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Central And Northern Ostrobothnian Dialects
Central and Northern Ostrobothnian dialects ( fi, Keski-ja Pohjois-Pohjanmaan murteet) are Western Finnish dialects spoken in Northern and Central Ostrobothnia, as well as in the Ranua municipality in Lapland. The dialects have been influenced by the Savonian dialects, the influence is weaker at the coasts and stronger in the inland areas. Features Pronunciation of standard ''D'' While the letter D in standard Finnish makes the sound , this sound is not used in most dialects of Finnish outside of loanwords. In the central and northern Ostrobothnian dialects, D is not pronounced - ''lehdet'' (leaves) is pronounced ''lehet''. In some occasions, a , or may be inserted in its place, such as ''syvän'', ''meijät'' and ''saaha'' (as opposed to standard ''sydän, meidät, saada''). The dialects of Kaustinen, Halsua and Veteli use an sound in the place of , for example ''lehdet'' is pronounced like ''lehret''. This is likely South Ostrobothnian influence, from the times befor ...
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Kiiminki
Kiiminki ( sv, Kiminge) was a municipality of Finland. Along with Haukipudas, Oulunsalo and Yli-Ii municipalities it was merged with the city of Oulu on 1 January 2013. Kiiminki municipality was part of the Oulu province in the Northern Ostrobothnia North Ostrobothnia ( fi, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa; sv, Norra Österbotten) is a region of Finland. It borders the Finnish regions of Lapland, Kainuu, North Savo, Central Finland and Central Ostrobothnia, as well as the Russian Republic of Karelia. ... region. The municipality had a population of (31 December 2012) and covered an area of of which is water. The population density is . The municipality was unilingually Finnish. Buildings and structures There is a 326-metre tall guyed mast for FM- and TV broadcasting. References External links *Municipality of Kiiminki– Official website Municipalities of North Ostrobothnia Populated places established in 1867 Former municipalities of Finland *Kiiminki ...
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Vowel Harmony
In phonology, vowel harmony is an assimilatory process in which the vowels of a given domain – typically a phonological word – have to be members of the same natural class (thus "in harmony"). Vowel harmony is typically long distance, meaning that the affected vowels do not need to be immediately adjacent, and there can be intervening segments between the affected vowels. Generally one vowel will trigger a shift in other vowels, either progressively or regressively, within the domain, such that the affected vowels match the relevant feature of the trigger vowel. Common phonological features that define the natural classes of vowels involved in vowel harmony include vowel backness, vowel height, nasalization, roundedness, and advanced and retracted tongue root. Vowel harmony is found in many agglutinative languages. The given domain of vowel harmony taking effect often spans across morpheme boundaries, and suffixes and prefixes will usually follow vowel harmony rules. Ter ...
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Inessive Case
In grammar, the inessive case ( abbreviated ; from la, inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case. This case carries the basic meaning of "in": for example, "in the house" is in Finnish, in Estonian, () in Moksha, in Basque, in Lithuanian, in Latgalian and in Hungarian. In Finnish the inessive case is typically formed by adding . Estonian adds to the genitive stem. In Moksha () is added (in Erzya ()). In Hungarian, the suffix is most commonly used for inessive case, although many others, such as and others are also used, especially with cities. In the Finnish language, the inessive case is considered the first (in Estonian the second) of the six locative cases, which correspond to locational prepositions in English. The remaining five cases are: * Elative case ("out of") * Illative case ("into") * Allative case ("onto") * Adessive case ("on") * Ablative case ("from") Finnish The Finnish language inessive uses the suffix or (depending on vow ...
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Ullava
Ullava is a former municipality of Finland. Ullava was consolidated with the city of Kokkola on January 1, 2009. It is located in the province of Western Finland and is part of the Central Ostrobothnia Central Ostrobothnia ( fi, Keski-Pohjanmaa; sv, Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Central Finland and South Ostrobothnia. Historical provinces Municipalities ... region. The former municipality had a population of 1,037 (2003) and covered an area of 177.03 km² of which 14.35 km² was water. The population density was 6.4 inhabitants per km². The former municipality was unilingually Finnish. External links Populated places disestablished in 2009 2009 disestablishments in Finland Former municipalities of Finland Kokkola {{WesternFinland-geo-stub ...
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Syncope (phonology)
In phonology, syncope (; from grc, , , cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. It is found in both synchronic and diachronic analyses of languages. Its opposite, whereby sounds are added, is epenthesis. Synchronic analysis Synchronic analysis studies linguistic phenomena at one moment of a language's history, usually the present, in contrast to diachronic analysis, which studies a language's states and the patterns of change across a historical timeframe. In modern languages, syncope occurs in inflection, poetry, and informal speech. Inflections In languages such as Irish and Hebrew, the process of inflection can cause syncope: * In some verbs : (to play) should become * (I play). However, the addition of the causes syncope and the second-last syllable vowel is lost so becomes . : (katav), (he) wrote, becomes (katvu), (they) wrote, when the third-person plural ending (-u) is added. * ...
