 10.7 (51.3) 7.1 (44.8) 4.6 (40.3) 10.0 (50)

Average low °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 1.6 (34.9) 3.3 (37.9) 4.9 (40.8) 7.7 (45.9) 10.5 (50.9) 12.6 (54.7) 12.4 (54.3) 10.3 (50.5) 7.4 (45.3) 4.2 (39.6) 1.8 (35.2) 6.6 (43.9)

Mean minimum °C (°F) −4.8 (23.4) −4.2 (24.4) −2.4 (27.7) −0.9 (30.4) 2.3 (36.1) 5.2 (41.4) 8.0 (46.4) 7.2 (45) 4.6 (40.3) 0.5 (32.9) −2.4 (27.7) −5.7 (21.7) −7.4 (18.7)

Record low °C (°F) −12.0 (10.4) −13.1 (8.4) −9.7 (14.5) −4.9 (23.2) −1.7 (28.9) 0.8 (33.4) 5.4 (41.7) 3.6 (38.5) 0.8 (33.4) −4.7 (23.5) −7.5 (18.5) −13.5 (7.7) −13.5 (7.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.3 (2.846) 51.4 (2.024) 61.2 (2.409) 54.0 (2.126) 56.8 (2.236) 66.1 (2.602) 63.9 (2.516) 77.0 (3.031) 71.5 (2.815) 92.5 (3.642) 81.5 (3.209) 80.7 (3.177) 828.8 (32.63)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.1 9.7 12.3 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.1 13.6 14.1 13.5 142.9

Average snowy days 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20

Average relative humidity (%) 87 86 85 85 85 87 88 89 89 89 88 87 88

Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.5 73.9 99.0 146.9 188.3 172.5 179.7 166.3 131.2 99.3 59.5 47.1 1,416.2

Source #1: Met Office[71] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961-1990)[72]

Source #2: KNMI[73][74]

Green belt[edit] Further information: North West Green Belt Manchester
Manchester
lies at the centre of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.[75] Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities,[76] at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park
Chorlton Water Park
along with the Chorlton Ees
Chorlton Ees
& Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester
Manchester
Airport.[77] The green belt was first drawn up in 1961.[75] Demography[edit] See also: Demography of Greater Manchester

Racial structure, according to the 2011 census[2]   White Groups (66.7%)   Asian (14.4%)   Black (8.6%)   Mixed (4.7%)   Chinese (2.7%)   Arab (1.9%)   Other (1.2%)

Below are the 10 largest immigrant groups of Manchester
Manchester
in 2011.

Country of Birth Immigrants in Manchester
Manchester
(2011 Census)

 Pakistan 20,712

 China 8,781

 Ireland 8,737

 Poland 6,836

 Nigeria 6,444

 India 6,433

 Somalia 3,645

 Jamaica 3,528

 Bangladesh 3,138

 Iraq 2,809

Religious beliefs, according to the 2011 census[2]   Christian (48.7%)   No Religion (25.3%)   Muslim (15.8%)   Hindu (1.1%)   Buddhist (0.8%)   Jewish (0.5%)   Other (0.9%)   Religion Not Stated (6.9%)

Historically the population of Manchester
Manchester
began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era, peaking at 766,311 in 1931. From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City
City
Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley
Hattersley
and Langley.[78] The 2012 Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester
Manchester
was 510,700. This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6%, since the 2011 MYE. Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8%. Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the 2011 census.[79] The city experienced the greatest percentage population growth outside London, with an increase of 19% to over 500,000.[80] Manchester's population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade.[79] The Greater Manchester Built-up Area
Greater Manchester Built-up Area
had a population of 2,553,400 (2011 est.,). An estimated 2,702,200 people live in Greater Manchester (2012 est.,). 6,547,000 people live within 30 miles (50 km) of Manchester
Manchester
(2012 est.,) and 11,694,000 within 50 miles (80 km) (2012 est.,).[79] Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (Mid-Year Estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Migration (internal and international) and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012. Compared to Greater Manchester
Manchester
and England, Manchester
Manchester
has a younger population, with a particularly large 20–35 age group.[79] There were 76,095 under- and post-graduate students at the Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
and Royal Northern College of Music during the academic year 2011/12. Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester
Manchester
has decreased by 22% from 62.4% to 48.7%. The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by 58.1% from 16% to 25.3%, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6% from 9.1% to 15.8%. The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
is the largest in Britain outside London.[81]

The population of Manchester
Manchester
shown with other boroughs in the Greater Manchester
Manchester
county from 1801 to 2011.

