water (molecule)
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Water () is a polar
inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. The study of inorganic compounds is a subfield of chemistry known as ''inorganic chemistr ...
that is at
room temperature Colloquially, "room temperature" is a range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings. It feels comfortable to a person when they are wearing typical indoor clothing. Human comfort can extend beyond this range depending on ...
a tasteless and odorless
liquid A liquid is a nearly Compressibility, incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of State of matter#Four fundamental states, the four fund ...
, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal
solvent A solvent (s) (from the Latin language, Latin ''wikt:solvo#Latin, solvō'', "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a Solution (chemistry), solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a ...
" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on the surface of
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. While large list of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System, volumes of water can be found throughout the Solar System, only water distributi ...
and the only common substance to exist as a
solid Solid is one of the State of matter#Four fundamental states, four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and Plasma (physics), plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and contain the least amount o ...
, liquid, and
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and Plasma (physics), pl ...
on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe (behind
molecular hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the chemical ...
and
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, poisonous, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom connected by a triple bond. It is the simple ...
). Water molecules form
hydrogen bonds In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, str ...
with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to dissociate
ions An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of a proton, which is considered to be po ...
in salts and bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high
boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding en ...
of 100 °C for its
molar mass In chemistry, the molar mass of a chemical compound is defined as the mass of a sample of that compound divided by the amount of substance which is the number of moles in that sample, measured in mole (unit), moles. The molar mass is a bulk, not ...
, and a high
heat capacity Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a physical quantity, physical property of matter, defined as the amount of heat to be supplied to an object to produce a unit change in its temperature. The International System of Units, SI unit of heat ca ...
. Water is
amphoteric In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, struc ...
, meaning that it can exhibit properties of an
acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton (i.e. hydrogen ion, H+), known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid A Lewis acid (named for the American p ...
or a base, depending on the pH of the solution that it is in; it readily produces both and ions. Related to its amphoteric character, it undergoes self-ionization. The product of the activities, or approximately, the concentrations of and is a constant, so their respective concentrations are inversely proportional to each other.


Physical properties

Water is the
chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent Chemical element, elements by physical separation m ...
with
chemical formula In chemistry, a chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, ...
; one
molecule A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by attractive forces known as chemical bonds; depending on context, the term may or may not include ions which satisfy this criterion. In quantum physics, organic chemistry, and bioche ...
of water has two
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the chemical ...
atom Every atom is composed of a atomic nucleus, nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons. Only the most common variety of hydrogen has no neutrons. Every solid, l ...
s
covalent A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons to form electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms ...
ly bonded to a single
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, a highly Chemical reaction, reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing a ...
atom. Water is a tasteless, odorless liquid at ambient temperature and pressure. Liquid water has weak
absorption band According to quantum mechanics, atoms and molecules can only hold certain defined quantities of energy, or exist in specific Quantum state, states. When such quantum, quanta of electromagnetic radiation are emitted or absorbed by an atom or mo ...
s at wavelengths of around 750 nm which cause it to appear to have a blue colour. This can easily be observed in a water-filled bath or wash-basin whose lining is white. Large ice crystals, as in
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its Ablation#Glaciology, ablation over many years, often Century, centuries. It acquires dis ...
s, also appear blue. Under
standard conditions Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are Technical standard, standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the I ...
, water is primarily a liquid, unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family, which are generally gaseous. This unique property of water is due to
hydrogen bonding In chemistry, a hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is Covalent bond, covalently bound to a more electronegativity, electronegative "donor" atom or group ( ...
. The molecules of water are constantly moving concerning each other, and the hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds (2 × 10−13 seconds). However, these bonds are strong enough to create many of the peculiar properties of water, some of which make it integral to life.


Water, ice, and vapour

Within the Earth's atmosphere and surface, the
liquid phase A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a liquid, gas, or other material that continuously Deformation (physics), deforms (''flows'') under an applied shear stress, or external force. They have zero shear modulus ...
is the most common and is the form that is generally denoted by the word "water". The
solid phase In the outline of physical science, physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, ref ...
of water is known as
ice Ice is water freezing, frozen into a solid state, typically forming at or below temperatures of 0 degrees Celsius or Depending on the presence of Impurity, impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a ...
and commonly takes the structure of hard, amalgamated
crystals A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macrosc ...
, such as
ice cubes An ice cube is a small piece of ice, which is typically Rectangle, rectangular as viewed from above and trapezoidal as viewed from the side. Ice cubes are products of mechanical refrigeration and are usually produced to cool beverages. They ma ...
, or loosely accumulated granular crystals, like
snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes. It consists of frozen crystalline water throughout ...
. Aside from common hexagonal crystalline ice, other crystalline and amorphous phases of ice are known. The gaseous phase of water is known as
water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 Joule, J/(Kilogram, kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 Megajoule, MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 Kilojoule, kJ/(kg·K) Water vapor, water vapour or ...
(or
steam Steam is a substance containing water in the gas phase, and sometimes also an aerosol of liquid water droplets, or air. This may occur due to evaporation or due to boiling, where heat is applied until water reaches the enthalpy of vaporization. ...
). Visible steam and clouds are formed from minute droplets of water suspended in the air. Water also forms a
supercritical fluid A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Thermometers a ...
. The critical temperature is 647 K and the critical pressure is 22.064 MPa. In nature, this only rarely occurs in extremely hostile conditions. A likely example of naturally occurring supercritical water is in the hottest parts of deep water
hydrothermal vents A hydrothermal vent is a fissure vent, fissure on the seabed from which Geothermal gradient, geothermally heated water discharges. They are commonly found near volcano, volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at m ...
, in which water is heated to the critical temperature by
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a Planet#Planetary-mass objects, planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. On Ear ...
plumes and the critical pressure is caused by the weight of the ocean at the extreme depths where the vents are located. This pressure is reached at a depth of about 2200 meters: much less than the mean depth of the ocean (3800 meters).


