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 Local Property In mathematics, a mathematical object is said to satisfy a property locally, if the property is satisfied on some limited, immediate portions of the object (e.g., on some ''sufficiently small'' or ''arbitrarily small'' neighborhoods of points). Properties of a point on a function Perhaps the best-known example of the idea of locality lies in the concept of local minimum (or local maximum), which is a point in a function whose functional value is the smallest (resp., largest) within an immediate neighborhood of points. This is to be contrasted with the idea of global minimum (or global maximum), which corresponds to the minimum (resp., maximum) of the function across its entire domain. Properties of a single space A topological space is sometimes said to exhibit a property locally, if the property is exhibited "near" each point in one of the following ways: # Each point has a neighborhood exhibiting the property; # Each point has a neighborhood base of sets exhibiting the proper ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Circle A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. Equivalently, it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with r=0 (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a '' disc''. A circle may also be defined as a speci ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Algebraic Geometry Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometrical problems about these sets of zeros. The fundamental objects of study in algebraic geometry are algebraic varieties, which are geometric manifestations of solutions of systems of polynomial equations. Examples of the most studied classes of algebraic varieties are: plane algebraic curves, which include lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas, cubic curves like elliptic curves, and quartic curves like lemniscates and Cassini ovals. A point of the plane belongs to an algebraic curve if its coordinates satisfy a given polynomial equation. Basic questions involve the study of the points of special interest like the singular points, the inflection points and the points at infinity. More advanced questions involve the topology of the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Classification Of Finite Simple Groups In mathematics, the classification of the finite simple groups is a result of group theory stating that every finite simple group is either cyclic, or alternating, or it belongs to a broad infinite class called the groups of Lie type, or else it is one of twenty-six or twenty-seven exceptions, called sporadic. The proof consists of tens of thousands of pages in several hundred journal articles written by about 100 authors, published mostly between 1955 and 2004. Simple groups can be seen as the basic building blocks of all finite groups, reminiscent of the way the prime numbers are the basic building blocks of the natural numbers. The Jordan–Hölder theorem is a more precise way of stating this fact about finite groups. However, a significant difference from integer factorization is that such "building blocks" do not necessarily determine a unique group, since there might be many non-isomorphic groups with the same composition series or, put in another way, the extension ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] P-group In mathematics, specifically group theory, given a prime number ''p'', a ''p''-group is a group in which the order of every element is a power of ''p''. That is, for each element ''g'' of a ''p''-group ''G'', there exists a nonnegative integer ''n'' such that the product of ''pn'' copies of ''g'', and not fewer, is equal to the identity element. The orders of different elements may be different powers of ''p''. Abelian ''p''-groups are also called ''p''-primary or simply primary. A finite group is a ''p''-group if and only if its order (the number of its elements) is a power of ''p''. Given a finite group ''G'', the Sylow theorems guarantee the existence of a subgroup of ''G'' of order ''pn'' for every prime power ''pn'' that divides the order of ''G''. Every finite ''p''-group is nilpotent. The remainder of this article deals with finite ''p''-groups. For an example of an infinite abelian ''p''-group, see Prüfer group, and for an example of an infinite simple ''p''-gr ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Normalizer In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant) of a subset ''S'' in a group ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' such that each member g \in \mathrm_G(S) commutes with each element of ''S'', or equivalently, such that conjugation by g leaves each element of ''S'' fixed. The normalizer of ''S'' in ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' that satisfy the weaker condition of leaving the set S \subseteq G fixed under conjugation. The centralizer and normalizer of ''S'' are subgroups of ''G''. Many techniques in group theory are based on studying the centralizers and normalizers of suitable subsets ''S''. Suitably formulated, the definitions also apply to semigroups. In ring theory, the centralizer of a subset of a ring is defined with respect to the semigroup (multiplication) operation of the ring. The centralizer of a subset of a ring ''R'' is a subring of ''R''. This article also deals with centralizers and norma ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Prime Number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, or , involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product (2 × 2) in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and \sqrt. