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Karol Olszewski
Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Poles, Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist. Biography Olszewski was a graduate of Kazimierz Brodziński High School in Tarnów (I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Kazimierza Brodzińskiego). He studied at Kraków's Jagiellonian University in the departments of mathematics and physics, and chemistry and biology. He carried out his first experiments using a personally improved compressor, compressing and condensing carbon dioxide. Olszewski defended his doctoral dissertation at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, then returned to Kraków, where he was made ''profesor nadzwyczajny'' (associate professor). In 1883, Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski were the first in the world to Liquefaction, liquefy oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a stable state (not, as had been the case up to then, in a dynamic state in the transitional form as vapor). In 1884, in his Krak� ...
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is a nonmetal and the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bond to form N2, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas. N2 forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes the movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many indus ...
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List Of Poles
This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing people. People of partial Polish heritage have their respective ancestries credited. Science Physics * Czesław Białobrzeski * Andrzej Buras * Georges Charpak, 1995 Nobel Prize * Jan Kazimierz Danysz * Marian Danysz * Tomasz Dietl * Maria Dworzecka * Artur Ekert, one of the independent inventors (in 1991) of quantum cryptography * Marek Gazdzicki * Ryszard Horodecki * Leopold Infeld * Aleksander Jabłoński * Jerzy Stanisław Janicki * Sylwester Kaliski * Elżbieta Kossecka * Jan Eugeniusz Krysiński * Stanislas Leibler * Maciej Lewenstein * Olga Malinkiewicz * Albert A. Michelson, 1907 Nobel Prize * Lidia Morawska * Stanisław Mrozowski * Władysław Natanson * Witold Nazarewicz * Henryk Niewodniczański * Georges Nomarski * Karol Olszewski * Jerzy Plebański * Jerzy Pniewski * Nikodem Popławski * Sylwester Porowski, blue laser * Józef Rotblat, 1995 Nobel Peace Prize * St ...
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Timeline Of Hydrogen Technologies
This is a timeline of the history of hydrogen technology. Timeline 16th century * c. 1520 – First recorded observation of hydrogen by Paracelsus through dissolution of metals (iron, zinc, and tin) in sulfuric acid. 17th century * 1625 – First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas". * 1650 – Turquet de Mayerne obtained a gas or "inflammable air" by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron. * 1662 – Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume) * 1670 – Robert Boyle produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid. * 1672 – "New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by Robert Boyle. * 1679 – Denis Papin – safety valve * 1700 – Nicolas Lemery showed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air 18th century * 1755 – Joseph Black confirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat * 1766 – Henry Cavendish published in "On Factitious Airs" a description of ...
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Timeline Of Low-temperature Technology
The following is a timeline of low-temperature technology and cryogenic technology (refrigeration down to –273.15 °C, –459.67 °F or 0 K). It also lists important milestones in thermometry, thermodynamics, statistical physics and calorimetry, that were crucial in development of low temperature systems. Prior to the 19th century * – Zimri-Lim, ruler of Mari in Syria commanded the construction of one of the first ice houses near the Euphrates. * – The yakhchal (meaning "ice pit" in Persian) is an ancient Persian type of refrigerator. The structure was formed from a mortar resistant to heat transmission, in the shape of a dome. Snow and ice was stored beneath the ground, effectively allowing access to ice even in hot months and allowing for prolonged food preservation. Often a badgir was coupled with the yakhchal in order to slow the heat loss. Modern refrigerators are still called yakhchal in Persian. * - Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that cer ...
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Kraków Old Town
Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland.Ingrid GustafsonLet's Go: Eastern EuropePublished by Macmillan, page 444. Let's Go Publications, 2008. It is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the centre of Poland's political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596. The entire medieval old town is among the first sites chosen for the UNESCO's original World Heritage List, inscribed as ''Cracow's Historic Centre''.Properties inscribed on the World Heritage list, Poland.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Last updated: 3 September 2010
2nd session of th ...