Heat capacity and heats of vaporization and fusion

Water has a very high
specific heat capacity In thermodynamics, the specific heat capacity (symbol ) of a substance is the heat capacity of a sample of the substance divided by the mass of the sample, also sometimes referred to as massic heat capacity. Informally, it is the amount of heat t ...
of 4184 J/(kg·K) at 20 °C (4182 J/(kg·K) at 25 °C) —the second-highest among all the heteroatomic species (after
ammonia Ammonia is an inorganic chemical compound, compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the chemical formula, formula . A Binary compounds of hydrogen, stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a dis ...
), as well as a high
heat of vaporization The enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. T ...
(40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive
hydrogen bond In chemistry, a hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is Covalent bond, covalently bound to a more electronegativity, electronegative "donor" atom or group ( ...
ing between its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's
climate Climate is the long-term weather pattern in an area, typically averaged over 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. Some of the meteorologi ...
by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. Most of the additional energy stored in the climate system since 1970 has accumulated in the oceans. The specific
enthalpy of fusion In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these qu ...
(more commonly known as latent heat) of water is 333.55 kJ/kg at 0 °C: the same amount of energy is required to melt ice as to warm ice from −160 °C up to its melting point or to heat the same amount of water by about 80 °C. Of common substances, only that of ammonia is higher. This property confers resistance to melting on the ice of
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its Ablation#Glaciology, ablation over many years, often Century, centuries. It acquires dis ...
s and
drift ice Drift ice, also called brash ice, is sea ice that is not attached to the shoreline or any other fixed object (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011. The Drift of Sea Ice. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Unlike fast ice, which is "fasten ...
. Before and since the advent of mechanical
refrigeration The term refrigeration refers to the process of removing heat from an enclosed space or substance for the purpose of lowering the temperature.International Dictionary of Refrigeration, http://dictionary.iifiir.org/search.phpASHRAE Terminology, ht ...
, ice was and still is in common use for retarding food spoilage. The specific heat capacity of ice at −10 °C is 2030 J/(kg·K) and the heat capacity of steam at 100 °C is 2080 J/(kg·K).


Density of water and ice

The
density Density (volumetric mass density or specific mass) is the substance's mass per unit of volume. The symbol most often used for density is ''ρ'' (the lower case Greek language, Greek letter Rho (letter), rho), although the Latin letter ''D'' ca ...
of water is about : this relationship was originally used to define the gram. The density varies with temperature, but not linearly: as the temperature increases, the density rises to a peak at and then decreases; the initial increase is unusual because most liquids undergo
thermal expansion Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature, usually not including phase transitions. Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic ...
so that the density only decreases as a function of temperature. The increase observed for water from to and for a few other liquids is described as negative thermal expansion. Regular, hexagonal ice is also less dense than liquid water—upon freezing, the density of water decreases by about 9%. These peculiar effects are due to the highly directional bonding of water molecules via the hydrogen bonds: ice and liquid water at low temperature have comparatively low-density, low-energy open lattice structures. The breaking of hydrogen bonds on melting with increasing temperature in the range 0–4 °C allows for a denser molecular packing in which some of the lattice cavities are filled by water molecules. Above 4 °C, however, thermal expansion becomes the dominant effect, and water near the boiling point (100 °C) is about 4% less dense than water at . Under increasing pressure, ice undergoes a number of transitions to other polymorphs with higher density than liquid water, such as
ice II Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a highly ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih, ice Ih by compressing it at a temperature of 198 Kelvin, K at 300 MPa or by decompressing ice V. When heated it undergoes transformation to ...
,
ice III Ice III is a form of solid matter which consists of tetragonal In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Tetragonal crystal lattices result from stretching a cubic lattice along one of its lattice ve ...
, high-density amorphous ice (HDA), and very-high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). The unusual density curve and lower density of ice than of water is essential for much of the life on earth—if water were most dense at the freezing point, then in winter the cooling at the surface would lead to convective mixing. Once 0 °C are reached, the water body would freeze from the bottom up, and all life in it would be killed. Furthermore, given that water is a good thermal insulator (due to its heat capacity), some frozen lakes might not completely thaw in summer. As it is, the inversion of the density curve leads to a stable layering for surface temperatures below 4 °C, and with the layer of ice that floats on top insulating the water below, even e.g.,
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (, russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ); mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake in Russia. It is situated in southern Siberia, between the Federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of Irkutsk Oblast, I ...
in central
Siberia Siberia ( ; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive region, geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a ...
freezes only to about 1 m thickness in winter. In general, for deep enough lakes, the temperature at the bottom stays constant at about 4 °C (39 °F) throughout the year (see diagram).