Manchester
Manchester
has a disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian people.[82] Of all households in Manchester, 0.23% were Same-Sex Civil Partnership couple households, compared to the English national average of 0.16% in 2011.[83] In terms of ethnic composition, the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 66.7% of the population was White (59.3% White British, 2.4% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.9% Other White – although those of mixed European and British ethnic groups is unknown; there are reportedly over 25,000 Mancunians of at least partial Italian descent alone which represents 5.5% of the city's population[84]). 4.7% were mixed race (1.8% White and Black Caribbean, 0.9% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 1.0% Other Mixed), 17.1% Asian (2.3% Indian, 8.5% Pakistani, 1.3% Bangladeshi, 2.7% Chinese, 2.3% Other Asian), 8.6% Black (5.1% African, 1.6% Other Black), 1.9% Arab and 1.2% of other ethnic heritage.[85] Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities.[19] Manchester's Irish Festival, including a St Patrick's Day
St Patrick's Day
parade, is one of Europe's largest.[86] There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,[87] contribute to Manchester
Manchester
having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.[88][89] The Manchester
Manchester
Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat
Eurostat
measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,539,100 in 2004.[90] In addition to Manchester
Manchester
itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester.[91] The Manchester
Manchester
LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Manchester See also: List of companies based in Greater Manchester See also: List of UK cities by GVA

GVA for Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
South 2002–2012[92]

Year GVA (£ million) Growth (%)

2002 24,011 03.8%

2003 25,063 04.4%

2004 27,862 011.2%

2005 28,579 02.6%

2006 30,384 06.3%

2007 32,011 05.4%

2008 32,081 00.2%

2009 33,186 03.4%

2010 33,751 01.7%

2011 33,468 00.8%

2012 34,755 03.8%

2013 37,560 09.6%

Aerial view of Manchester city centre
Manchester city centre
from the south in 2008.

The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
does not produce economic data for the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, in an area named Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
South, which had a GVA of £34.8bn. The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, where growth was 2.3% above the national average.[93] With a GDP
GDP
of $88.3bn (2012 est., PPP) the wider metropolitan economy is the third-largest in the United Kingdom.[94] It is ranked as a beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[12] As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in 2008–10, Manchester
Manchester
compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures. In 2012 it is shown the strongest annual growth in business stock (5%) of all the Core Cities.[95] The city experienced a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase of all the Core Cities, however this was offset by strong growth in new businesses which resulted in a strong net growth. Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.[96] It owns two of the country's four busiest airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects.[97] Meanwhile, KPMG's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester
Manchester
had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world,[98] and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester
Manchester
than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment.[96] KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester
Manchester
was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and Amsterdam, who all have a cost of living index less than 95.[98] Manchester
Manchester
is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.[99][100] According to the 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation Manchester
Manchester
is the 4th most deprived local council in the England.[101] Unemployment throughout 2012–13 averaged 11.9%, which was above the national average, but lower than some of the country's other comparable large cities.[102] On the other hand, Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outside London, with the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
taking up most of the tally.[103] In 2013 Manchester
Manchester
was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK's 12 largest cities.[104] Women fare better in Manchester
Manchester
than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked gender pay gap is 3.3%, in contrast to 11.1% for Great Britain.[105] 37% of the working-age population in Manchester
Manchester
have degree level qualifications in contrast to the average of 33% across other Core Cities,[105] although schools under-perform slightly when compared to the national average.[106] Manchester
Manchester
has the largest UK office market outside London
London
according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake (averaged over 2010–14) of approximately 250,000 square ft – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool
Liverpool
and Newcastle combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham.[107] The strong office market in Manchester
Manchester
has been partly attributed to 'Northshoring', (from offshoring) which entails the relocation or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where office space is possibly cheaper and workforce market may not be as saturated.[108] Landmarks[edit] Main article: Architecture of Manchester See also: List of tallest buildings and structures in Manchester, List of streets and roads in Manchester, Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, and List of public art in Greater Manchester

