HOME
*





Finnish Locative System
Finnish nominals, which include pronouns, adjectives, and numerals, are declined in a large number of grammatical cases, whose uses and meanings are detailed here. See also Finnish grammar. Many meanings expressed by case markings in Finnish correspond to phrases or expressions containing prepositions in most Indo-European languages. Because so much information is coded in Finnish through its cases, the use of adpositions (postpositions in this case) is more limited than in English, for instance. List of Finnish cases Note regarding the examples: Finnish has no grammatical gender nor definite and indefinite articles. Thus, context may be required to get an accurate translation. Grammatical cases The grammatical cases perform core linguistic functions such as signaling who initiates an action or the object of an action. Nominative The basic form of the noun. :Characteristic ending: none in the singular : = 'a/the house' : = 'a/the book' : = 'a/the hill' : = '(the) water ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Finnish Language
Finnish ( endonym: or ) is a Uralic language of the Finnic branch, spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. Finnish is one of the two official languages of Finland (the other being Swedish). In Sweden, both Finnish and Meänkieli (which has significant mutual intelligibility with Finnish) are official minority languages. The Kven language, which like Meänkieli is mutually intelligible with Finnish, is spoken in the Norwegian county Troms og Finnmark by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is typologically agglutinative and uses almost exclusively suffixal affixation. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs are inflected depending on their role in the sentence. Sentences are normally formed with subject–verb–object word order, although the extensive use of inflection allows them to be ordered differently. Word order variations are often reserved for differences in information structure. Fi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Elative Case
In grammar, the elative case ( abbreviated ; from la, efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative grammatical case with the basic meaning "out of". Usage Uralic languages In Finnish, the elative is typically formed by adding ", in Estonian by adding to the genitive stem, in Livonian and in Erzya. In Hungarian, the suffix expresses the elative: fi, talosta - "out of the house, from the house" (Finnish = "house") - "out of the houses, from the houses" (Finnish = "houses") et, majast - "out of the house, from the house" (Estonian = "house") Erzya: - "out of the house, from the house" (Erzya = "house") hu, házból - "out of the house" (Hungarian = "house") In some dialects of Finnish it is common to drop the final vowel of the elative ending, which then becomes identical to the elative morpheme of Estonian; for example: . This pronunciation is common in southern Finland, appearing in the southwestern dialects and in some Tavastian dialects. Most other dial ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Perfective Aspect
The perfective aspect ( abbreviated ), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect that describes an action viewed as a simple whole; i.e., a unit without interior composition. The perfective aspect is distinguished from the imperfective aspect, which presents an event as having internal structure (such as ongoing, continuous, or habitual actions). The term ''perfective'' should be distinguished from ''perfect'' (see below). The distinction between perfective and imperfective is more important in some languages than others. In Slavic languages, it is central to the verb system. In other languages such as German, the same form such as ''ich ging'' ("I went", "I was going") can be used perfectively or imperfectively without grammatical distinction. In other languages such as Latin, the distinction between perfective and imperfective is made only in the past tense (e.g., Latin ''veni'' "I came" vs. ''veniebam'' "I was coming", "I used to come"). However, perfecti ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Iso Suomen Kielioppi
(lit. ''"the large grammar of Finnish"'') is a reference book of Finnish grammar. It was published in 2004 by the Finnish Literature Society and to this date is the most extensive of its kind. It is a collaboration written by noted Finnish language scholars and . The 1,698 page book differs from earlier grammars by taking a descriptive approach and describing colloquial Finnish Colloquial or spoken Finnish () refers to the unstandardized spoken variety of the Finnish language, in contrast with the standardized form of the language (). It is used primarily in personal communication and varies somewhat between the differen ... in addition to standard literary Finnish. The entire work is also freely available online. External links Complete online version of the work (in Finnish) 2004 non-fiction books Finnish grammar Grammar books {{Grammar-book-stub ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




Telicity
In linguistics, telicity (; ) is the property of a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as having a specific endpoint. A verb or verb phrase with this property is said to be ''telic''; if the situation it describes is ''not'' heading for any particular endpoint, it is said to be ''atelic''. Testing for telicity in English One common way to gauge whether an English verb phrase is telic is to see whether such a phrase as ''in an hour'', in the sense of "within an hour", (known as a ''time-frame adverbial'') can be applied to it. Conversely, a common way to gauge whether the phrase is atelic is to see whether such a phrase as ''for an hour'' (a ''time-span adverbial'') can be applied to it. This can be called the ''time-span/time-frame test''. According to this test, the verb phrase ''built a house'' is telic, whereas the minimally different ''built houses'' is atelic: : Fine: "John built a house in a month." : Bad: *"John built a house for a month." :: → ''bu ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Possessive Affix