Density of saltwater and ice

The density of saltwater depends on the dissolved salt content as well as the temperature. Ice still floats in the oceans, otherwise, they would freeze from the bottom up. However, the salt content of oceans lowers the freezing point by about 1.9 °C (see here for explanation) and lowers the temperature of the density maximum of water to the former freezing point at 0 °C. This is why, in ocean water, the downward convection of colder water is ''not'' blocked by an expansion of water as it becomes colder near the freezing point. The oceans' cold water near the freezing point continues to sink. So creatures that live at the bottom of cold oceans like the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. It spans an area of approximately and is known as the coldest of all the oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, a ...
generally live in water 4 °C colder than at the bottom of frozen-over
fresh water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salt (chemistry), salts and other total dissolved solids. Although the term specifically excludes seawater and brackish wate ...
lakes and rivers. As the
surface A surface, as the term is most generally used, is the outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object or space. It is the portion or region of the object that can first be perceived by an observer using the senses of Visual perception, sight ...
of saltwater begins to freeze (at −1.9 °C for normal salinity
seawater Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 35 ppt, 600 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one liter by volume) of seawater has approx ...
, 3.5%) the ice that forms is essentially salt-free, with about the same density as freshwater ice. This ice floats on the surface, and the salt that is "frozen out" adds to the
salinity Salinity () is the saltiness or amount of salt (chemistry), salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water (see also soil salinity). It is usually measured in g/L or g/kg (grams of salt per liter/kilogram of water; the latter is dimensio ...
and density of the seawater just below it, in a process known as ''
brine rejection Brine rejection is a process that occurs when salty water freezes. The salts do not fit in the crystal structure of water ice, so the salt is expelled. Since the oceans are salty, this process is important in nature. Salt rejected by the forming ...
''. This denser saltwater sinks by convection and the replacing seawater is subject to the same process. This produces essentially freshwater ice at −1.9 °C on the surface. The increased density of the seawater beneath the forming ice causes it to sink towards the bottom. On a large scale, the process of brine rejection and sinking cold salty water results in ocean currents forming to transport such water away from the Poles, leading to a global system of currents called the
thermohaline circulation Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale Ocean current, ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The adjective ''thermohaline'' derives from ''wikt:thermo-, t ...
.


Miscibility and condensation

Water is
miscible Miscibility () is the property of two chemical substance, substances to mix in all mixing ratio, proportions (that is, to fully dissolution (chemistry), dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneity and heterogeneity, homoge ...
with many liquids, including
ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an Alcohol (chemistry), alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl ...
in all proportions. Water and most
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end. Polar molecules m ...
s are immiscible usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. This can be predicted by comparing the polarity. Water being a relatively polar compound will tend to be miscible with liquids of high polarity such as ethanol and acetone, whereas compounds with low polarity will tend to be immiscible and poorly
soluble In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, st ...
such as with
hydrocarbons In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and Hydrophobe, hydrophobic, and their odors are usuall ...
. As a gas, water vapor is completely miscible with air. On the other hand, the maximum water
vapor pressure Vapor pressure (or vapour pressure in English-speaking countries other than the US; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a v ...
that is thermodynamically stable with the liquid (or solid) at a given temperature is relatively low compared with total atmospheric pressure. For example, if the vapor's
partial pressure In a mixture of gases, each constituent gas has a partial pressure which is the notional pressure of that constituent gas as if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature. The total pressure of an ideal gas ...
is 2% of atmospheric pressure and the air is cooled from 25 °C, starting at about 22 °C, water will start to condense, defining the
dew point The dew point is the temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various Con ...
, and creating fog or dew. The reverse process accounts for the fog burning off in the morning. If the humidity is increased at room temperature, for example, by running a hot shower or a bath, and the temperature stays about the same, the vapor soon reaches the pressure for phase change and then condenses out as minute water droplets, commonly referred to as steam. A saturated gas or one with 100% relative humidity is when the vapor pressure of water in the air is at equilibrium with vapor pressure due to (liquid) water; water (or ice, if cool enough) will fail to lose mass through evaporation when exposed to saturated air. Because the amount of water vapor in the air is small, relative humidity, the ratio of the partial pressure due to the water vapor to the saturated partial vapor pressure, is much more useful. Vapor pressure above 100% relative humidity is called supersaturated and can occur if the air is rapidly cooled, for example, by rising suddenly in an updraft.


