website defacement
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Website defacement is an attack on a website that changes the visual appearance of a
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia, wikipedia.org, google, google.com, and Am ...

website
or a
web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer sy ...

web page
. These are typically the work of defacers, who break into a
web server A web server is computer software and underlying Computer hardware, hardware that accepts requests via Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP (the network protocol created to distribute web content) or its secure variant HTTPS. A user agent, com ...
and replace the hosted
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia, wikipedia.org, google, google.com, and Am ...

website
with one of their own. Defacement is generally meant as a kind of electronic
graffiti Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is a type of art genre that means writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graff ...

graffiti
and, like other forms of
vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes property damage, such as graffiti and #Defacement, defacement directed towards any property without permission of the owne ...

vandalism
, is used to spread messages by
politically Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resource A resource is a source or supply from which a ben ...

politically
motivated "cyber protesters" or
hacktivists The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes. The act of engaging in activities (such as programming or other m ...
. Website defacement can involve adding questionable content or removing or changing the content to make it questionable, or including nonsensical or whimsical references to websites or publicly editable repositories to harm its reputation. Methods such as a web shell may be used to aid in website defacement.


Common targets

Religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

Religious
and
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...

government
sites are regularly targeted by hackers in order to display political or religious beliefs, whilst defacing the views and beliefs of others. Disturbing images and offensive phrases might be displayed in the process, as well as a signature of sorts, to show who was responsible for the defacement. Websites are not only defaced for political reasons; many defacers do it just for the thrill. For example, there are online contests in which hackers are awarded points for defacing the largest number of web sites in a specified amount of time.
Corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

Corporation
s are also targeted more often than other websites on the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational w ...
and they often seek to take measures to protect themselves from defacement or hacking in general. Websites represent the image of a company or organisation and these are therefore suffer significant losses due to defacement. Visitors may lose faith in sites that cannot promise security and will become wary of performing
online transactions E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically buying or selling of products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project managemen ...
. After defacement, sites have to be shut down for repairs and security review, sometimes for an extended period of time, causing expenses and loss of profit and value.


See also

*
Computer crime Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer and a computer network, network.Moore, R. (2005) "Cyber crime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime," Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing. The computer may have been used in the comm ...
*
Cybercrime Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Comp ...
*
Vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes property damage, such as graffiti and #Defacement, defacement directed towards any property without permission of the owne ...

Vandalism
*
Vandalism on Wikipedia On Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free, multilingual open-collaborative online encyclopedia created and maintained by a community of volunteer contributors using a wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext publication Collaborative e ...


References


External links


to access archive-->is/ERzjP/image Screenshot of the SCO website defacementAttrition.org's Mirror Of Defaced Websites
Hacking (computer security) This category is for pages related to the computer security definition of hacking. Individual hackers and hacking groups should be categorized into related categories. Cybercrime Theft Cyberpunk themes {{CatAutoTOC ...
World Wide Web {{www-stub