Green Alga
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Green Alga
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a group consisting of the Prasinodermophyta and its unnamed sister which contains the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta. The land plants (Embryophytes) have emerged deep in the Charophyte alga as sister of the Zygnematophyceae. Since the realization that the Embryophytes emerged within the green algae, some authors are starting to properly include them. The completed clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae. The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid and filamentous forms, and macroscopic, multicellular seaweeds. There are about 22,000 species of green algae. Many species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form coenobia (colonies), long filaments, or highly differentiated macroscopic seaweeds. A few other organism ...
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Stigeoclonium
''Stigeoclonium'' is a genus of green algae in the family Chaetophoraceae Chaetophoraceae is a family of green algae in the order Chaetophorales. Genera * '' Arthrochaete'' * '' Caespitella'' * '' Cedercreutziella'' * '' Chaetomnion'' * '' Chaetonemopsis'' * '' Chaetophora'' * '' Chloroclonium'' * '' Chlorofilum'' .... Species list * '' S. aestivale'' * '' S. amoenum'' * '' S. askenasyi'' * '' S. attenuatum'' * '' S. australense'' * '' S. biasolettianum'' * '' S. elongatum'' * '' S. farctum'' * '' S. fasciculare'' * '' S. flagelliferum'' * '' S. helveticum'' * '' S. islamii'' * '' S. longearticulatum'' * '' S. longipilum'' * '' S. lubricum'' * '' S. nanum'' * '' S. nudiusculum'' * '' S. ovisporum'' * '' S. pachydermum'' * '' S. pascheri'' * '' S. polymorphum'' * '' S. protensum'' * '' S. pusillum'' * '' S. segarare'' * '' S. setigerum'' * '' S. simplex'' * '' S. stagnatile'' * '' S. subsecundum'' * '' S. subuligerum'' * '' S. tenue'' * '' S. thermale'' * '' S. tibeticum'' ...
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Seaweed
Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to thousands of species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. The term includes some types of '' Rhodophyta'' (red), ''Phaeophyta'' (brown) and '' Chlorophyta'' (green) macroalgae. Seaweed species such as kelps provide essential nursery habitat for fisheries and other marine species and thus protect food sources; other species, such as planktonic algae, play a vital role in capturing carbon, producing at least 50% of Earth's oxygen. Natural seaweed ecosystems are sometimes under threat from human activity. For example, mechanical dredging of kelp destroys the resource and dependent fisheries. Other forces also threaten some seaweed ecosystems; a wasting disease in predators of purple urchins has led to a urchin population surge which destroyed large kelp forest regions off the coast of California. Humans have a long history of cultivating seaweeds for their uses. In recent years, seaweed farming has become a global agricultural pra ...
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Trebouxiophyceae
The Trebouxiophyceae are a class of green algae, in the division Chlorophyta. Their circumscription within the green algae is not well established due to the need for more genetic studies at higher levels within the group. Genera without intervening taxonomy include: * ''Choricystis'' * ''Crucigenia'' * ''Koliellopsis'' * ''Leptosira'' * ''Rhopalosolen'' * ''Viridiella'' * '' Prototheca'' See also *List of Trebouxiophyceae genera This is a list of genera in the green algae class Trebouxiophyceae, sub-divided by order and family. Some genera have uncertain taxonomic placement and are listed as ''incertae sedis''. Ranks without accepted subordinate taxa have been omitted. The ... References Green algae classes it is also the very well-known album by WUDU SJON {{green algae-stub ...
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Trebouxia
''Trebouxia'' is a unicellular green alga.Silverside, A. J. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.bioref.lastdragon.org/Chlorophyta/''Trebouxia''.html It is a photosynthetic organism that can exist in almost all habitats found in polar, tropical, and temperate regions.Erokhina, L. G., Shatilovich, A. V., Kaminskaya, O. P., & Gilichinskii, D. A. (2004). Spectral Properties of the Green Alga ''Trebouxia'', a Phycobiont of Cryptoendolithic Lichens in the Antarctic Dry Valley. Microbiology,73(4), 420-424. doi:10.1023/b:mici.0000036987.18559Lukesova, A., & Frouz, J. (2007). Soil and Freshwater Micro-Algae as a Food Source for Invertebrates in Extreme Environments. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments,265-284. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6112-7_14Seckbach, J. (2007). Algae and cyanobacteria in extreme environments. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6112-7Seckbach, J. (2002). Symbiosis: Mechanisms and ...
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Flatworm
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, ''platy'', meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), ''helminth-'', meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. In traditional medicinal texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly non- parasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be ...
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Hydra Viridissima
''Hydra viridissima'' is a species of cnidarian which is commonly found in still or slow-moving freshwater in the Northern temperate zone. ''Hydra viridissima'' is commonly called green hydra due to its coloration, which is due to the symbiotic green algae ''Chlorella vulgaris'' which live within its body. These creatures are typically 10 mm long and have tentacles that are about half of their length. They are strictly carnivorous and typically feed on small crustaceans, insects and annelids. ''Hydra'' are normally sessile and live on aquatic vegetation. They secrete mucous to attach to substrate using their basal disc. Anatomy ''Hydra'' are multi-cellular organisms. They are made up of two layers of epithelial cells and have a hypostome or mouth opening. Circling the mouth are tentacles that contain nematocysts or stinging cells to help in prey capture. The mouth and tentacles are called the hydranth. The rest of the ''Hydra'' is known as the column and is divided into fou ...