Vapor pressure


Compressibility

The
compressibility In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or, if the temperature is held constant, the isothermal compressibility) is a Measure (mathematics), measure of the instantaneous relativ ...
of water is a function of pressure and temperature. At 0 °C, at the limit of zero pressure, the compressibility is . At the zero-pressure limit, the compressibility reaches a minimum of around 45 °C before increasing again with increasing temperature. As the pressure is increased, the compressibility decreases, being at 0 °C and . The
bulk modulus The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compression the substance is. It is defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal In mathematics, an infinitesimal number is a quantity that is closer to 0, zero than any st ...
of water is about 2.2 GPa. The low compressibility of non-gasses, and of water in particular, leads to their often being assumed as incompressible. The low compressibility of water means that even in the deep
ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Water distribution on Earth, Earth's water. An ocean can also refer to any of the ...
s at 4 km depth, where pressures are 40 MPa, there is only a 1.8% decrease in volume. The bulk modulus of water ice ranges from 11.3 GPa at 0 K up to 8.6 GPa at 273 K. The large change in the compressibility of ice as a function of temperature is the result of its relatively large thermal expansion coefficient compared to other common solids.


Triple point

The
temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various Conversion of units of temperature, temp ...
and
pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled ''gage'' pressure)The preferred spelling varies by country and e ...
at which ordinary solid, liquid, and gaseous water coexist in equilibrium is a
triple point In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three Phase (matter), phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.. It is that temperature and pressure at w ...
of water. Since 1954, this point had been used to define the base unit of temperature, the
kelvin The kelvin, symbol K, is the primary unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), used alongside its metric prefix, prefixed forms and the degree Celsius. It is named after the Belfast-born and University of Glasgow-based eng ...
, but, starting in 2019, the kelvin is now defined using the
Boltzmann constant The Boltzmann constant ( or ) is the proportionality factor that relates the average relative kinetic energy of particles in a ideal gas, gas with the thermodynamic temperature of the gas. It occurs in the definitions of the kelvin and the gas ...
, rather than the triple point of water. Due to the existence of many polymorphs (forms) of ice, water has other triple points, which have either three polymorphs of ice or two polymorphs of ice and liquid in equilibrium. Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann in Göttingen produced data on several other triple points in the early 20th century. Kamb and others documented further triple points in the 1960s.


Melting point

The melting point of ice is at standard pressure; however, pure liquid water can be
supercooled Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its melting point without it becoming a solid. It achieves this in the absence of a nucleation, seed crystal or nucleus around which ...
well below that temperature without freezing if the liquid is not mechanically disturbed. It can remain in a fluid state down to its homogeneous
nucleation In thermodynamics, nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new Phase (matter), thermodynamic phase or Crystal structure, structure via self-assembly or self-organization within a substance or mixture. Nucleation is typically def ...
point of about . The melting point of ordinary hexagonal ice falls slightly under moderately high pressures, by /atm or about /70 atm as the stabilization energy of hydrogen bonding is exceeded by intermolecular repulsion, but as ice transforms into its polymorphs (see crystalline states of ice) above , the melting point increases markedly with pressure, i.e., reaching at (triple point of
Ice VII Ice VII is a cubic crystal system, cubic crystalline form of ice. It can be formed from liquid water above 3 Pascal (unit), GPa (30,000 atmospheres) by lowering its temperature to room temperature, or by decompressing heavy water (D2O) Ice#Phases, ...
).


Electrical properties


Electrical conductivity

Pure water containing no exogenous
ion An ion () is an atom Every atom is composed of a atomic nucleus, nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons. Only the most common variety of hydrogen has n ...
s is an excellent electronic insulator, but not even "deionized" water is completely free of ions. Water undergoes autoionization in the liquid state when two water molecules form one hydroxide anion () and one hydronium cation (). Because of autoionization, at ambient temperatures pure liquid water has a similar intrinsic charge carrier concentration to the semiconductor germanium and an intrinsic charge carrier concentration three orders of magnitude greater than the semiconductor silicon, hence, based on charge carrier concentration, water can not be considered to be a completely dielectric material or electrical insulator but to be a limited conductor of ionic charge. Because water is such a good solvent, it almost always has some
solute In chemistry, a solution is a special type of Mixture#Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance solvation, dissolved in another substance, known a ...
dissolved in it, often a
salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in the form of a natural crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. ...
. If water has even a tiny amount of such an impurity, then the ions can carry charges back and forth, allowing the water to conduct electricity far more readily. It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 18.2 MΩ·cm (182 ·m) at 25 °C. This figure agrees well with what is typically seen on
reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to separate ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pre ...
, ultra-filtered and deionized ultra-pure water systems used, for instance, in semiconductor manufacturing plants. A salt or acid contaminant level exceeding even 100 parts per trillion (ppt) in otherwise ultra-pure water begins to noticeably lower its resistivity by up to several kΩ·m. In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight
electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows ...
of 0.05501 ± 0.0001 μS/ cm at 25.00 °C. Water can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence of dissolved ions this is a very slow process, as very little current is conducted. In ice, the primary charge carriers are
protons A proton is a stable subatomic particle, symbol , H+, or 1H+ with a positive electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Ele ...
(see proton conductor). Ice was previously thought to have a small but measurable conductivity of 1 S/cm, but this conductivity is now thought to be almost entirely from surface defects, and without those, ice is an insulator with an immeasurably small conductivity.