Neo-baroque Lancaster House. Manchester
Manchester
is known for opulent warehouses from the city's textile trade.

Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.[22] Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure while many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space. Manchester
Manchester
Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the Gothic revival
Gothic revival
style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.[109] Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which was the CIS Tower
CIS Tower
located near Manchester
Manchester
Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006; it is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant, and apartments. It remains the tallest building outside London
London
and has been described as the United Kingdom's only true skyscraper outside the capital.[110] The Green Building, opposite Oxford
Oxford
Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square, is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.[111] The award-winning Heaton Park
Heaton Park
in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering 610 acres (250 ha) of parkland.[112] The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces.[113] Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone, and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt
James Watt
and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by Edwin Lutyens, it follows his design for the original on Whitehall in London. The Alan Turing Memorial
Alan Turing Memorial
in Sackville Park
Sackville Park
commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A larger-than-life statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in Platt Fields) was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire
Lancashire
played in the cotton famine and American Civil War
American Civil War
of 1861–1865.[114] A Concorde
Concorde
is on display near Manchester
Manchester
Airport. Manchester
Manchester
has six designated Local Nature Reserves which are Chorlton Water Park, Blackley
Blackley
Forest, Clayton Vale
Clayton Vale
and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough
Boggart Hole Clough
and Highfield Country Park.[115] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Manchester See also: Transport for Greater Manchester, Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink, Manchester
Manchester
station group, Manchester
Manchester
Airport, Cycling in Manchester, Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
congestion charge, and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Transport Innovation Fund Rail[edit]

Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly Station, the busiest of the four major railway stations in the Manchester station group
Manchester station group
with over 25 million passengers using the station in 2016.[116]

Manchester
Manchester
Liverpool
Liverpool
Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station,[117] and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
– the world's first inter-city passenger railway. Today the city is well served by the rail network,[118] and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line, with two mainline stations: Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly and Manchester
Manchester
Victoria. The Manchester station group
Manchester station group
– comprising Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly, Manchester
Manchester
Victoria, Manchester
Manchester
Oxford
Oxford
Road and Deansgate – is the fourth busiest in the United Kingdom, with 41.7 million passengers recorded in 2013.[116] On 7 February 2014, construction of the £600m Northern Hub
Northern Hub
project, which aims to increase capacity and reduce journey times across the North, began with construction work commencing on a 4th platform at Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
railway station.[119] The High Speed 2
High Speed 2
link to Birmingham
Birmingham
and London
London
is also planned, which, if built, will include a 12 km (7 mi) tunnel under Manchester
Manchester
on the final approach into an upgraded Piccadilly station.[120] Metrolink (tram)[edit]

Manchester Metrolink
Manchester Metrolink
is the largest tram system in the UK, with a total route length of 57 miles (92 km).[121]

Manchester
Manchester
became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink
Manchester Metrolink
opened in 1992. In 2016–17, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system.[122] The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines.[123] The network consists of seven lines with 93 stops.[124] A new line to the Trafford
Trafford
Centre is currently under construction and is due to open by 2020.[125][126] Manchester
Manchester
city centre is also serviced by over a dozen heavy and light rail-based park and ride sites.[127] Bus[edit] The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
region radiating from the city. In 2011, 80% of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
were made by bus, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys by bus each year.[128] Following deregulation in 1986, the bus system was taken over by GM Buses, which after privatisation was split into GM Buses
GM Buses
North and GM Buses
GM Buses
South and at a later date these were taken over by First Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Stagecoach Manchester
Stagecoach Manchester
respectively.[129] First Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
also operates a three route zero-fare bus service, called Metroshuttle, which carries 2.8 million commuters a year[128] around Manchester's business districts.[130] Stagecoach Manchester
Stagecoach Manchester
is the Stagecoach Group's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses.[131] Air[edit]

Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
is the busiest airport in the UK outside London, with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non- London
London
airport.