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Paramecium
'' ''Paramecium'' ( , ; also spelled ''Paramoecium'') is a genus of eukaryotic, unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group. ''Paramecia'' are widespread in freshwater, brackish, and marine environments and are often very abundant in stagnant basins and ponds. Because some species are readily cultivated and easily induced to conjugate and divide, it has been widely used in classrooms and laboratories to study biological processes. Its usefulness as a model organism has caused one ciliate researcher to characterize it as the "white rat" of the phylum Ciliophora. Historical background ''Paramecia'' were among the first ciliates to be seen by microscopists, in the late 17th century. They were probably known to the Dutch pioneer of protozoology, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, and were clearly described by his contemporary Christiaan Huygens in a letter of 1678. The earliest known illustration of a Paramecium was published anonymously in Philosophi ...
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Nucleomorph
Nucleomorphs are small, vestigial eukaryotic nuclei found between the inner and outer pairs of membranes in certain plastids. They are thought to be vestiges of primitive red and green algal nuclei that were engulfed by a larger eukaryote. Because the nucleomorph lies between two sets of membranes, nucleomorphs support the endosymbiotic theory and are evidence that the plastids containing them are complex plastids. Having two sets of membranes indicate that the plastid, a prokaryote, was engulfed by a eukaryote, an alga, which was then engulfed by another eukaryote, the host cell, making the plastid an example of secondary endosymbiosis. Organisms with known nucleomorphs So far, only two monophyletic groups of organisms are known to contain plastids with a vestigial nucleus or nucleomorph: the cryptomonads of the supergroup Chromista and the chlorarachniophytes of the supergroup Rhizaria, both of which have examples of sequenced nucleomorph genomes. Studies of the genomic orga ...
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Chlorarachniophyte
The chlorarachniophytes are a small group of exclusively marine algae widely distributed in tropical and temperate waters. They are typically mixotrophic, ingesting bacteria and smaller protists as well as conducting photosynthesis. Normally they have the form of small amoebae, with branching cytoplasmic extensions that capture prey and connect the cells together, forming a net. They may also form flagellate zoospores, which characteristically have a single subapical flagellum that spirals backwards around the cell body, and walled coccoid cells. The chloroplasts were presumably acquired by ingesting some green alga. They are surrounded by four membranes, the outermost of which is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, and contain a small nucleomorph between the middle two, which is a remnant of the alga's nucleus. This contains a small amount of DNA and divides without forming a mitotic spindle. The origin of the chloroplasts from green algae is supported by their pigment ...
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Euglenid
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group. They are commonly found in freshwater, especially when it is rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. Many euglenids feed by phagocytosis, or strictly by diffusion. A monophyletic group consisting of the mixotrophic Rapaza viridis (1 species) and the two groups Eutreptiales (24 species) and Euglenales (983 species) have chloroplasts and produce their own food through photosynthesis. This group is known to contain the carbohydrate paramylon. Euglenids split from other Euglenozoa more than a billion years ago. The plastids in all extant photosynthetic species is the result from secondary endosymbiosis between a phagotrophic eukaryovorous euglenid and a Pyramimonas-related green alga. Structure ...
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Lepidodinium
''Lepidodinium'' is a genus of dinoflagellates belonging to the family Gymnodiniaceae Gymnodiniaceae is a family of dinoflagellates belonging to the order Gymnodiniales. Genera As accepted by GBIF; * ''Akashiwo'' G.Hansen & Moestrup (1) * '' Algidasphaeridium'' Matsuoka & Bujak, 1988 (3) * ''Amphidinium'' (1) * '' Apicoporus'' .... Species: *'' Lepidodinium chlorophorum'' *'' Lepidodinium viride'' References {{Taxonbar, from=Q25364669 Gymnodiniales Dinoflagellate genera ...
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Dinoflagellate
The dinoflagellates ( Greek δῖνος ''dinos'' "whirling" and Latin ''flagellum'' "whip, scourge") are a monophyletic group of single-celled eukaryotes constituting the phylum Dinoflagellata and are usually considered algae. Dinoflagellates are mostly marine plankton, but they also are common in freshwater habitats. Their populations vary with sea surface temperature, salinity, and depth. Many dinoflagellates are photosynthetic, but a large fraction of these are in fact mixotrophic, combining photosynthesis with ingestion of prey ( phagotrophy and myzocytosis). In terms of number of species, dinoflagellates are one of the largest groups of marine eukaryotes, although substantially smaller than diatoms. Some species are endosymbionts of marine animals and play an important part in the biology of coral reefs. Other dinoflagellates are unpigmented predators on other protozoa, and a few forms are parasitic (for example, '' Oodinium'' and '' Pfiesteria''). Some dinoflagellat ...
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