Polarity and hydrogen bonding

An important feature of water is its polar nature. The structure has a
bent molecular geometry In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, struct ...
for the two hydrogens from the oxygen vertex. The oxygen atom also has two lone pairs of electrons. One effect usually ascribed to the lone pairs is that the H–O–H gas-phase bend angle is 104.48°, which is smaller than the typical
tetrahedral In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular Pyramid (geometry), pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular Face (geometry), faces, six straight Edge (geometry), edges, and four vertex ( ...
angle of 109.47°. The lone pairs are closer to the oxygen atom than the electrons
sigma bond In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond. They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most simply defined for diatomic molecules using the language and tools of sy ...
ed to the hydrogens, so they require more space. The increased repulsion of the lone pairs forces the O–H bonds closer to each other. Another consequence of its
structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as ...
is that water is a
polar molecule In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end. Polar molecules must contain one or more polar ...
. Due to the difference in
electronegativity Electronegativity, symbolized as ''Chi (letter), χ'', is the tendency for an atom of a given chemical element to attract shared electrons (or electron density) when forming a chemical bond. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its ato ...
, a
bond dipole moment In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end. Polar molecules must contain one or more polar ...
points from each H to the O, making the oxygen partially negative and each hydrogen partially positive. A large molecular
dipole In physics, a dipole () is an electromagnetic phenomenon which occurs in two ways: *An electric dipole moment, electric dipole deals with the separation of the positive and negative electric charges found in any electromagnetic system. A simple ...
, points from a region between the two hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom. The charge differences cause water molecules to aggregate (the relatively positive areas being attracted to the relatively negative areas). This attraction,
hydrogen bond In chemistry, a hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is Covalent bond, covalently bound to a more electronegativity, electronegative "donor" atom or group ( ...
ing, explains many of the properties of water, such as its solvent properties. Although hydrogen bonding is a relatively weak attraction compared to the covalent bonds within the water molecule itself, it is responsible for several of the water's physical properties. These properties include its relatively high
melting Melting, or Enthalpy of fusion, fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a chemical substance, substance from a solid to a liquid. This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the appli ...
and boiling point temperatures: more energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. In contrast, hydrogen sulfide (), has much weaker hydrogen bonding due to sulfur's lower electronegativity. is a gas at
room temperature Colloquially, "room temperature" is a range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings. It feels comfortable to a person when they are wearing typical indoor clothing. Human comfort can extend beyond this range depending on ...
, despite hydrogen sulfide having nearly twice the molar mass of water. The extra bonding between water molecules also gives liquid water a large
specific heat capacity In thermodynamics, the specific heat capacity (symbol ) of a substance is the heat capacity of a sample of the substance divided by the mass of the sample, also sometimes referred to as massic heat capacity. Informally, it is the amount of heat t ...
. This high heat capacity makes water a good heat storage medium (coolant) and heat shield.


Cohesion and adhesion

Water molecules stay close to each other ( cohesion), due to the collective action of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. These hydrogen bonds are constantly breaking, with new bonds being formed with different water molecules; but at any given time in a sample of liquid water, a large portion of the molecules are held together by such bonds. Water also has high
adhesion Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or interface (matter), surfaces to cling to one another (Cohesion (chemistry), cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another). The force ...
properties because of its polar nature. On clean, smooth
glass Glass is a non-Crystallinity, crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent, amorphous solid that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most ...
the water may form a thin film because the molecular forces between glass and water molecules (adhesive forces) are stronger than the cohesive forces. In biological cells and
organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as Organ (anatomy), organs are to the ...
s, water is in contact with membrane and protein surfaces that are
hydrophilic A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is intermolecular force, attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolution (chemistry), dissolved by water.Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). ''A Greek-English Lexicon'' Oxford: Clar ...
; that is, surfaces that have a strong attraction to water.
Irving Langmuir Irving Langmuir (; January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist, physicist, and engineer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. Langmuir's most famous publication is the 1919 art ...
observed a strong repulsive force between hydrophilic surfaces. To dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces—to remove the strongly held layers of water of hydration—requires doing substantial work against these forces, called hydration forces. These forces are very large but decrease rapidly over a nanometer or less. They are important in biology, particularly when cells are dehydrated by exposure to dry atmospheres or to extracellular freezing.


