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Pharyngeal Reflex
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex is a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ... muscular contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ..., the back of the tongue The tongue is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Brita ..., the area around the tonsils The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs faci ...
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Reflex
In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ..., a reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary, unplanned sequence or action and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus A stimulus is something that causes a physiological response. It may refer to: *Stimulation Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally. For example, "The press provides stimulation of political discourse." .... A reflex is made possible by neural pathway A neural pathway is the connection formed by axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Lat ...s called reflex arc A reflex arc is a ne ...
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Sword Swallowing
Sword swallowing is a skill in which the performer passes a sword A sword is an edged, bladed weapon intended for manual cutting or thrusting. Its blade, longer than a knife A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Ge ... through the mouth and down the esophagus to the stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, .... This feat is not swallowing Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of ... in the traditional sense. The natural processes that constitute swallowing do not ta ...
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Retching
Retching (also known as dry heaving) is the reverse movement ( retroperistalsis) of the stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, ... and esophagus The esophagus (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American E ... without vomiting Vomiting (also known as emesis and throwing up) is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach The stomach is a muscular, Organ (anatomy), hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other anim .... It can be caused by bad smells or choking, or by withdrawal from certain medications, or after vomiting has ...
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Glottis
The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of tissue in the throat that are key in creating sounds through vocalization. The size of vocal cords affects the pitch of voice. Open when breathing and vibrating for ... (the rima glottidis The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal chords, vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of tissue in the throat that are key in creating sounds through vocalization. The size o ...). The glottis is crucial in producing vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...s and voiced Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics Phonetics is a branch of that studies how humans pr ...
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Pharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, internally positioned in front of the vertebra, vertebrae. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, separating the esophagus f ... behind the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ... and nasal cavity The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the human nose, nose in the middle of the face. The nasal septum divides the cavity into two cavities, also known as fossae. Each cavity is the continuation of one of the two nostrils. ..., and above the oesophagus The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English; both ), informally known as the food pipe or ...
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Larynx
The larynx (), commonly called the voice box, is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... in the top of the neck The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With f ... involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube that connects the to the bronchi of the s, allowing the passage of , and so is present in almost all air- s with lungs. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary . ... against food aspiration. The opening of larynx into pharynx The pharynx (plural: pha ...
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Brain Death
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense, sensory information by tran ... (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life). It differs from persistent vegetative state A persistent vegetative state (PVS) or post-coma unresponsiveness (PCU) is a disorder of consciousness Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its sim ..., in which the person is alive and some autonomic functions remain. It is also distinct from an ordinary coma A coma is a deep state of prolonged unconsciousness Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an consciousness, awareness of self and environment is lost. It involves a complete, or near-co ...
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Vagus Nerve
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, ... or CN X, and interfaces with the parasympathetic The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating t ... control of the heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste ..., lungs, and digestive tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, di ...
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Glossopharyngeal Nerve
The glossopharyngeal nerve (), known as the ninth cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, ... (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information. It exits the brainstem The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and anima ... out from the sides of the upper medulla Medulla or Medullary may refer to: Science * Medulla oblongata The medulla oblongata or simply medulla is a long stem-like structure which makes up the lower part of the brainstem. It is anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum. It is ..., just anterior (cl ...
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Acupuncture
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds ... and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ... (TCM) in which thin needles are inserted into the body. Acupuncture is a pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is often characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or falsifiability, un ..., the theories and practices of TCM are not based on scientific knowledge Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
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Acupressure
Acupressure (Chinese -Tui na ''Tui na'' (; ) is form of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patien ...), is an alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds ... technique often used in conjunction with acupuncture Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patient a .... It is based on the concept of life energy which flows through "meridians" in the body. In treatment, physical pressure is ...
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General Anaesthetic
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of Linguistics, ...) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflexThe righting reflex, also known as the labyrinthine righting reflex, is a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ... in animals. Clinical definitions are also extended to include an induced coma that causes lack of awareness to painful stimuli, sufficient to facilitate surgical applications in clinical and veterinary practice. General anaesthetics do not act as analgesic An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of us ...
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