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Characteristic Impedance
The characteristic impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction. Alternatively, and equivalently, it can be defined as the input impedance of a transmission line when its length is infinite. Characteristic impedance is determined by the geometry and materials of the transmission line and, for a uniform line, is not dependent on its length. The SI unit of characteristic impedance is the ohm. The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission line is purely real, with no reactive component. Energy supplied by a source at one end of such a line is transmitted through the line without being dissipated in the line itself. A transmission line of finite length (lossless or lossy) that is terminated at one end with an impedance equal to the character ...
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Electrical Conductance
The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. Its reciprocal quantity is , measuring the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S) (formerly called the 'mho' and then represented by ). The resistance of an object depends in large part on the material it is made of. Objects made of electrical insulators like rubber tend to have very high resistance and low conductance, while objects made of electrical conductors like metals tend to have very low resistance and high conductance. This relationship is quantified by resistivity or conductivity. The nature of a material is not the only factor in resistance and conductance, however; it also depends on the size and shape of an object because these properties are extensive rather than int ...
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Volts
The volt (symbol: V) is the unit of electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827). Definition One volt is defined as the electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. Equivalently, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed in terms of SI base units ( m, kg, s, and A) as : \text = \frac = \frac = \frac. It can also be expressed as amperes times ohms (current times resistance, Ohm's law), webers per second (magnetic flux per time), watts per ampere (power per current), or joules per coulomb (energy per charge), which is also equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: : \text = \text\Omega = \frac = ...
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Root Mean Square AC Voltage
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations ''AC'' and ''DC'' are often used to mean simply ''alternating'' and ''direct'', as when they modify ''current'' or ''voltage''. The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave, whose positive half-period corresponds with positive direction of the current and vice versa. In certain applications, like guitar amplifiers, different waveforms are used, such as triangular waves or square waves. Audio and rad ...
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Reactive Power
Reactive may refer to: *Generally, capable of having a reaction (other) Reaction may refer to a process or to a response to an action, event, or exposure: Physics and chemistry *Chemical reaction * Nuclear reaction *Reaction (physics), as defined by Newton's third law * Chain reaction (other). Biology and ... *An adjective abbreviation denoting a Bowling ball#Coverstock technology, bowling ball coverstock made of reactive resin *Reactivity (chemistry) *Reactive mind *Reactive programming See also

*Reactance (other) *Reactivity (other) {{disambig ...
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Electric Power Transmission
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines that facilitate this movement form a ''transmission network''. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery, known as the electrical grid. Efficient long-distance transmission of electric power requires high voltages. This reduces the losses produced by strong currents. Transmission lines use either alternating current (HVAC) or direct current (HVDC). The voltage level is changed with transformers. The voltage is stepped up for transmission, then reduced for local distribution. A wide area synchronous grid, known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects generators delivering AC power with the same re ...
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Dielectric Loss
Dielectric loss quantifies a dielectric material's inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy (e.g. heat). It can be parameterized in terms of either the loss angle ''δ'' or the corresponding loss tangent tan ''δ''. Both refer to the phasor in the complex plane whose real and imaginary parts are the resistive (lossy) component of an electromagnetic field and its reactive (lossless) counterpart. Electromagnetic field perspective For time varying electromagnetic fields, the electromagnetic energy is typically viewed as waves propagating either through free space, in a transmission line, in a microstrip line, or through a waveguide. Dielectrics are often used in all of these environments to mechanically support electrical conductors and keep them at a fixed separation, or to provide a barrier between different gas pressures yet still transmit electromagnetic power. Maxwell’s equations are solved for the electric and magnetic field components of the propagating waves ...
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Constant Of Integration
In calculus, the constant of integration, often denoted by C (or c), is a constant term added to an antiderivative of a function f(x) to indicate that the indefinite integral of f(x) (i.e., the set of all antiderivatives of f(x)), on a connected domain, is only defined up to an additive constant. This constant expresses an ambiguity inherent in the construction of antiderivatives. More specifically, if a function f(x) is defined on an interval, and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), then the set of ''all'' antiderivatives of f(x) is given by the functions F(x) + C, where C is an arbitrary constant (meaning that ''any'' value of C would make F(x) + C a valid antiderivative). For that reason, the indefinite integral is often written as \int f(x) \, dx = F(x) + C, although the constant of integration might be sometimes omitted in lists of integrals for simplicity. Origin The derivative of any constant function is zero. Once one has found one antiderivative F(x) for a function f( ...
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First Order Differential Equation
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation whose unknown(s) consists of one (or more) function(s) of one variable and involves the derivatives of those functions. The term ''ordinary'' is used in contrast with the term partial differential equation which may be with respect to ''more than'' one independent variable. Differential equations A linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form :a_0(x)y +a_1(x)y' + a_2(x)y'' +\cdots +a_n(x)y^+b(x)=0, where , ..., and are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and are the successive derivatives of the unknown function of the variable . Among ordinary differential equations, linear differential equations play a prominent role for several reasons. Most elementary and special functions that are encountered in physics and applied mathematics are ...
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Phasor
In physics and engineering, a phasor (a portmanteau of phase vector) is a complex number representing a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (''A''), angular frequency (''ω''), and initial phase (''θ'') are time-invariant. It is related to a more general concept called analytic representation,Bracewell, Ron. ''The Fourier Transform and Its Applications''. McGraw-Hill, 1965. p269 which decomposes a sinusoid into the product of a complex constant and a factor depending on time and frequency. The complex constant, which depends on amplitude and phase, is known as a phasor, or complex amplitude, and (in older texts) sinor or even complexor. A common situation in electrical networks powered by time varying current is the existence of multiple sinusoids all with the same frequency, but different amplitudes and phases. The only difference in their analytic representations is the complex amplitude (phasor). A linear combination of such functions can be represented as a linear co ...
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Fourier Series
A Fourier series () is a summation of harmonically related sinusoidal functions, also known as components or harmonics. The result of the summation is a periodic function whose functional form is determined by the choices of cycle length (or ''period''), the number of components, and their amplitudes and phase parameters. With appropriate choices, one cycle (or ''period'') of the summation can be made to approximate an arbitrary function in that interval (or the entire function if it too is periodic). The number of components is theoretically infinite, in which case the other parameters can be chosen to cause the series to converge to almost any ''well behaved'' periodic function (see Pathological and Dirichlet–Jordan test). The components of a particular function are determined by ''analysis'' techniques described in this article. Sometimes the components are known first, and the unknown function is ''synthesized'' by a Fourier series. Such is the case of a discrete-tim ...
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Phasor (electronics)
In physics and engineering, a phasor (a portmanteau of phase vector) is a complex number representing a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (''A''), angular frequency (''ω''), and initial phase (''θ'') are time-invariant. It is related to a more general concept called analytic representation,Bracewell, Ron. ''The Fourier Transform and Its Applications''. McGraw-Hill, 1965. p269 which decomposes a sinusoid into the product of a complex constant and a factor depending on time and frequency. The complex constant, which depends on amplitude and phase, is known as a phasor, or complex amplitude, and (in older texts) sinor or even complexor. A common situation in electrical networks powered by time varying current is the existence of multiple sinusoids all with the same frequency, but different amplitudes and phases. The only difference in their analytic representations is the complex amplitude (phasor). A linear combination of such functions can be represented as a linear co ...
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