Surface tension

Water has an unusually high
surface tension Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces at rest to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. Surface tension (physics), tension is what allows objects with a higher density than water such as razor blades and insects (e.g. Ge ...
of 71.99 mN/m at 25 °C which is caused by the strength of the hydrogen bonding between water molecules. This allows insects to walk on water.


Capillary action

Because water has strong cohesive and adhesive forces, it exhibits capillary action. Strong cohesion from hydrogen bonding and adhesion allows trees to transport water more than 100 m upward.


Water as a solvent

Water is an excellent
solvent A solvent (s) (from the Latin language, Latin ''wikt:solvo#Latin, solvō'', "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a Solution (chemistry), solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a ...
due to its high dielectric constant. Substances that mix well and dissolve in water are known as
hydrophilic A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is intermolecular force, attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolution (chemistry), dissolved by water.Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). ''A Greek-English Lexicon'' Oxford: Clar ...
("water-loving") substances, while those that do not mix well with water are known as
hydrophobic In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule that is seemingly intermolecular force, repelled from a mass of water (known as a hydrophobe). In contrast, hydrophiles are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules tend t ...
("water-fearing") substances. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether or not the substance can match or better the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between other water molecules. If a substance has properties that do not allow it to overcome these strong intermolecular forces, the molecules are precipitated out from the water. Contrary to the common misconception, water and hydrophobic substances do not "repel", and the hydration of a hydrophobic surface is energetically, but not entropically, favorable. When an ionic or polar compound enters water, it is surrounded by water molecules ( hydration). The relatively small size of water molecules (~ 3 angstroms) allows many water molecules to surround one molecule of
solute In chemistry, a solution is a special type of Mixture#Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance solvation, dissolved in another substance, known a ...
. The partially negative dipole ends of the water are attracted to positively charged components of the solute, and vice versa for the positive dipole ends. In general, ionic and polar substances such as
acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton (i.e. hydrogen ion, H+), known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid A Lewis acid (named for the American p ...
s,
alcohol Alcohol most commonly refers to: * Alcohol (chemistry) In chemistry, an alcohol is a type of organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl () functional group bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The ...
s, and
salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in the form of a natural crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. ...
s are relatively soluble in water, and nonpolar substances such as fats and oils are not. Nonpolar molecules stay together in water because it is energetically more favorable for the water molecules to hydrogen bond to each other than to engage in
van der Waals interactions A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van, it can be bigger or smaller than a pickup truck and SUV, and bigger than a common car. There is some varying in the scope of the word across th ...
with non-polar molecules. An example of an ionic solute is
table salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in the form of a natural crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. ...
; the sodium chloride, NaCl, separates into
cation An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of a proton, which is considered to be po ...
s and
anion An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of a proton, which is considered to be po ...
s, each being surrounded by water molecules. The ions are then easily transported away from their crystalline lattice into solution. An example of a nonionic solute is table sugar. The water dipoles make hydrogen bonds with the polar regions of the sugar molecule (OH groups) and allow it to be carried away into solution.


Quantum tunneling

The
quantum tunneling In physics, a quantum (plural quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an fundamental interaction, interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can be "quantized" is referred to as "the ...
dynamics in water was reported as early as 1992. At that time it was known that there are motions which destroy and regenerate the weak
hydrogen bond In chemistry, a hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is Covalent bond, covalently bound to a more electronegativity, electronegative "donor" atom or group ( ...
by internal rotations of the substituent water
monomers In chemistry, a monomer ( ; ''wikt:mono-, mono-'', "one" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a molecule that can chemical reaction, react together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process ...
. On 18 March 2016, it was reported that the hydrogen bond can be broken by quantum tunneling in the water
hexamer In chemistry and biochemistry, an oligomer () is a molecule that consists of a few repeating units which could be derived, actually or conceptually, from smaller molecules, monomer, monomers.Quote: ''Oligomer molecule: A molecule of intermediate ...
. Unlike previously reported tunneling motions in water, this involved the concerted breaking of two hydrogen bonds. Later in the same year, the discovery of the quantum tunneling of water molecules was reported.


Electromagnetic absorption

Water is relatively transparent to
visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequency, fr ...
,
near ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic field, electromagnetic (EM) field, which propagate through space and carry momentum and electromag ...
light, and far-red light, but it absorbs most
ultraviolet light Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10 nanometer, nm (with a corresponding frequency around 30 Hertz, PHz) to 400 nm (750 Hertz, THz), shorter than that of visible light, but longer than ...
,
infrared light Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of Light, visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from ...
, and
microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter corresponding to frequency, frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz respectively. Different sources define different fre ...
s. Most photoreceptors and
photosynthetic pigment A photosynthetic pigment (accessory pigment; chloroplast pigment; antenna pigment) is a biological pigment, pigment that is present in chloroplasts or photosynthetic bacterium, bacteria and captures the light energy necessary for photosynthesis. ...
s utilize the portion of the light spectrum that is transmitted well through water.
Microwave ovens A microwave oven (commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. This induces Dipole#Molecular dipoles, ...
take advantage of water's opacity to microwave radiation to heat the water inside of foods. Water's light blue colour is caused by weak absorption in the red part of the
visible spectrum The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, visible to the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation in this range of wavelengths is called ''visible light'' or simply light. A typical human eye wil ...
.


