Anne Of Brittany
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Anne Of Brittany
Anne of Brittany (; 25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was reigning Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and Queen of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She is the only woman to have been queen consort of France twice. During the Italian Wars, Anne also became Queen of Naples, from 1501 to 1504, and Duchess of Milan, in 1499–1500 and from 1500 to 1512. Anne was raised in Nantes during a series of conflicts in which the King of France sought to assert his suzerainty over Brittany. Her father, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, was the last male of the House of Montfort. Upon his death in 1488, Anne became duchess regnant of Brittany, countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and viscountess of Limoges. She was only 11 at that time, but she was already a coveted heiress because of Brittany's strategic position. The next year, she married Maximilian I of Austria by proxy, but Charles VIII of France saw this as a threat since his realm was locate ...
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Miniature (illuminated Manuscript)
A miniature (from the Latin verb ''miniare'', "to colour with ''minium''", a red lead) is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment. The generally small scale of such medieval pictures has led to etymological confusion with minuteness and to its application to small paintings, especially portrait miniatures, which did however grow from the same tradition and at least initially used similar techniques. Apart from the Western, Byzantine and Armenian traditions, there is another group of Asian traditions, which is generally more illustrative in nature, and from origins in manuscript book decoration also developed into single-sheet small paintings to be kept in albums, which are also called miniatures, as the Western equivalents in watercolor and other mediums are not. These include Arabic miniatures, and their Persian, Mughal, Ot ...
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Nantes
Nantes (, , ; Gallo: or ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth largest in France, with a population of 314,138 in Nantes proper and a metropolitan area of nearly 1 million inhabitants (2018). With Saint-Nazaire, a seaport on the Loire estuary, Nantes forms one of the main north-western French metropolitan agglomerations. It is the administrative seat of the Loire-Atlantique department and the Pays de la Loire region, one of 18 regions of France. Nantes belongs historically and culturally to Brittany, a former duchy and province, and its omission from the modern administrative region of Brittany is controversial. Nantes was identified during classical antiquity as a port on the Loire. It was the seat of a bishopric at the end of the Roman era before it was conquered by the Bretons in 851. Although Nantes was the primary residence of the 15th-century dukes of Brittany, Rennes became the provincial capital after ...
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Limoges
Limoges (, , ; oc, Lemòtges, locally ) is a city and Communes of France, commune, and the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne Departments of France, department in west-central France. It was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region. Situated on the first western foothills of the Massif Central, Limoges is crossed by the river Vienne (river), Vienne, of which it was originally the first ford crossing point. The second most populated town in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine, New Aquitaine region after Bordeaux, a University of Limoges, university town, an administrative centre and intermediate services with all the facilities of a regional metropolis, it has an urban area of 323,789 inhabitants in 2018. The inhabitants of the city are called the Limougeauds. Founded around 10 BC under the name of Augustoritum, it became an important Gallo-Roman culture, Gallo-Roman city. During the Middle Ages Limoges became a large city, strongly marked by the cultural influence of the Abbey ...
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Richmond, North Yorkshire
Richmond is a market town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England, and the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire. Historically in the North Riding of Yorkshire, it is from the county town of Northallerton and situated on the eastern edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, and is one of the park's tourist centres. The population of Richmond at the 2011 census was 8,413. The Rough Guide describes the town as 'an absolute gem'. Betty James wrote that "without any doubt Richmond is the most romantic place in the whole of the North East f England. Richmond was the winner of the Academy of Urbanism's "Great Town" award in 2009. History The town of Richemont, in Normandy (now in the Seine-Maritime département of the Upper Normandy region), was the origin of the place name Richmond. It is the most duplicated UK place name, with 56 occurrences worldwide. Richmond in North Yorkshire was the Honour of Richmond of the Earls of Richmond (or ''comtes de R ...
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Montfort-l'Amaury
Montfort-l'Amaury () is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region, north central France. It is located north of Rambouillet. The name comes from Amaury I de Montfort, the first ''seigneur'' (lord) of Montfort. Geography Montfort-l'Amaury lies north of the Rambouillet Forest. It is located at the foot of low hills, at about 130 m above sea level. History King Robert II built a castle in 996 in the hills of Montfort. Montfort-l'Amaury was the stronghold of the Montfort family from the start of the 11th century. Amaury I built the ramparts. The Comté de Montfort was related to the Duchy of Brittany following the marriage of Yolande de Dreux-Montfort with Arthur of Brittany in 1294. It returned to the crown of France when Brittany became a part of France under Francis I. The castle was destroyed by the English during the Hundred Years' War. Sites of interest *Ruins of the castle * Maison de Maurice Ravel, which is now a museu. Maurice Ravel lived ...
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Suzerainty
Suzerainty () is the rights and obligations of a person, state or other polity who controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy. While the subordinate party is called a vassal, vassal state or tributary state, the dominant party is called a suzerain. While the rights and obligations of a vassal are called vassalage, the rights and obligations of a suzerain are called suzerainty. Suzerainty differs from sovereignty in that the dominant power allows tributary states to be technically independent, but enjoy only limited self-rule. Although the situation has existed in a number of historical empires, it is considered difficult to reconcile with 20th- or 21st-century concepts of international law, in which sovereignty is a binary concept, which either exists or does not. While a sovereign state can agree by treaty to become a protectorate of a stronger power, modern international law does not reco ...