Manchester, Northern England
Northern England
and North Wales
North Wales
are served by Manchester Airport. The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the largest outside the London
London
region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester
Manchester
than any other airport in Britain).[132] A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. The airport has the highest rating available: " Category 10", encompassing an elite group of airports which are able to handle "Code F" aircraft including the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
and Boeing 747-8.[133] From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only UK airport other than Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
to operate the Airbus A380.[134] A smaller airfield, City
City
Airport
Airport
Manchester, also exists 9.3 km (6 mi) to the west of Manchester
Manchester
city centre. It was Manchester's first municipal airport, and became the site of the first Air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.[135] Today, private charter flights and general aviation use the airfield, it also has a flight school,[136] and both the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance
North West Air Ambulance
have helicopters based at the airfield. Canal[edit] An extensive canal network, including the Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.[137] In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city centre
Manchester city centre
and MediaCityUK
MediaCityUK
at Salford Quays.[138]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Manchester See also: List of people from Manchester Music[edit] See also: Popular music of Manchester, List of music artists and bands from Manchester, and Madchester

The Gallagher brothers of Oasis

Bands that have emerged from the Manchester
Manchester
music scene include Oasis, The Smiths, Joy Division
Joy Division
and its successor group New Order, Buzzcocks, The Stone Roses, The Fall, 10cc, Godley & Creme, The Verve, Elbow, Doves, The Charlatans, M People, The 1975, Simply Red, Take That, Everything Everything
Everything Everything
and The Outfield. Manchester
Manchester
was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the 1980s lead by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. The later groups came from what became known as the "Madchester" scene that also centred on The Haçienda
The Haçienda
nightclub developed by founder of Factory Records
Factory Records
Tony Wilson. Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers
The Chemical Brothers
subsequently formed in Manchester.[139] Former Smiths frontman Morrissey, whose lyrics often refer to Manchester
Manchester
locations and culture, later found international success as a solo artist. Previously, notable Manchester
Manchester
acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman's Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees
Monkees
(famed in the mid-1960s for not only their albums but also their American TV show) and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton.[140] Another notable contemporary band from Manchester
Manchester
is The Courteeners
The Courteeners
consisting of Liam Fray
Liam Fray
and four close friends. Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu
Ren Harvieu
is also from Greater Manchester.

The Manchester
Manchester
Arena, the city's premier indoor multi-use venue and one of the largest purpose-built arenas in the European Union.

Its main pop music venue is the Manchester
Manchester
Arena, which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in 2007.[141] With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe.[141] In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world, ahead of Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
in New York
York
and The O2 Arena
The O2 Arena
in London, respectively the second- and third-busiest.[142] Other major venues include the Manchester
Manchester
Apollo, Albert Hall and the Manchester
Manchester
Academy. Smaller venues are the Band on the Wall, the Night and Day Café,[143] the Ruby Lounge,[144] and The Deaf Institute.[145] Manchester
Manchester
has two symphony orchestras, the Hallé
Hallé
and the BBC Philharmonic. There is also a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. In the 1950s, the city was home to the so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which comprised Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester
Manchester
is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music, which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and Chetham's School of Music.[146] Forerunners of the RNCM were the Northern School of Music (founded 1920) and the Royal Manchester College of Music (founded 1893), which were merged in 1973. One of the earliest instructors and classical music pianists/conductors at the RMCM, shortly after its founding was the famous Russian-born Arthur Friedheim, (1859–1932), who later had the music library at the famed Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
conservatory of music in Baltimore, Maryland, named for him. The main classical music venue was the Free Trade Hall
Free Trade Hall
on Peter Street, until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall.[147] Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;[148] some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester
Manchester
Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester
Manchester
and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday
Whit Friday
brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside. Performing arts[edit]