In linguistics, a possessive affix (from la, affixum possessivum) is an affix (usually suffix or prefix) attached to a noun to indicate its possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives. Possessive affixes are found in many languages of the world. The '' World Atlas of Language Structures'' lists 642 languages with possessive suffixes, possessive prefixes, or both out of a total sample of 902 languages. Possessive suffixes are found in some Austronesian, Uralic, Altaic, Semitic, and Indo-European languages. Complicated systems are found in the Uralic languages; for example, Nenets has 27 (3×3×3) different types of forms distinguish the possessor (first-, second- or third-person), the number of possessors (singular, dual or plural) and the number of objects (singular, dual or plural). That allows Nenets-speakers to express the phrase "we two's many houses" in one word. Mayan languages and Nahuan languages also have possessive prefixes. Uralic languages Finnis ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Comitative Case
In grammar, the comitative case (; abbreviated ) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment. In English, the preposition "with", in the sense of "in company with" or "together with", plays a substantially similar role (other uses of "with", like in the meaning of "using" or "by means of" (I cut bread with a knife), correspond to the instrumental case or related cases). Core meaning The comitative case encodes a relationship of "accompaniment" between two participants in an event, called the "accompanier" and the "companion". In addition, there is a "relator" (which can be of multiple lexical categories, but is most commonly an affix or adposition). Use of the comitative case gives prominence to the accompanier. This Italian sentence is an example: : ''il_professore''.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''il professore''">/nowiki>''il professore''/nowiki>accompanier ''entra nell'aula'' ''con''.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''con''">/nowiki>''con''/nowiki>relator ''i_suoi_studenti''.html" ;"tit ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Abessive Case
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. In English, the corresponding function is expressed by the preposition ''without'' or by the suffix ''-less.'' The name ''abessive'' is derived from "to be away/absent", and is especially used in reference to Uralic languages. The name ''caritive'' is derived from la, carere, link=no "to lack", and is especially used in reference to Caucasian languages. The name ''privative'' is derived from la, privare, link=no "to deprive". In Afro-Asiatic languages Somali In the Somali language, the abessive case is marked by or and dropping all but the first syllable on certain words. For example: : "love" : "loveless" : "clothes" : "clothesless," i.e., naked In Australian languages Martuthunira In Martuthunira, the privative case is formed with either or . In Uralic languages Finnish In the Finnish language, the abe ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Essive Case
In grammar, the essive case, or similaris case, ( abbreviated ) is a grammatical case.O'Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff, and Janie Rees-Miller. "Morphology: The Analysis of Word Structure." Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. Print. The essive case on a noun can express it as a definite period of time during which something happens or during which a continuous action was completed. It can also denote a form as a temporary location, state of being, or character in which the subject was at a given time. The latter meaning is often described as the equivalent of the English phrase "as a __".Niemi, Clemens. Finnish Grammar. 3rd ed. Duluth, MN: C.H. Salminen, 1945. Print. Finnish In Finnish, it is marked by adding "-na/-nä" (depending on the vowel harmony) to the stem of the noun. :Examples: :' "child" → ''lapsena'' "as a child", "when (I) was a child". :Veljeni on säveltäjänä "My brother is a composer (at somew ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Allative Case
In grammar, the allative case (; abbreviated ; from Latin ''allāt-'', ''afferre'' "to bring to") is a type of locative grammatical case. The term allative is generally used for the lative case in the majority of languages that do not make finer distinctions. Finnish In the Finnish language (Uralic language), the allative is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of "onto". Its ending is ''-lle'', for example ''pöytä'' (table) and ''pöydälle'' (onto the top of the table). In addition, it is the logical complement of the adessive case for referring to "being around the place". For example, ''koululle'' means "to the vicinity of the school". With time, the use is the same: ''ruokatunti'' (lunch break) and ''... lähti ruokatunnille'' ("... left to the lunch break"). Some actions require the case, e.g. ''kävely'' - ''mennä kävelylle'' "a walk - go for a walk". It also means "to" or "for", for example ''minä'' (me) and ''minulle'' (to/for me). The other lo ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]