Sample (statistics)
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt to collect samples that are representative of the population in question. Sampling has lower costs and faster data collection than measuring the entire population and can provide insights in cases where it is infeasible to measure an entire population. Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, colour or mass) of independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design, particularly in stratified sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide the practice. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used for gathering information about a population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simple Random Sampling
In statistics, a simple random sample (or SRS) is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population) in which a subset of individuals are chosen randomly, all with the same probability. It is a process of selecting a sample in a random way. In SRS, each subset of ''k'' individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of ''k'' individuals. A simple random sample is an unbiased sampling technique. Simple random sampling is a basic type of sampling and can be a component of other more complex sampling methods. Introduction The principle of simple random sampling is that every set of items has the same probability of being chosen. For example, suppose ''N'' college students want to get a ticket for a basketball game, but there are only ''X'' < ''N'' tickets for them, so they decide to have a fair way to see who gets to go. Then, everybody is given a number in the range from 0 to ''N''1, and random numbers are generated, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for , and 0.5 for (assuming that the coin is fair). Examples of random phenomena include the weather conditions at some future date, the height of a randomly selected person, the fraction of male students in a school, the results of a survey to be conducted, etc. Introduction A probability distribution is a mathematical description of the probabilities of events, subsets of the sample space. The sample space, often denoted by \Omega, is the set of all possible outcomes of a rand ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multistage Sampling
In statistics, multistage sampling is the taking of samples in stages using smaller and smaller sampling units at each stage. Multistage sampling can be a complex form of cluster sampling because it is a type of sampling which involves dividing the population into groups (or clusters). Then, one or more clusters are chosen at random and everyone within the chosen cluster is sampled. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or unnecessary. Under these circumstances, multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters, the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. In some cases, several levels of cluster selection may be app ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cluster Sampling
In statistics, cluster sampling is a sampling plan used when mutually homogeneous yet internally heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this sampling plan, the total population is divided into these groups (known as clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected. The elements in each cluster are then sampled. If all elements in each sampled cluster are sampled, then this is referred to as a "onestage" cluster sampling plan. If a simple random subsample of elements is selected within each of these groups, this is referred to as a "twostage" cluster sampling plan. A common motivation for cluster sampling is to reduce the total number of interviews and costs given the desired accuracy. For a fixed sample size, the expected random error is smaller when most of the variation in the population is present internally within the groups, and not between the groups. Cluster elements The population with ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stratified Sampling
In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population which can be partitioned into subpopulations. In statistical surveys, when subpopulations within an overall population vary, it could be advantageous to sample each subpopulation (stratum) independently. Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. The strata should define a partition of the population. That is, it should be ''collectively exhaustive'' and ''mutually exclusive'': every element in the population must be assigned to one and only one stratum. Then simple random sampling is applied within each stratum. The objective is to improve the precision of the sample by reducing sampling error. It can produce a weighted mean that has less variability than the arithmetic mean of a simple random sample of the population. In computational statistics, stratified sampling is a method of variance reduction when Monte Carlo methods are us ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Systematic Sampling
In survey methodology, systematic sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame. The most common form of systematic sampling is an equiprobability method. In this approach, progression through the list is treated circularly, with a return to the top once the list ends. The sampling starts by selecting an element from the list at random and then every ''k''th element in the frame is selected, where ''k'', is the sampling interval (sometimes known as the ''skip''): this is calculated as: :k = \frac Nn where ''n'' is the sample size, and ''N'' is the population size. Using this procedure each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection (also known as epsem). This makes systematic sampling functionally similar to simple random sampling (SRS). However, it is not the same as SRS because not every possible sample of a certain size has an equal chance of being chosen (e.g. samples with at least two element ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simple Random Sample
In statistics, a simple random sample (or SRS) is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population) in which a subset of individuals are chosen randomly, all with the same probability. It is a process of selecting a sample in a random way. In SRS, each subset of ''k'' individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of ''k'' individuals. A simple random sample is an unbiased sampling technique. Simple random sampling is a basic type of sampling and can be a component of other more complex sampling methods. Introduction The principle of simple random sampling is that every set of items has the same probability of being chosen. For example, suppose ''N'' college students want to get a ticket for a basketball game, but there are only ''X'' < ''N'' tickets for them, so they decide to have a fair way to see who gets to go. Then, everybody is given a number in the range from 0 to ''N''1, and random numbers are generated, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Distribution (continuous)
In probability theory and statistics, the continuous uniform distribution or rectangular distribution is a family of symmetric probability distributions. The distribution describes an experiment where there is an arbitrary outcome that lies between certain bounds. The bounds are defined by the parameters, ''a'' and ''b'', which are the minimum and maximum values. The interval can either be closed (e.g. , b or open (e.g. (a, b)). Therefore, the distribution is often abbreviated ''U'' (''a'', ''b''), where U stands for uniform distribution. The difference between the bounds defines the interval length; all intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable. It is the maximum entropy probability distribution for a random variable ''X'' under no constraint other than that it is contained in the distribution's support. Definitions Probability density function The probability density function of the continuous uniform distribution is: : f(x)=\begin \f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Telephone Directory
A telephone directory, commonly called a telephone book, telephone address book, phonebook, or the white and yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory. Its purpose is to allow the telephone number of a subscriber identified by name and address to be found. The advent of the Internet and smartphones in the 21st century greatly reduced the need for a paper phone book. Some communities, such as Seattle and San Francisco, sought to ban their unsolicited distribution as wasteful, unwanted and harmful to the environment.Yellow Pages ruling endangers SF ban Heather Knight, '' 

Electoral Register
An electoral roll (variously called an electoral register, voters roll, poll book or other description) is a compilation that lists persons who are entitled to vote for particular elections in a particular jurisdiction. The list is usually broken down by electoral districts, and is primarily prepared to assist election officials at polling places. Most jurisdictions maintain permanent electoral rolls, which are updated continuously or periodically (such as France which updates them annually), while some jurisdictions compile new electoral rolls before each election. Electoral rolls are the result of a process of voter registration. In most jurisdictions, voter registration (and being listed on an electoral roll) is a prerequisite for voting at an election. Some jurisdictions do not require voter registration, and do not use electoral rolls, such as the state of North Dakota in the United States. In those jurisdictions a voter must provide identification and proof of entitlement to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Opinion Poll
An opinion poll, often simply referred to as a survey or a poll (although strictly a poll is an actual election) is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals. A person who conducts polls is referred to as a pollster. History The first known example of an opinion poll was a tallies of voter preferences reported on Telegram Messenger to the 1824 presidential election, showing Andrew Jackson leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency. Since Jackson won the popular vote in that state and the whole country, such straw votes gradually became more popular, but they remained local, usually citywide phenomena. In 1916, ''The Literary Digest'' embarked on a national survey (partly as a circulationraising exercise) and cor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sampling Frame
In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn. It is a list of all those within a population who can be sampled, and may include individuals, households or institutions. Importance of the sampling frame is stressed by Jessen and Salant and Dillman.Salant, Priscilla, and Don A. Dillman. "How to Conduct your own Survey: Leading professional give you proven techniques for getting reliable results" (1995) Obtaining and organizing a sampling frame In the most straightforward cases, such as when dealing with a batch of material from a production run, or using a census, it is possible to identify and measure every single item in the population and to include any one of them in our sample; this is known as ''direct element sampling''. However, in many other cases this is not possible; either because it is costprohibitive (reaching every citizen of a country) or impossible (reaching all humans alive). Having established the frame, there ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 