The Opera House, one of Manchester's largest theatre venues

Manchester
Manchester
has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest theatre in the round space in the UK. Smaller performance spaces include the Contact Theatre
Contact Theatre
and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse
Dancehouse
on Oxford
Oxford
Road is dedicated to dance productions.[149] In 2014, HOME, a new custom built arts complex opened in the City. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse
Cornerhouse
and The Library Theatre.[150] Since 2007 the city has hosted the Manchester
Manchester
International Festival, a biennial international arts festival with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including Bjork. In Chancellor George Osborne's 2014 autumn statement he announced a £78 million grant to fund a new "large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space" for the city.[151] Subsequently, the council stated that they had managed to secure a further £32 million from "a variety of sources",[152] The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016.[153]:13–14 The theatre, to be called The Factory, after Manchester's Factory Records, will provide a permanent home for the Manchester
Manchester
International Festival,[151] it is due to open at the end of 2019.[153]:15 Museums and galleries[edit]

Manchester
Manchester
Art Gallery

Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution, the textile industry, the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football. A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium
Mamucium
is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry, housed in the former Liverpool
Liverpool
Road railway station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program (known as The Baby).[154] The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams.[155] Trafford Park
Trafford Park
in the neighbouring borough of Trafford
Trafford
is home to Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
North.[156] The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology
Egyptology
and natural history collections.[157]

The Museum of Science and Industry

The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery
Manchester Art Gallery
on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.[158][159] In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery
Whitworth Art Gallery
displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in 2015.[160] Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include Islington Mill
Islington Mill
in Salford, the National Football Museum
National Football Museum
at Urbis, Castlefield
Castlefield
Gallery, the Manchester
Manchester
Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People's History Museum
People's History Museum
and the Manchester
Manchester
Jewish Museum.[161] The works of Stretford-born painter L. S. Lowry, known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester
Manchester
and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester
Manchester
galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays
Salford Quays
(in the neighbouring borough of Salford) devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.[162] Literature[edit]

Gaskell House, where Mrs Gaskell wrote most of her novels. The house is now a museum.

Manchester
Manchester
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
City
City
of Literature known for possessing a "radical literary history".[163][164] In the 19th century, Manchester featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought to Britain. These included Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester
Manchester
Life (1848),[165] and studies such as The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
in 1844, written by Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
while living and working in Manchester.[166] Manchester
Manchester
was the meeting place of Engels and Karl Marx. The two began writing The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
in Chetham's Library. The library was founded in 1653 and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library. Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.[167] Gaskell penned all her novels, with the exception of Mary Barton, at her residence on Plymouth
Plymouth
Grove. On numerous occasions Gaskell's house played host to influential authors including Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Eliot Norton.[168] It is now open as a literary museum. Also closely associated with the city is Victorian poet and novelist Isabella Banks, most famed for her 1876 novel The Manchester
Manchester
Man. Anglo-American author Frances Hodgson Burnett
Frances Hodgson Burnett
was born in the city's Cheetham Hill
Cheetham Hill
district in 1849, and wrote much of her classic children's novel The Secret Garden
The Secret Garden
while visiting nearby Salford's Buile Hill Park.[169] Anthony Burgess
Anthony Burgess
is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in 1962.[170] Dame Carol Ann Duffy, the current Poet Laureate, moved to the city in 1996 and lives in West Didsbury.[171] Poet, novelist and academic Jackie Kay
Jackie Kay
also lives in the city. Nightlife[edit]

Canal Street, one of Manchester's liveliest nightspots, part of the city's gay village