Structure

A single water molecule can participate in a maximum of four
hydrogen bond In chemistry, a hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is Covalent bond, covalently bound to a more electronegativity, electronegative "donor" atom or group ( ...
s because it can accept two bonds using the lone pairs on oxygen and donate two hydrogen atoms. Other molecules like
hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen fluoride (fluorane) is an Inorganic chemistry, inorganic compound with the chemical formula . This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an imp ...
, ammonia, and
methanol Methanol (also called methyl alcohol and wood spirit, amongst other names) is an organic chemical and the simplest aliphatic alcohol, with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group In organic chemistry, a methyl group is an alkyl derived from m ...
can also form hydrogen bonds. However, they do not show anomalous
thermodynamic Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ...
, kinetic, or structural properties like those observed in water because none of them can form four hydrogen bonds: either they cannot donate or accept hydrogen atoms, or there are
steric Steric effects arise from the spatial arrangement of atoms. When atoms come close together there is a rise in the energy of the molecule. Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformational isomerism, conformation ...
effects in bulky residues. In water, intermolecular
tetrahedral In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular Pyramid (geometry), pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular Face (geometry), faces, six straight Edge (geometry), edges, and four vertex ( ...
structures form due to the four hydrogen bonds, thereby forming an open structure and a three-dimensional bonding network, resulting in the anomalous decrease in density when cooled below 4 °C. This repeated, constantly reorganizing unit defines a three-dimensional network extending throughout the liquid. This view is based upon neutron scattering studies and computer simulations, and it makes sense in the light of the unambiguously tetrahedral arrangement of water molecules in ice structures. However, there is an alternative theory for the structure of water. In 2004, a controversial paper from
Stockholm University Stockholm University ( sv, Stockholms universitet) is a public university, public research university in Stockholm, Sweden, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. With over 33,000 students at four different faculties: la ...
suggested that water molecules in the liquid state typically bind not to four but only two others; thus forming chains and rings. The term "string theory of water" (which is not to be confused with the
string theory In physics, string theory is a Mathematical theory, theoretical framework in which the Point particle, point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by Dimension (mathematics and physics), one-dimensional objects called String (physic ...
of physics) was coined. These observations were based upon X-ray absorption spectroscopy that probed the local environment of individual oxygen atoms.


Molecular structure

The repulsive effects of the two lone pairs on the oxygen atom cause water to have a bent, not
linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship ('' function'') that can be graphically represented as a straight line Line most often refers to: * Line (geometry) In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, ...
, molecular structure, allowing it to be polar. The hydrogen–oxygen–hydrogen angle is 104.45°, which is less than the 109.47° for ideal sp3 hybridization. The
valence bond theory In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of the two basic theories, along with molecular orbital theory, molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding. It focuses on ho ...
explanation is that the oxygen atom's lone pairs are physically larger and therefore take up more space than the oxygen atom's bonds to the hydrogen atoms. The
molecular orbital theory In chemistry, molecular orbital theory (MO theory or MOT) is a method for describing the electronic structure of molecules using quantum mechanics. It was proposed early in the 20th century. In molecular orbital theory, electrons in a molecule ...
explanation (
Bent's rule In chemistry, Bent's rule describes and explains the relationship between the orbital hybridization of central atoms in molecules and the Electronegativity, electronegativities of substituents. The rule was stated by Henry A. Bent as follows: T ...
) is that lowering the energy of the oxygen atom's nonbonding hybrid orbitals (by assigning them more s character and less p character) and correspondingly raising the energy of the oxygen atom's hybrid orbitals bonded to the hydrogen atoms (by assigning them more p character and less s character) has the net effect of lowering the energy of the occupied molecular orbitals because the energy of the oxygen atom's nonbonding hybrid orbitals contributes completely to the energy of the oxygen atom's lone pairs while the energy of the oxygen atom's other two hybrid orbitals contributes only partially to the energy of the bonding orbitals (the remainder of the contribution coming from the hydrogen atoms' 1s orbitals).