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, which is fast but has a small chance of error, and the AKS primality test, which always pr ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Finite Group Finite is the opposite of infinite. It may refer to: * Finite number (other) * Finite set, a set whose cardinality (number of elements) is some natural number * Finite verb, a verb form that has a subject, usually being inflected or marked for person and/or tense or aspect * "Finite", a song by Sara Groves from the album ''Invisible Empires'' See also * * Nonfinite (other) Nonfinite is the opposite of finite * a nonfinite verb is a verb that is not capable of serving as the main verb in an independent clause * a non-finite clause is a clause whose main verb is non-finite See also * Infinite (other) Infin ... {{disambiguation fr:Fini it:Finito ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Soluble Group In mathematics, more specifically in the field of group theory, a solvable group or soluble group is a group that can be constructed from abelian groups using extensions. Equivalently, a solvable group is a group whose derived series terminates in the trivial subgroup. Motivation Historically, the word "solvable" arose from Galois theory and the proof of the general unsolvability of quintic equation. Specifically, a polynomial equation is solvable in radicals if and only if the corresponding Galois group is solvable (note this theorem holds only in characteristic 0). This means associated to a polynomial f \in F /math> there is a tower of field extensionsF = F_0 \subseteq F_1 \subseteq F_2 \subseteq \cdots \subseteq F_m=Ksuch that # F_i = F_ alpha_i/math> where \alpha_i^ \in F_, so \alpha_i is a solution to the equation x^ - a where a \in F_ # F_m contains a splitting field for f(x) Example For example, the smallest Galois field extension of \mathbb containing the eleme ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Locally Finite Group In mathematics, in the field of group theory, a locally finite group is a type of group that can be studied in ways analogous to a finite group. Sylow subgroups, Carter subgroups, and abelian subgroups of locally finite groups have been studied. The concept is credited to work in the 1930s by Russian mathematician Sergei Chernikov. Definition and first consequences A locally finite group is a group for which every finitely generated subgroup is finite. Since the cyclic subgroups of a locally finite group are finitely generated hence finite, every element has finite order, and so the group is periodic. Examples and non-examples Examples: * Every finite group is locally finite * Every infinite direct sum of finite groups is locally finite (Although the direct product may not be.) * Omega-categorical groups * The Prüfer groups are locally finite abelian groups * Every Hamiltonian group is locally finite * Every periodic solvable group is locally finite . * Every subgroup of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Subgroup In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group ''G'' under a binary operation ∗, a subset ''H'' of ''G'' is called a subgroup of ''G'' if ''H'' also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'' if the restriction of ∗ to is a group operation on ''H''. This is often denoted , read as "''H'' is a subgroup of ''G''". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group ''G'' is a subgroup ''H'' which is a proper subset of ''G'' (that is, ). This is often represented notationally by , read as "''H'' is a proper subgroup of ''G''". Some authors also exclude the trivial group from being proper (that is, ). If ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'', then ''G'' is sometimes called an overgroup of ''H''. The same definitions apply more generally when ''G'' is an arbitrary semigroup, but this article will only deal with subgroups of groups. Subgroup tests Suppose ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Finitely Generated Group In algebra, a finitely generated group is a group ''G'' that has some finite generating set ''S'' so that every element of ''G'' can be written as the combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of ''S'' and of inverses of such elements. By definition, every finite group is finitely generated, since ''S'' can be taken to be ''G'' itself. Every infinite finitely generated group must be countable but countable groups need not be finitely generated. The additive group of rational numbers Q is an example of a countable group that is not finitely generated. Examples * Every quotient of a finitely generated group ''G'' is finitely generated; the quotient group is generated by the images of the generators of ''G'' under the canonical projection. * A subgroup of a finitely generated group need not be finitely generated. * A group that is generated by a single element is called cyclic. Every infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to the additive group of the intege ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]