The night-time economy of Manchester
Manchester
has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.[172] The more than 500 licensed premises[173] in the city centre have a capacity to deal with more than 250,000 visitors,[174] with 110–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night,[173] making Manchester
Manchester
the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people.[175] The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million[176] and supports 12,000 jobs.[173] The Madchester
Madchester
scene of the 1980s, from which groups including New Order, The Smiths, The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based on clubs such as the world-famous The Haçienda.[177] The period was the subject of the film 24 Hour Party People. Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt.[177] Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Hacienda closed in 1998. In 1988, Manchester
Manchester
was often referred to as Madchester
Madchester
for its rave scene. Owned by Tony Wilson's Factory Records, it was given the catalogue number FAC51 and official club name, FAC51 The Hacienda. Known for developing many talented 1980s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as Peter Saville (PSA), Octavo (8vo), Central Design Station, etc. The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club. Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere. Gay Village[edit] Public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940,[172] and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBT+ community. Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend[172] and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester
Manchester
Pride, each August since 2003.[178] Education[edit]

Whitworth Hall
Whitworth Hall
at the University of Manchester, with approximately 40,000 students it is the largest university in the UK in terms of enrolment.

See also: List of schools in Manchester There are three universities in the City
City
of Manchester. The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University
and Royal Northern College of Music. The University of Manchester
University of Manchester
is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and was created in 2004 by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester founded in 1904 and UMIST, founded in 1956,[179] though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in 1824. It includes the Manchester
Manchester
Business School, which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University
was formed as Manchester
Manchester
Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe
Crewe
and Alsager
Alsager
College of Higher Education in South Cheshire.[180] The University of Law, the largest provider of vocation legal training in Europe, has a campus in the city.[181] The three Universities are grouped around Oxford
Oxford
Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.[182] Together they have a combined population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015,[183] although almost 6,000 of them were based at Manchester
Manchester
Metropolitan University's campuses at Crewe
Crewe
and Alsager
Alsager
in Cheshire.[184] One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in 1515,[185] as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body. In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system.[186] Its previous premises are now used by Chetham's School of Music. There are three schools nearby: William Hulme's Grammar School, Withington
Withington
Girls' School and Manchester
Manchester
High School for Girls. In 2010, the Manchester
Manchester
Local Education Authority was ranked last out of Greater Manchester's ten LEAs – and 147th out of 150 in the country LEAs – based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least five A*-C grades at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) including maths and English (38.6% compared with the national average of 50.7%). The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with 11.11% of "half-day sessions missed by pupils", above the national average of 5.8%.[187][188] Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90% or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English ( Manchester
Manchester
High School for Girls, St Bede's College, Manchester
St Bede's College, Manchester
Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School) while three managed 25% or below (Plant Hill Arts College, North Manchester
Manchester
High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College).[189] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Manchester

The Etihad Stadium, home to Premier League
Premier League
club Manchester
Manchester
City
City
F.C and host stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

Manchester
Manchester
is well known for being a city of sport.[190] Two decorated Premier League
Premier League
football clubs bear the city name – Manchester
Manchester
City and Manchester
Manchester
United.[191] Although Manchester
Manchester
United play its home games at Old Trafford, in the neighbouring Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
borough of Trafford, the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom.[192] Manchester
Manchester
City's home ground is the City
City
of Manchester Stadium (also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes); its former ground, Maine Road
Maine Road
was demolished in 2003. The City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games
2002 Commonwealth Games
and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester
Manchester
City's arrival. Manchester
Manchester
has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield
Fallowfield
Stadium, Maine Road, Old Trafford
Trafford
and the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium. Competitions hosted in city include the FIFA World Cup (1966), UEFA European Football Championship
UEFA European Football Championship
(1996), Olympic Football (2012), UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Final (2003), UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
Final (2008), four FA Cup Finals (1893, 1911, 1915, 1970) and three League Cup Finals (1977, 1978, 1984). First class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City
City
of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre.[193] Manchester
Manchester
has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta
Atlanta
for 1996 and Sydney
Sydney
for 2000. The National Cycling Centre
National Cycling Centre
includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials and is the home of British Cycling, UCI ProTeam Team Sky
Team Sky
and Sky Track Cycling. The Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling.[172] The velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for a record third time in 2008. The National Indoor BMX Arena
National Indoor BMX Arena
(2,000 capacity) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011. The Manchester Arena
Manchester Arena
hosted the FINA
FINA
World Swimming Championships in 2008.[194] Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire
Lancashire
County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford
Trafford
Cricket Ground. Manchester
Manchester
also hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008,[195] and also hosted the 2010 World Lacrosse Championship
2010 World Lacrosse Championship
in July 2010.[196] Recent sporting events hosted by Manchester
Manchester
include the 2013 Ashes series, 2013 Rugby League World Cup
2013 Rugby League World Cup
and the 2015 Rugby World Cup. Media[edit] Main article: Media in Manchester See also: List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester; Films set in Manchester; and List of national radio programmes made in Manchester

