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Lord Atkin
James Richard Atkin, Baron Atkin, (28 November 1867 – 25 June 1944), commonly known as Dick Atkin, was an Australian-born British judge, who served as a lord of appeal in ordinary from 1928 until his death in 1944. He is especially remembered as the judge giving the leading judgement in the case of Donoghue v Stevenson in 1932, in which he established the modern law of negligence in the UK, and indirectly in most of the common law world. Early life and practice Atkin was the son of Robert Travers Atkin (1841–1872) and his wife, Mary Elizabeth ''née'' Ruck (1842–1920). Robert was from Kilgarriff, County Cork, Mary's father from Newington, Kent, and her mother from Merioneth, Wales. The couple married in 1864 and soon emigrated to Australia intending to take up sheep farming. However, little more than a year into their enterprise Robert was badly injured in a fall from a horse and the couple moved to Brisbane where Robert became a journalist and politician. He always ...
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The Right Honourable
''The Right Honourable'' (abbreviation: ''Rt Hon.'' or variations) is an honorific Style (form of address), style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, the former British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and to a lesser extent, Australia. ''Right'' in this context is an adverb meaning 'very' or 'fully'. Grammatically, ''The Right Honourable'' is an adjectival phrase which gives information about a person. As such, it is not considered correct to apply it in direct address, nor to use it on its own as a title in place of a name; but rather it is used in the Grammatical person, third person along with a name or noun to be modified. ''Right'' may be abbreviated to ''Rt'', and ''Honourable'' to ''Hon.'', or both. ''The'' is sometimes dropped in written abbreviated form, but is al ...
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Emigration
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere (to permanently leave a country). Conversely, immigration describes the movement of people into one country from another (to permanently move to a country). A migrant ''emigrates'' from their old country, and ''immigrates'' to their new country. Thus, both emigration and immigration describe migration, but from different countries' perspectives. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as ...
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Thomas Edward Scrutton
Sir Thomas Edward Scrutton (28 August 1856 – 18 August 1934) was an English barrister, judge, and legal writer. Biography Thomas Edward Scrutton was born in London, the son of Thomas Urquhart Scrutton, a wealthy shipowner and head of the well-known shipping firm of Scrutton and Co. He was educated at the Mill Hill School. From there, he was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, and at University College London. At Cambridge he won the Whewell Scholarship and the Yorke Prize four times, the first person to do so. He was also President of the Cambridge Union. Despite his achievements, he did not obtain a fellowship at Trinity; his former pupil Sir Frank MacKinnon speculated that Scrutton did not attempt to gain fellowship, due to a feeling among some fellows that he lacked "originality". He was called to the bar by the Middle Temple in 1882, and developed a busy practice in commercial cases. He became a King's Counsel in 1901 and a bencher of the Middle Temple in 1908. He wa ...
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Pupillage
A pupillage, in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan and Hong Kong, is the final, vocational stage of training for those wishing to become practising barristers. Pupillage is similar to an apprenticeship, during which bar graduates build on what they have learnt during the Bar Professional Training Course or equivalent by combining it with practical work experience in a set of barristers' chambers or pupillage training organisation. England and Wales A pupillage is the final stage of training to be a barrister and usually lasts one year; in England and Wales the period is made up of two six-month periods (known as "sixes"). The first of these is the non-practising six, during which pupils shadow their pupil supervisor, and the second will be a practising six, when pupils can undertake to supply legal services and exercise rights of audience. At the end of the first six months, a pupil needs to have the pupil supervisor sign a certificate confirming sat ...
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Gray's Inn
The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wales, an individual must belong to one of these inns. Located at the intersection of High Holborn and Gray's Inn Road in Central London, the Inn is a professional body and provides office and some residential accommodation for barristers. It is ruled by a governing council called "Pension," made up of the Masters of the Bench (or " benchers,") and led by the Treasurer, who is elected to serve a one-year term. The Inn is known for its gardens (the “Walks,”) which have existed since at least 1597. Gray's Inn does not claim a specific foundation date; none of the Inns of Court claims to be any older than the others. Law clerks and their apprentices have been established on the present site since at latest 1370, with records dating fr ...
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Called To The Bar
The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received "call to the bar". "The bar" is now used as a collective noun for barristers, but literally referred to the wooden barrier in old courtrooms, which separated the often crowded public area at the rear from the space near the judges reserved for those having business with the court. Barristers would sit or stand immediately behind it, facing the judge, and could use it as a table for their briefs. Like many other common law terms, the term originated in England in the Middle Ages, and the ''call to the bar'' refers to the summons issued to one found fit to speak at the "bar" of the royal courts. In time, English judges allowed only legally qualified men to address them on the law and later delegated the qualification and admission of barristers t ...