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Duchess Consort Of Milan
Lady of Milan Early consorts ''The name wives and consorts of the early Della Torre lords of Milan are not known. But Napoleone della Torre may have been married to a Margherita di Baux.'' House of Visconti, 1277–1302 House of della Torre, 1302–1311 House of Visconti, 1311–1395 Duchess of Milan House of Visconti, 1395–1447 * Ambrosian Republic (1447–1450) House of Sforza, 1450–1499 House of Valois-Orléans, 1499–1500 House of Sforza, 1500 *None House of Valois-Orléans, 1500–1512 House of Sforza, 1512–1515 *None House of Valois-Angoulême, 1515–1521 House of Sforza, 1521–1524 *None House of Valois-Angoulême, 1524–1525 House of Sforza, 1525–1535 House of Habsburg, 1540–1700 House of Bourbon, 1700–1706 House of Habsburg, 1707–1780 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, 1780–1796 *Transpadane Republic (1796–1797) *Cisalpine Republic (1797–1799) House of Habsburg-Lorraine, 1799–1800 ...
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Queen Consort Of Naples
This is a list of consorts of Naples. Many Kings of Naples had more than one wife; they may have divorced their wife or she might have died. Early Byzantine Duchesses of Naples :''See Also'': Dukes of Naples * Drosu, wife of Sergius I * Theodora, Roman senatrix, daughter of Giovanni and his wife Theodora, daughter of Theophylacto I of Tusculum & his wife Theodora; wife of John III * Limpiasa of Capua, daughter of Richard I of Capua and Fredesenda of Hauteville, married Sergius VI in April 1078 also held title of '' Protosebastē'' * Eva (or Anna) of Gaeta, daughter of Geoffrey Ridell, Duke of Gaeta, wife of John VI, also held title of '' Protosebastē'' Royal consort of Naples Capetian House of Anjou, 1266–1382 House of Anjou-Durazzo, 1382–1435 The rule of the House of Durazzo was contested by the Dukes of Anjou of the House of Valois, who led several military expeditions into the kingdom. In the end Queen Joanna II, being heirless, recognized Du ...
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Italian Wars
The Italian Wars, also known as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of conflicts covering the period 1494 to 1559, fought mostly in the Italian peninsula, but later expanding into Flanders, the Rhineland and the Mediterranean Sea. The primary belligerents were the Valois kings of France, and their Habsburg opponents in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. They were supported by various Italian states at different stages of the war, with limited involvement from England and the Ottoman Empire. The Italic League established in 1454 achieved a balance of power in Italy, but fell apart after the death of its chief architect, Lorenzo de' Medici, in 1492. Combined with the ambition of Ludovico Sforza, its collapse allowed Charles VIII of France to invade Naples in 1494, which drew in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Despite being forced to withdraw in 1495, Charles showed the Italian states were wealthy, but vulnerable due to political divisions, making parts of Italy a bat ...
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List Of French Royal Consorts
This is a list of the women who were queens or empresses as wives of French monarchs from the 843 Treaty of Verdun, which gave rise to West Francia, until 1870, when the Third Republic was declared. Living wives of reigning monarchs technically became queen consorts, including Margaret of Burgundy and Blanche of Burgundy who were kept in prison during their whole queenships. Carolingian dynasty Capetian dynasty Direct Capetians House of Valois House of Lancaster Some sources refer to Margaret of Anjou as Queen of France,Mary Ann Hookham: "The life and times of Margaret of Anjou, queen of England and France ", 1872 but her right to enjoy that title is disputed. She was briefly recognized only in English-controlled territories of France. (See also: Dual monarchy of England and France) Capetian dynasty House of Valois House of Valois-Orléans House of Valois-Angoulême House of Bourbon Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, who secretly mar ...
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate dating systems before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually, this is the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and 1923. In England, Wales, Ireland and Britain's American colonies, there were two calendar changes, both in 1752. The first adjusted the start of a new year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January (which Scotland had done from 1600), while the second discarded the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar, removing 11 days from the September 1752 calendar to do so.Spathaky, MikOld Style and New Style Dates and the change to the Gregorian Calendar "Before 1752, parish registers, in addition to a new year heading after 24th March showing, for example '1733', had another heading at the end of the following December indicating '1733/4'. This showed where the Historical Year 1734 started even though the Civil Year 1733 continued ...
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Saint Denis Basilica
The Basilica of Saint-Denis (french: Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, links=no, now formally known as the ) is a large former medieval abbey church and present cathedral in the commune of Saint-Denis, a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance historically and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, is widely considered the first structure to employ all of the elements of Gothic architecture. The basilica became a place of pilgrimage and a necropolis containing the tombs of the Kings of France, including nearly every king from the 10th century to Louis XVIII in the 19th century. Henry IV of France came to Saint-Denis to formally renounce his Protestant faith and become a Catholic. The Queens of France were crowned at Saint-Denis, and the royal regalia, including the sword used for crowning the kings and the royal sceptre, were kept at Saint-Denis between coronations. The site originated as a Gallo-Roman cemetery in late Roman times. The archae ...
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