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Toholampi
Toholampi is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the Central Ostrobothnia region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is . Neighbouring municipalities are Kannus, Kokkola, Lestijärvi and Sievi. The municipality is unilingually Finnish. Notable people *Mika Lintilä Mika Tapani Lintilä (born 15 April 1966) is a Finnish politician currently serving as Minister of Economic Affairs since 2019. A member of the Centre Party, he has been a Member of Parliament (MP) since 1999. Lintilä has formerly served as Mi ..., politician *Hannu Hirvikoski, writer *Pekka Jylhä, sculptor *Mauri Leppänen, volleyballer *Virve Nuotio, soloist *Samsa Tuikka, runner * Teemu Wirkkala, javelin thrower *Albert Gebhard, painter References External links * Municipality of Toholampi– Official website Municipalities of Central Ostrobothnia Populated places established in 1865 {{WesternFinland-geo-stub ...
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Kannus
Kannus is a town and municipality of Finland. It is situated in the province of Western Finland and is part of the Central Ostrobothnia region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of , of which is water. The population density is . The municipality is unilingually Finnish. Neighbour municipalities are Kalajoki, Kokkola, Sievi and Toholampi. The area of ​​Kannus was long inhabited by Lapps. This is also indicated by the name of the town, which means Sámi witch drum. The hammer of the witch drum in the coat of arms of the town also refers to the same. Notable people * Oskari Tokoi Antti Oskari Tokoi (15 April 1873 – 4 April 1963) was a Finnish socialist who served as a leader of the Social Democratic Party of Finland. In 1917 Tokoi acted as a Chairman of the Senate of Finland and thus he was the world’s first social ..., socialist leader and the Chairman of the Senate of Finland References External links Town of Kannus– official we ...
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Himanka
Himanka ( sv, Himango) is a former municipality of Finland. Himanka was consolidated with the neighboring town of Kalajoki on January 1, 2010. It is located in the Central Ostrobothnia region. The municipality had a population of 3,123 (31 December 2009) and covered an area of of which is water. The population density was . The municipality is unilingually Finnish. The villages of Ainali, Himankakylä, Pahkala, Pernu, Pöntiö, Rautila, Saarenpää, Tomujoki, Torvenkylä, and Hillilä all belonged to the municipality. The main products of the area include farm products and fox and mink furs. There is also some wood and plastics product design and manufacturing. The oldest part of the central Himanka is called Raumankari. At the heart of Himanka is the river Lestijoki which empties into the Gulf of Bothnia The Gulf of Bothnia (; fi, Pohjanlahti; sv, Bottniska viken) is divided into the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, and it is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea, ...
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Lohtaja
Lohtaja ( sv, Lochteå) is a former municipality of Finland. Lohtaja was consolidated with the city of Kokkola on January 1, 2009. It is located in the province of Western Finland and is part of the Central Ostrobothnia Central Ostrobothnia ( fi, Keski-Pohjanmaa; sv, Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Central Finland and South Ostrobothnia. Historical provinces Municipalities ... region. The former municipality had a population of 2,900 (2003) and covered an area of 289.26 km² of which 3.33 km² was water. The population density was 10.0 inhabitants per km². The municipality was unilingually Finnish. Lohtaja is popular for its coastline, Vattajaniemi, which is the longest beach in Scandinavia. However, the coastline is partly used by the military as a drill-area. An association called Pro Vattaja was founded to campaign for the area to be saved for civil use. Exter ...
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Voiceless Glottal Fricative
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant ''phonologically'', but often lacks the usual ''phonetic'' characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel: Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives. Features Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative": * In some languages, it has the constricted manner of articulation of a fricative. However, in many if not most it is a transitional state of the glottis, with no manner of articulation other than its phonation type. Because there ...
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Epenthesis
In phonology, epenthesis (; Greek ) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially in the beginning syllable ('' prothesis'') or in the ending syllable (''paragoge'') or in-between two syllabic sounds in a word. The word ''epenthesis'' comes from "in addition to" and ''en-'' "in" and ''thesis'' "putting". Epenthesis may be divided into two types: excrescence for the addition of a consonant, and for the addition of a vowel, svarabhakti (in Hindi, Bengali and other North Indian languages, stemming from Sanskrit) or alternatively anaptyxis (). The opposite process, where one or more sounds are removed, is referred to as elision. Uses Epenthesis arises for a variety of reasons. The phonotactics of a given language may discourage vowels in hiatus or consonant clusters, and a consonant or vowel may be added to make pronunciation easier. Epenthesis may be represented in writing, or it may be a feature only of the spoken language. Separating vowels A consonant may be ...
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