The Daily Express
Daily Express
Building, Manchester, built in the 1930s but since vacated by the Daily Express. Despite this, newspaper printing still takes place at the building.

The ITV franchise Granada Television
Granada Television
is partially headquartered in the old Granada Studios
Granada Studios
site on Quay Street
Quay Street
and the new location at MediaCityUK[197] as part of the initial phase of its migration to Salford Quays.[198] It produces Coronation Street,[199] local news and programmes for North West England. Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'.[200][201] Manchester
Manchester
was one of the BBC's three main centres in England.[198] Programmes including Mastermind,[202] and Real Story,[203] were made at New Broadcasting House. The Cutting It series set in the city's Northern Quarter and The Street were set in Manchester[204] as was Life on Mars. The first edition of Top of the Pops
Top of the Pops
was broadcast from a studio in Rusholme
Rusholme
on New Year's Day 1964.[205] Manchester
Manchester
was the regional base for BBC
BBC
One North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK
MediaCityUK
in nearby Salford Quays.[206][207] The Manchester
Manchester
television channel, Channel M, owned by the Guardian Media Group operated from 2000 but closed in 2012.[198][208] Manchester
Manchester
is also covered by two internet television channels: Quays News and Manchester.tv. The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February 2013 begins its first broadcast but in 2015 when That's Manchester
Manchester
took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April 2016.

Granada Studios, headquarters of Granada Television

The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London including BBC
BBC
Radio Manchester, Key 103, Galaxy, Piccadilly Magic 1152, Real Radio North West, 100.4 Smooth FM, Capital Gold 1458, 96.2 The Revolution, NMFM (North Manchester
Manchester
FM) and Xfm.[209][210] Student radio stations include Fuse FM
Fuse FM
at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
and MMU Radio at the Manchester
Manchester
Metropolitan University.[211] A community radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering Ardwick, Longsight
Longsight
and Levenshulme
Levenshulme
( All FM 96.9) and Wythenshawe ( Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
FM 97.2).[210] Defunct radio stations include Sunset 102, which became Kiss 102, then Galaxy Manchester), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire
Cheshire
(now Imagine FM). These stations and pirate radio played a significant role in the city's house music culture, the Madchester
Madchester
scene, which was based in clubs like The Haçienda. The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper was founded in 1821 as The Manchester
Manchester
Guardian. Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London
London
in 1964.[19] Its sister publication, the Manchester
Manchester
Evening News, has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper. It is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs. Despite its title, it is available all day.[212] The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers.[213] For many years most of the national newspapers had offices in Manchester: The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, The Daily Mirror, The Sun. Only The Daily Sport remains based in Manchester. At its height, 1,500 journalists were employed, though in the 1980s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.[214] An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988.[215] Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post
Yorkshire Post
does for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
or The Northern Echo does for the North East; it folded in October 2006.[215] Twin cities and consulates[edit] Manchester
Manchester
has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places.[216][217] In addition, the British Council maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester.[218]

Amsterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands
(2007) Aydın, Turkey Bilwi, Nicaragua Chemnitz, Germany
Germany
(1983)[219] Córdoba, Spain Leskovac, Serbia Faisalabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
(1997) Los Angeles, United States
United States
(2009) Osaka, Japan Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
(1962) Wuhan, China
China
(1986) Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester, New Hampshire
(2000)

