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MADS-box
The MADS box is a conserved sequence motif. The genes which contain this motif are called the MADS-box gene family. The MADS box encodes the DNA-binding MADS domain. The MADS domain binds to DNA sequences of high similarity to the motif CC /Tsub>6GG termed the CArG-box. MADS-domain proteins are generally transcription factors. The length of the MADS-box reported by various researchers varies somewhat, but typical lengths are in the range of 168 to 180 base pairs, i.e. the encoded MADS domain has a length of 56 to 60 amino acids. There is evidence that the MADS domain evolved from a sequence stretch of a type II topoisomerase in a common ancestor of all extant eukaryotes. Origin of name and history of research The first MADS-box gene to be identified was ''ARG80'' from budding yeast, ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', but was at that time not recognized as a member of a large gene family. The MADS-box gene family got its name later as an acronym referring to the four founding members, ...
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SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE
The MADS box is a conserved sequence motif. The genes which contain this motif are called the MADS-box gene family. The MADS box encodes the DNA-binding MADS domain. The MADS domain binds to DNA sequences of high similarity to the motif CC /Tsub>6GG termed the CArG-box. MADS-domain proteins are generally transcription factors. The length of the MADS-box reported by various researchers varies somewhat, but typical lengths are in the range of 168 to 180 base pairs, i.e. the encoded MADS domain has a length of 56 to 60 amino acids. There is evidence that the MADS domain evolved from a sequence stretch of a type II topoisomerase in a common ancestor of all extant eukaryotes. Origin of name and history of research The first MADS-box gene to be identified was ''ARG80'' from budding yeast, ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', but was at that time not recognized as a member of a large gene family. The MADS-box gene family got its name later as an acronym referring to the four founding members, ...
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MEF2
In the field of molecular biology, myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) proteins are a family of transcription factors which through control of gene expression are important regulators of cellular differentiation and consequently play a critical role in embryonic development. In adult organisms, Mef2 proteins mediate the stress response in some tissues. Mef2 proteins contain both MADS-box and Mef2 DNA-binding domains. Discovery Mef2 was originally identified as a transcription factor complex through promoter analysis of the muscle creatine kinase (mck) gene to identify nuclear factors interacting with the mck enhancer region during muscle differentiation. Three human mRNA coding sequences designated RSRF (Related to Serum Response Factor) were cloned and shown to dimerize, bind a consensus sequence similar to the one present in the MCK enhancer region, and drive transcription. RSRFs were subsequently demonstrated to encode human genes now named Mef2A, Mef2B and Mef2D. ...
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Mef2
In the field of molecular biology, myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) proteins are a family of transcription factors which through control of gene expression are important regulators of cellular differentiation and consequently play a critical role in embryonic development. In adult organisms, Mef2 proteins mediate the stress response in some tissues. Mef2 proteins contain both MADS-box and Mef2 DNA-binding domains. Discovery Mef2 was originally identified as a transcription factor complex through promoter analysis of the muscle creatine kinase (mck) gene to identify nuclear factors interacting with the mck enhancer region during muscle differentiation. Three human mRNA coding sequences designated RSRF (Related to Serum Response Factor) were cloned and shown to dimerize, bind a consensus sequence similar to the one present in the MCK enhancer region, and drive transcription. RSRFs were subsequently demonstrated to encode human genes now named Mef2A, Mef2B and Mef2D. ...
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Günter Theißen
Günter Theißen (born 16 January 1962 in Mönchengladbach) is a German geneticist. He holds the chair of genetics at the University of Jena. Life Günter Theißen studied biology at the University of Düsseldorf and did his PhD in 1991 with Rolf Wagner at that university. From 1992–2001, he was a group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne. He did his second doctorate (Habilitation) at the University of Cologne in 2000. In 2001, he was appointed professor at the University of Münster. In 2002, he was appointed to hold the chair of genetics at the University of Jena. Scientific work In his research, Günter Theißen deals, among other things, with molecular genetics and evolution of plant development. In particular, he and his group investigate special transcription factor In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of geneti ...
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Serum Response Factor
Serum response factor, also known as SRF, is a transcription factor protein. Function Serum response factor is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). SRF is important during the development of the embryo, as it has been linked to the formation of mesoderm. In the fully developed mammal, SRF is crucial for the growth of skeletal muscle. Interaction of SRF with other proteins, such as steroid hormone receptors, may contribute to regulation of muscle growth by steroids. Int ...
