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NISO
The National Information Standards Organization (NISO; ) is a United States non-profit standards organization that develops, maintains and publishes technical standards related to publishing, bibliographic and library applications. It was founded in 1939 as the "Z39 Committee", incorporated as a not-for-profit education association in 1983, and assumed its current name in 1984. Organization NISO offers two membership categories, "voting members" and "library standards alliance". In January 2016, the "voting members" included 77 large corporations, mostly publishers, and large library organizations such as the American Library Association.Member companies
". National Information Standards Organization. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
Voting members elect Directors and comment and vote on standards. The "Library Standards Alliance" incl ...
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Journal Article Tag Suite
The Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) is an XML format used to describe scientific literature published online. It is a technical standard developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and approved by the American National Standards Institute with the code Z39.96-2012. The NISO project was a continuation of the work done by NLM/NCBI, and popularized by the NLM's PubMed Central as a ''de facto'' standard for archiving and interchange of scientific open-access journals and its contents with XML. With the NISO standardization the NLM initiative has gained a wider reach, and several other repositories, such as SciELO and Redalyc, adopted the XML formatting for scientific articles. The JATS provides a set of XML elements and attributes for describing the textual and graphical content of journal articles as well as some non-article material such as letters, editorials, and book and product reviews. JATS allows for descriptions of the full article content or ju ...
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OpenURL
An OpenURL is similar to a web address, but instead of referring to a physical website, it refers to an article, book, patent, or other resource within a website. OpenURLs are similar to permalinks because they are permanently connected to a resource, regardless of which website the resource is connected to. Libraries and other resource centers are the most common place to find OpenURLs because an OpenURL can help Internet users find a copy of a resource that they may otherwise have limited access to. The source that generates an OpenURL is often a bibliographic citation or bibliographic record in a database. Examples of these databases include Ovid Technologies, Web of Science, Chemical Abstracts Service, Modern Language Association and Google Scholar. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) has developed standards for OpenURL and its data container as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004. OpenURL standards create a cl ...
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NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol
{{unreferenced, date=November 2012 NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol (NCIP) is a protocol that is limited to the exchange of messages between and among computer-based applications to enable them to perform functions necessary to lend and borrow items, to provide controlled access to electronic resources, and to facilitate cooperative management of these functions. Released in May 2001 and approved on October 17, 2002, ANSI/NISO Z39.83-2002 or NCIP is a "NISO Draft Standard for Trial Use." This protocol defines a repertoire of messages and associated rules of syntax and semantics for use by applications: to perform the functions necessary to lend items; to provide controlled access to electronic resources; and to facilitate co-operative management of these functions. It is intended to address conditions in which the application or applications that initiate the lending of items or control of access must acquire or transmit information about the user, items, and/or access that is ...
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Dublin Core
220px, Logo image of DCMI, which formulates Dublin Core The Dublin Core, also known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), is a set of fifteen "core" elements (properties) for describing resources. This fifteen-element Dublin Core has been formally standardized as ISO 15836, ANSI/NISO Z39.85, and IETF RFC 5013. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), which formulates the Dublin Core, is a project of the Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T), a non-profit organization. The core properties are part of a larger set of DCMI Metadata Terms. "Dublin Core" is also used as an adjective for Dublin Core metadata, a style of metadata that draws on multiple Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabularies, packaged and constrained in Dublin Core application profiles. The resources described using the Dublin Core may be digital resources (video, images, web pages, etc.) as well as physical resources such as books or works of art. Dublin Core metadata may ...
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ISO 2709
ISO 2709 is an ISO standard for bibliographic descriptions, titled ''Information and documentation—Format for information exchange''. It is maintained by the Technical Committee for Information and Documentation ( TC 9846). History In the late 1960s the MARC format was developed under the direction of Henriette Avram at the Library of Congress to encode the information printed on library cards. It standardized in the early 1970s as ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.2-1971 and ISO 2709-1973. This was one of the first standards for information technology, and called ''Information Interchange Format.'' The 1981 version of the standard was titled ''Documentation—Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape''. The latest edition of that standard is ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1994 (R2016) (). The ISO standard supersedes Z39.2. As of December 2008 the current standard is ISO 2709:2008. Basic structure An ISO 2709 record has four sections: * Record label—the first 24 characters ...
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Digital Object Identifier
A digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify various objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). DOIs are an implementation of the Handle System; they also fit within the URI system ( Uniform Resource Identifier). They are widely used to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports, data sets, and official publications. DOIs have also been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to resolve to its target, the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL where the object is located. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from ISBNs or ISRCs which are identifiers only. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed ...
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TC 46/SC 9
ISO/TC 46 is Technical Committee 46 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), responsible for Information and documentation. Overview The scope of the committee is 'standardization of practices relating to libraries, documentation and information centres, publishing, archives, records management, museum documentation, indexing and abstracting services, and information science'. Leadership The Technical Committee Chair for term 2018-2022 is Gaëlle Béquet, from France, who is currently in her second term as chairperson (the first was 2014-2017). Françoise Pellé, also french, served as Chair of the ISO/TC 46 from 2008 to 2014. Subcommittees Most work of the Technical Committee is done by Subcommittees (SC) dealing with a particular field. The Subcommittees are: * ISO/TC 46/SC 2: Conversion of written languages (Inactive) * ISO/TC 46/SC 3: Terminology of information and documentation (Inactive) * ISO/TC 46/SC 4: Technical interoperability * ISO/TC 46/SC ...
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MARC Standards
MARC (machine-readable cataloging) standards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books, DVDs, and digital resources. Computerized library catalogs and library management software need to structure their catalog records as per an industry-wide standard, which is MARC, so that bibliographic information can be shared freely between computers. The structure of bibliographic records almost universally follows the MARC standard. Other standards work in conjunction with MARC, for example, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR)/Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide guidelines on formulating bibliographic data into the MARC record structure, while the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) provides guidelines for displaying MARC records in a standard, human-readable form. History Working with the Library of Congress, American computer scientist Henriette Avram developed MARC during 1965–1968 to create recor ...
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier that is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the 9-digit SBN c ...
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American National Standards Institute
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards. The organization's headquarters are in Washington, D.C. ANSI's operations office is located in New York City. The ANSI annual operati ...
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Standards Organizations In The United States
Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requirements * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measure used for calibration of measuring devices * Standard (timber unit), an obsolete measure of timber used in trade * Breed standard (also called bench standard), in animal fancy and animal husbandry * BioCompute Standard, a standard for next generation sequencing * ''De facto'' standard, product or system with market dominance * Gold standard, a monetary system based on gold; also used metaphorically for the best of several options, against which the others are measured * Internet Standard, a specification ratified as an open standard by the Internet Engineering Task Force * Learning standards, standards applied to education content * Standard displacement, a naval term describing the w ...
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