Manchester
Manchester
is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester
Manchester
hosts consular services for most of the north of England.[220] See also[edit]

England
England
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal European Union portal Europe portal

Madchester Manchester
Manchester
dialect Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Relocation

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Further reading[edit]

Architecture

Atkins, Philip (1975). Guide across Manchester. Manchester: Civic Trust for the North West. ISBN 0-901347-29-9.  Hands, David; Parker, Sarah (2000). Manchester: A Guide to Recent Architecture. London: Ellipsis Arts. ISBN 1-899858-77-6.  Hartwell, Clare (2001). Manchester. Pevsner Architectural Guides. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071131-7.  Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2004). Lancashire: Manchester
Manchester
and the South-East. The Buildings of England. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10583-5.  Parkinson-Bailey, John J. (2000). Manchester: an Architectural History. Manchester: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5606-3.  Robinson, John Martin (1986). The Architecture of Northern England. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-37396-0. 

General

Beesley, Ian (1988). Victorian Manchester
Manchester
and Salford. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-006-9.  Hylton, Stuart (2003). A History of Manchester. Chichester: Phillimore & Company. ISBN 1-86077-240-4.  Kidd, Alan J. (1993). Manchester. Town and City
City
Histories. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-016-6.  Mottley, A L (2013). A Northern Life. Coventry: Any Subject Books. ISBN 1-909392-53-7.  Price, Jane; Stebbing, Ben, eds. (2002). The Mancunian Way. Manchester: Clinamen Press. ISBN 1-903083-81-8.  Redhead, Brian (1993). Manchester: a Celebration. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-98816-5.  Schofield, Jonathan (2005). The City
City
Life Guide to Manchester. Manchester: City
City
Life. ISBN 0-9549042-2-2.  Worthington, Barry (2011). Discovering Manchester. Ammanford: Sigma Leisure. ISBN 1-85058-862-7. 

Culture

Cantrell, J. A. (1985). James Nasmyth and the Bridgewater Foundry, A study of entrepreneurship in the early engineering industry. Manchester: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-1339-3.  Champion, Sarah (1990). And God Created Manchester. Manchester: Wordsmith. ISBN 1-873205-01-5.  Gatenby, Phill (2002). Morrissey's Manchester: The Essential "Smiths" Tour. Empire Publications. Manchester. ISBN 1-901746-28-3.  Haslam, Dave (2000). Manchester, England. New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-146-7.  Lee, C. P. (2002). Shake, Rattle and Rain: popular music making in Manchester
Manchester
1955–1995. Ottery St Mary: Hardinge Simpole. ISBN 1-84382-049-8.  Lee, C. P. (2004). Like the Night (Revisited): Bob Dylan and the Road to the Manchester
Manchester
Free Trade Hall. London: Helter Skelter Publishing. ISBN 1-900924-33-1.  Pearce, Lynne (December 2007). "Women writers and the elusive urban sublime: the view from "Manchester, England"". Contemporary Women's Writing. Oxford
Oxford
Journals. 1 (1–2): 192–202. doi:10.1093/cww/vpm014.  Savage, Jon, ed. (1992). The Haçienda
The Haçienda
Must Be Built. Woodford Green: International Music Publications. ISBN 0-86359-857-9. 

Sport

Inglis, Simon (2004). Played In Manchester. Played in Britain. ISBN 978-1-873592-78-6.  James, Gary (2008). Manchester: a football history. Halifax: James Ward. ISBN 978-0-9558127-0-5. 

External links[edit]

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Metropolitan districts of England

Districts

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

Councils

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

Local elections

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

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Districts of North West England

Cheshire

Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Halton Warrington

Cumbria

Allerdale Barrow-in-Furness Carlisle Copeland Eden South Lakeland

Greater Manchester

Bolton Bury Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Trafford Wigan

Lancashire

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Lancaster Pendle Preston Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Merseyside

Knowsley Liverpool St Helens Sefton Wirral

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Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146697

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