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Agamous
Agamous (AG) is a homeotic gene and MADS-box transcription factor from ''Arabidopsis thaliana ''Arabidopsis thaliana'', the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ''A. thaliana'' is considered a weed; it is found along the shoulders of roads and in disturbed land. A winter a ...''. The TAIR AGI number is AT4G18960. The identity of a floral organ is determined by particular combinations of homeotic genes, these genes derive from a group of undifferentiated cells known as the floral meristem. The presence of the homeotic gene in Arabidopsis ceases all meristem activity and proceeds to facilitate the development of stamens and carpels. References * * * * External links Agamous gene information on AtEnsembl Transcription factors Arabidopsis thaliana genes {{biochem-stub, date=June 2016 ...
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Transcription Factors
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. The function of TFs is to regulate—turn on and off—genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the desired cells at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell migration and organization (body plan) during embryonic development; and intermittently in response to signals from outside the cell, such as a hormone. There are up to 1600 TFs in the human genome. Transcription factors are members of the proteome as well as regulome. TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA ...
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Zea Mays
Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences (or "tassels") and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that when fertilized yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. The term ''maize'' is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage as a common name because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike ''corn'', which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. In addition to being consumed directly by humans (often in the form of masa), maize is also used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn ...
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Antirrhinum Majus
''Antirrhinum majus'', the common snapdragon (often - especially in horticulture - simply "snapdragon"), is a species of flowering plant belonging to the genus ''Antirrhinum''. The plant was placed in the family Plantaginaceae following a revision of its prior classical family, Scrophulariaceae. The common name "snapdragon", originates from the flowers' reaction to having their throats squeezed, which causes the "mouth" of the flower to snap open like a dragon's mouth. It is widely used as an ornamental plant in borders and as a cut flower. It is perennial but usually cultivated as an annual plant. The species has been in culture since the 15th century. Taxonomy There are five subspecies: *''Antirrhinum majus'' subsp. ''majus''. Southern France, northeast Spain. *''Antirrhinum majus'' subsp. ''cirrhigerum'' (Ficalho) Franco. Southern Portugal, southwest Spain. *''Antirrhinum majus'' subsp. ''linkianum'' (Boiss. & Reut.) Rothm. Western Portugal (endemic). *''Antirrhinum ma ...
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Tunicate1
In biology, a tunica (, ; ) is a layer, coat, sheath, or similar covering. The word came to English from the New Latin of science and medicine. Its literal sense is about the same as that of the word ''tunic'', with which it is cognate. In biology one of its senses used to be the taxonomic name of a genus of plants, but the nomenclature has been revised and those plants are now included in the genus '' Petrorhagia''. In modern biology in general, ''tunica'' occurs as a technical or anatomical term mainly in botany and zoology. It usually refers to membranous structures that line or cover particular organs. In many such contexts ''tunica'' is used interchangeably with ''tunic'' according to preference. An organ or organism that has a tunic(a) may be said to be ''tunicate'', as in a ''tunicate bulb''. This adjective ''tunicate'' is not to be confused with the noun ''tunicate'', which refers to a member of the subphylum '' Tunicata''. Botanical and related usages In botany there are ...
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and its printing history dates back to the 1480s. Having been officially granted the legal right to print books by decree in 1586, it is the second oldest university press after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics known as the Delegates of the Press, who are appointed by the vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford. The Delegates of the Press are led by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University Press has had a similar governance structure since the 17th century. The press is located on Walton Street, Oxford, opposite Somerville College, in the inner suburb of Jericho. For the last 500 years, OUP has primarily focused on the publication of pedagogical texts an ...
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American Society Of Plant Biologists
American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the "United States" or "America" ** Americans, citizens and nationals of the United States of America ** American ancestry, people who self-identify their ancestry as "American" ** American English, the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States ** Native Americans in the United States, indigenous peoples of the United States * American, something of, from, or related to the Americas, also known as "America" ** Indigenous peoples of the Americas * American (word), for analysis and history of the meanings in various contexts Organizations * American Airlines, U.S.-based airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas * American Athletic Conference, an American college athletic conference * American Recordings (record label), a record label previously known as Def American * American University, in Washington, D.C. Sports teams Soccer * ...
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