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Classics
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. In the Western world, classics traditionally refers to the study of Classical Greek and Roman literature and their related original languages, Ancient Greek and Latin. Classics also includes Greco-Roman philosophy, history, archaeology, anthropology, art, mythology and society as secondary subjects. In Western civilization, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was traditionally considered to be the foundation of the humanities, and has, therefore, traditionally been the cornerstone of a typical elite European education. Etymology The word ''classics'' is derived from the Latin adjective '' classicus'', meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens." The word was originally used to describe the members of the Patricians, the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his '' ...
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Demyship
A demyship (also "demy" for the recipient) is a form of scholarship at Magdalen College, Oxford. The term is derived from ''demi-socii'' or ''half-fellows'', being historically entitled to half the allowance awarded to Fellows. The allowance is now, however, a token award of £200 per year. "Demy" and "demies" are pronounced to rhyme with "deny" and "surmise", rather than "semi(s)". Whilst Magdalen is unique amongst Oxbridge colleges in using the term Demies, Merton College, Oxford is similarly unusual in designating their scholars "postmasters", with a Postmasters Hall. Foundation When Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, the Founder ordained that in addition to forty senior scholars, or Fellows, there should be 'thirty poor scholars, commonly called Demies, of good morals and dispositions fully equipped for study'. Recipients are still admitted to the College's Foundation. Whilst the original provision was for 30 scholars, in line ...
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Christ College, Brecon
Christ College, Brecon, is a co-educational, boarding and day independent school, located in the cathedral and market town of Brecon in mid-Wales. It currently caters for pupils aged 7–18 years. History Christ College was founded by Royal Charter in 1541 by King Henry VIII. The school still uses the medieval chapel and halls of the Dominican Priory dissolved by Henry. The school has been ranked in the top three of UK independent schools in terms of "value for money" by the ''Financial Times'' newspaper. In December 2017, Estyn (HM's Inspectorate for Education & Training in Wales) assessed Christ College's performance as "excellent" across all five inspection areas – the highest grade that can be awarded. In 2017, 96% of GCSE grades were A*-C and 100% of the pupils achieved 5 or more GCSEs at Grade C. At A-Levels, the overall pass rate (A*-E grades) was at 98% and 83% of results were at A*-C. Houses There are seven houses in the school. There are: two senior boys' boar ...
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Friars School, Bangor
Friars School is a school in Bangor, Gwynedd, and one of the oldest schools in Wales. History 1557 Establishment The school was founded by Geoffrey Glyn who had been brought up in Anglesey and had followed a career in law in London. A friary had been established in Bangor by the Dominican Order, or Black Friars, in the 13th century. At the dissolution of the monasteries, the friary was wound up in 1538. Geoffrey Glyn bought the site with a view to establishing a grammar school. In his will dated 8 July 1557, he left the property and endowments towards establishing the school. Geoffrey's will left the property to his brother William Glyn, Bishop of Bangor and Maurice Griffith, Bishop of Rochester, for them to execute his wishes. However, both of these died in the following year, but they further transferred the will to Sir William Petre, a former Secretary of State, Sir William Garrard, a former Lord Mayor of London and Simon Lowe, a London merchant tailor, who were ...
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River Dovey
The River Dyfi ( cy, Afon Dyfi; ), also known as the River Dovey (; ), is an approximately long river in Wales. Its large estuary forms the boundary between the counties of Gwynedd and Ceredigion, and its lower reaches have historically been considered the border between North Wales and South Wales. Name Nowadays the Welsh spelling ''Dyfi'' is widely used locally and by the Welsh Government, Natural Resources Wales and the BBC. The anglicised spelling ''Dovey'' continues to be used by some entities. Sources The River Dyfi rises in the small lake Creiglyn Dyfi at about above sea level, below Aran Fawddwy, flowing south to Dinas Mawddwy and Cemmaes Road ( cy, Glantwymyn), then south west past Machynlleth to Cardigan Bay ( cy, Bae Ceredigion) at Aberdyfi. It shares its watershed with the River Severn ( cy, Afon Hafren) and the River Dee ( cy, Afon Dyfrdwy) before flowing generally south-westwards down to a wide estuary. The only large town on its route is Machynlleth. The ...
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