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Saints Peter And Paul Church, Kraków
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul ( pl, Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła) is a Roman Catholic Polish Baroque church located at 54 Grodzka Street in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland. It was built between by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni who perfected the original design of Józef Britius. It is the biggest of the historic Churches of Kraków in terms of seating capacity. Since 1842 it serves the Catholic All Saints parish.   History The Church of Saints Peter and Paul is the first structure in Kraków designed entirely in the Baroque style, and perhaps the first Baroque building in present-day Poland. It was funded by the King Sigismund III Vasa (''Zygmunt III'') for the Jesuit order. The plan of the church as a cruciform basilica was drafted by an Italian architect Giovanni de Rossi. His design was carried out by Józef Britius at first (from 1597), and then modified by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni. The final shape of the present day façade, the dome and its Baroqu ...
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Rakowicki Cemetery
Rakowicki Cemetery (English: ; pl, Cmentarz Rakowicki) is a historic necropolis and a cultural heritage monument located on 26 Rakowicka Street in the centre of Kraków, Poland. It lies within the Administrative District No. 1 ''Stare Miasto'' meaning "Old Town" – distinct from the Kraków Old Town situated further south. Founded at the beginning of the 19th century when the region was part of Austrian Galicia, the cemetery was expanded several times, and at present covers an area of about 42 hectares. Many notable Cracovians, among them the parents of Pope John Paul II, are buried here. Gazeta Krakow.pl, October 29, 2008,   A multilingual brochure available for the visitors, calle"Zwiedzamy Cmentarz Rakowicki" (A visit to the Rakowicki Cemetery)with a map describing a two-hour walk, is published by Zarząd Cmentarzy Komunalnych w Krakowie. History The Rakowicki Cemetery was set up in 1800–1802 at an estate in Prądnik Czerwony village, originally on an area of ...
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X-ray
An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10  picometers to 10  nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30  petahertz to 30  exahertz ( to ) and energies in the range 145  eV to 124 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. He named it ''X-radiation'' to signify an unknown type of radiation.Novelline, Robert (1997). ''Squire's Fundamentals of Radiology''. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. . Spellings of ''X-ray(s)'' in English include the variants ''x-ray(s)'', ''xray(s)'', and ''X ray(s)''. The most familiar use of X-rays is checking for fractures (broken bones), but X-rays are also used in other ways. ...
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Wilhelm Röntgen
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (; ; 27 March 184510 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the inaugural Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.Novelize, Robert. ''Squire's Fundamentals of Radiology''. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. 1997. p. 1. In honour of Röntgen's accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him. The unit of measurement roentgen was also named after him. Biographical history Education He was born to Friedrich Conrad Röntgen, a German merchant and cloth manufacturer, and Charlotte Constanze Frowein. At age three his family moved to the Netherlands where his family lived. Röntgen attended high school at Utrecht Technical School in Utrecht, Netherl ...
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Encyklopedia Polski
This is a list of encyclopedias by language. Albanian Encyclopedias written in Albanian. * '' Albanian Encyclopedic Dictionary'' ( sq, Fjalori Enciklopedik Shqiptar): published by Academy of Sciences of Albania; ** First Edition (1985; ''FESH'') ** New Edition (2008/09; ''Botimi i ri, FESH II'') *'' Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia'' (Albanian edition, 1984): the first encyclopedia published in Albanian * Albanian Wikipedia (''Wikipedia shqip'') Arabic Encyclopedias written in Arabic. * ''Global Arabic Encyclopedia'' * '' King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Arabic Health Encyclopedia'' * ''Marefa'' * '' Mawdoo3'' * Arabic Wikipedia Armenian Encyclopedias written in Armenian. * ''Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia'' Azerbaijani Encyclopedias written in Azerbaijani. * ''Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia'' * National Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan *'' Azerbaijani Wikipedia'' *'' South Azerbaijani Wikipedia'' Basque Encyclopedias written in Basque *'' Basque Wikipedia'' *'' Auñamendi Eusko Entzikl ...
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