* picture info Continuous Function In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Scott Continuity In mathematics, given two partially ordered sets ''P'' and ''Q'', a function ''f'': ''P'' → ''Q'' between them is Scott-continuous (named after the mathematician Dana Scott) if it preserves all directed suprema. That is, for every directed subset ''D'' of ''P'' with supremum in ''P'', its image has a supremum in ''Q'', and that supremum is the image of the supremum of ''D'', i.e. \sqcup f = f(\sqcup D), where \sqcup is the directed join. When Q is the poset of truth values, i.e. Sierpiński space, then Scott-continuous functions are characteristic functions of open sets, and thus Sierpiński space is the classifying space for open sets. A subset ''O'' of a partially ordered set ''P'' is called Scott-open if it is an upper set and if it is inaccessible by directed joins, i.e. if all directed sets ''D'' with supremum in ''O'' have non-empty intersection with ''O''. The Scott-open subsets of a partially ordered set ''P'' form a topology on ''P'', the Scott topology. A function ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Cartesian Coordinate System A Cartesian coordinate system (, ) in a plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference coordinate line is called a ''coordinate axis'' or just ''axis'' (plural ''axes'') of the system, and the point where they meet is its '' origin'', at ordered pair . The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its perpendicular projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines). In general, ''n'' Cartesian coordinates (an element of real ''n''-space) specify the point in ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Graph Of A Function In mathematics, the graph of a function f is the set of ordered pairs (x, y), where f(x) = y. In the common case where x and f(x) are real numbers, these pairs are Cartesian coordinates of points in two-dimensional space and thus form a subset of this plane. In the case of functions of two variables, that is functions whose domain consists of pairs (x, y), the graph usually refers to the set of ordered triples (x, y, z) where f(x,y) = z, instead of the pairs ((x, y), z) as in the definition above. This set is a subset of three-dimensional space; for a continuous real-valued function of two real variables, it is a surface. In science, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas, graphs are tools used for many purposes. In the simplest case one variable is plotted as a function of another, typically using rectangular axes; see ''Plot (graphics)'' for details. A graph of a function is a special case of a relation. In the modern foundations of mathematics, and, typic ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Real Function In mathematical analysis, and applications in geometry, applied mathematics, engineering, and natural sciences, a function of a real variable is a function whose domain is the real numbers \mathbb, or a subset of \mathbb that contains an interval of positive length. Most real functions that are considered and studied are differentiable in some interval. The most widely considered such functions are the real functions, which are the real-valued functions of a real variable, that is, the functions of a real variable whose codomain is the set of real numbers. Nevertheless, the codomain of a function of a real variable may be any set. However, it is often assumed to have a structure of \mathbb-vector space over the reals. That is, the codomain may be a Euclidean space, a coordinate vector, the set of matrices of real numbers of a given size, or an \mathbb-algebra, such as the complex numbers or the quaternions. The structure \mathbb-vector space of the codomain induces a structure o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (; 13 February 1805 – 5 May 1859) was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory), and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis; he is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function. Although his surname is Lejeune Dirichlet, he is commonly referred to by his mononym Dirichlet, in particular for results named after him. Biography Early life (1805–1822) Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was born on 13 February 1805 in Düren, a town on the left bank of the Rhine which at the time was part of the First French Empire, reverting to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. His father Johann Arnold Lejeune Dirichlet was the postmaster, merchant, and city councilor. His paternal grandfather had come to Düren from Richelette (or more likely Richelle), a small community north ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Eduard Heine Heinrich Eduard Heine (16 March 1821 – 21 October 1881) was a German mathematician. Heine became known for results on special functions and in real analysis. In particular, he authored an important treatise on spherical harmonics and Legendre functions (''Handbuch der Kugelfunctionen''). He also investigated basic hypergeometric series. He introduced the Mehler–Heine formula. Biography Heinrich Eduard Heine was born on 16 March 1821 in Berlin, as the eighth child of banker Karl Heine and his wife Henriette Märtens. Eduard was initially home schooled, then studied at the Friedrichswerdersche Gymnasium and Köllnische Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1838, after graduating from gymnasium, he enrolled at the University of Berlin, but transferred to the University of Göttingen to attend the mathematics lectures of Carl Friedrich Gauss and Moritz Stern. In 1840 Heine returned to Berlin, where he studied mathematics under Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, while also attending clas ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Camille Jordan Marie Ennemond Camille Jordan (; 5 January 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a French mathematician, known both for his foundational work in group theory and for his influential ''Cours d'analyse''. Biography Jordan was born in Lyon and educated at the École polytechnique. He was an engineer by profession; later in life he taught at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France, where he had a reputation for eccentric choices of notation. He is remembered now by name in a number of results: * The Jordan curve theorem, a topological result required in complex analysis * The Jordan normal form and the Jordan matrix in linear algebra * In mathematical analysis, Jordan measure (or ''Jordan content'') is an area measure that predates measure theory * In group theory, the Jordan–Hölder theorem on composition series is a basic result. * Jordan's theorem on finite linear groups Jordan's work did much to bring Galois theory into the mainstream. He also investigated the Math ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Édouard Goursat Édouard Jean-Baptiste Goursat (21 May 1858 – 25 November 1936) was a French mathematician, now remembered principally as an expositor for his ''Cours d'analyse mathématique'', which appeared in the first decade of the twentieth century. It set a standard for the high-level teaching of mathematical analysis, especially complex analysis. This text was reviewed by William Fogg Osgood for the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. This led to its translation into English by Earle Raymond Hedrick published by Ginn and Company. Goursat also published texts on partial differential equations and hypergeometric series. Life Edouard Goursat was born in Lanzac, Lot. He was a graduate of the École Normale Supérieure, where he later taught and developed his ''Cours''. At that time the topological foundations of complex analysis were still not clarified, with the Jordan curve theorem considered a challenge to mathematical rigour (as it would remain until L. E. J. Brouwer too ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Karl Weierstrass Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (german: link=no, Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis". Despite leaving university without a degree, he studied mathematics and trained as a school teacher, eventually teaching mathematics, physics, botany and gymnastics. He later received an honorary doctorate and became professor of mathematics in Berlin. Among many other contributions, Weierstrass formalized the definition of the continuity of a function, proved the intermediate value theorem and the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, and used the latter to study the properties of continuous functions on closed bounded intervals. Biography Weierstrass was born into a Roman Catholic family in Ostenfelde, a village near Ennigerloh, in the Province of Westphalia. Weierstrass was the son of Wilhelm Weierstrass, a government official, and Theodora Vonderforst both of whom were catholic Rhinelanders. His inte ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Microcontinuity In nonstandard analysis, a discipline within classical mathematics, microcontinuity (or ''S''-continuity) of an internal function ''f'' at a point ''a'' is defined as follows: :for all ''x'' infinitely close to ''a'', the value ''f''(''x'') is infinitely close to ''f''(''a''). Here ''x'' runs through the domain of ''f''. In formulas, this can be expressed as follows: :if x\approx a then f(x)\approx f(a). For a function ''f'' defined on \mathbb, the definition can be expressed in terms of the halo as follows: ''f'' is microcontinuous at c\in\mathbb if and only if f(hal(c))\subseteq hal(f(c)), where the natural extension of ''f'' to the hyperreals is still denoted ''f''. Alternatively, the property of microcontinuity at ''c'' can be expressed by stating that the composition \text\circ f is constant on the halo of ''c'', where "st" is the standard part function. History The modern property of continuity of a function was first defined by Bolzano in 1817. However, Bolzano's work ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]