Chemical properties


Self-ionization

In liquid water there is some self-ionization giving
hydronium In chemistry, hydronium (hydroxonium in traditional British English) is the common name for the aqueous cation , the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water. It is often viewed as the positive ion present when an Arrhenius acid is di ...
ions and
hydroxide Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion, diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a single covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually Self-ionization ...
ions. :2 + The
equilibrium constant The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency ...
for this reaction, known as the ionic product of water, K_=[][] , has a value of about at 25 °C. At neutral pH, the concentration of the
hydroxide Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion, diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a single covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually Self-ionization ...
ion () equals that of the (solvated) hydrogen ion (), with a value close to 10−7 mol L−1 at 25 °C. See data page for values at other temperatures. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant is a quotient of thermodynamic activities of all products and reactants including water: :K_ = \frac However for dilute solutions, the activity of a solute such as H3O+ or OH is approximated by its concentration, and the activity of the solvent H2O is approximated by 1, so that we obtain the simple ionic product K_ \approx K_=[][]


Geochemistry

The action of water on rock over long periods of time typically leads to weathering and water erosion, physical processes that convert solid rocks and minerals into soil and sediment, but under some conditions chemical reactions with water occur as well, resulting in
metasomatism Metasomatism (from the Greek μετά ''metá'' "change" and σῶμα ''sôma'' "body") is the chemical alteration of a Rock (geology), rock by hydrothermal and other fluids. It is the replacement of one rock by another of different mineralogical ...
or
mineral hydration In chemistry, mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction which adds water to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a ''hydrate''. In geology, geological terms, the process of mineral hydratio ...
, a type of chemical alteration of a rock which produces
clay minerals Clay minerals are Hydrate, hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates (e.g. kaolin, aluminium, Al2Silicon, Si2Oxygen, O5(hydroxide, OH)4), sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, Alkaline earth metal, alkaline earths, and other ...
. It also occurs when
Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar (masonry), mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in t ...
hardens. Water ice can form clathrate compounds, known as
clathrate hydrates Clathrate hydrates, or gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small Chemical polarity, non-polar molecules (typically gases) or Chemical polarity, polar molecules with large ...
, with a variety of small molecules that can be embedded in its spacious crystal lattice. The most notable of these is
methane clathrate Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (8CH4·46H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large am ...
, 4 , naturally found in large quantities on the ocean floor.


Acidity in nature

Rain is generally mildly acidic, with a pH between 5.2 and 5.8 if not having any acid stronger than carbon dioxide. If high amounts of
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is a nonmetal and the lightest member of pnictogen, group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the ...
and
sulfur Sulfur (or sulphur in British English British English (BrE, en-GB, or BE) is, according to Oxford Dictionaries, " English as used in Great Britain, as distinct from that used elsewhere". More narrowly, it can refer specifically to the ...
oxides are present in the air, they too will dissolve into the cloud and raindrops, producing
acid rain Acid rain is rain or any other form of Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). Most water, including drinking water, has a neutral pH that exists b ...
.


Isotopologues

Several
isotope Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number (number of protons in their nuclei) and position in the periodic table (and hence belong to the same chemical element), and that differ in nucleon numbers (mass numbe ...
s of both hydrogen and oxygen exist, giving rise to several known
isotopologue In chemistry, isotopologues are molecules that differ only in their Isotope, isotopic composition. They have the same chemical formula and bonding arrangement of atoms, but at least one atom has a different number of neutrons than the parent. A ...
s of water.
Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) is an Reference materials for stable isotope analysis, isotopic standard for water. Despite the name, VSMOW is pure water with no salt or other chemicals found in the oceans. The VSMOW standard was promulg ...
is the current international standard for water isotopes. Naturally occurring water is almost completely composed of the neutron-less hydrogen isotope protium. Only 155 ppm include
deuterium Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two Stable isotope ratio, stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being Hydrogen atom, protium, or hydrogen-1). The atomic nucleus, nucleus of a deuterium ato ...
( or D), a hydrogen isotope with one neutron, and fewer than 20 parts per
quintillion Two naming scales for large numbers have been used in English and other European languages since the early modern era: the long and short scales. Most English variants use the short scale today, but the long scale remains dominant in many non-Eng ...
include
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive isotope of hydrogen with half-life about 12 years. The nucleus of tritium (t, sometimes called a ''triton'') contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleu ...
( or T), which has two neutrons. Oxygen also has three stable isotopes, with present in 99.76%, in 0.04%, and in 0.2% of water molecules. Deuterium oxide, , is also known as heavy water because of its higher density. It is used in
nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction or nuclear fusion reactions. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion. Heat from nu ...
s as a
neutron moderator In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of Neutron temperature#Fast, fast neutrons, ideally without neutron capture, capturing any, leaving them as Neutron temperature#Thermal, thermal neutrons with only Ther ...
. Tritium is
radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive Decay chain, disintegration, or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material containing unstable nucl ...
, decaying with a
half-life Half-life (symbol ) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable ato ...
of 4500 days; exists in nature only in minute quantities, being produced primarily via cosmic ray-induced nuclear reactions in the atmosphere. Water with one protium and one deuterium atom occur naturally in ordinary water in low concentrations (~0.03%) and in far lower amounts (0.000003%) and any such molecules are temporary as the atoms recombine. The most notable physical differences between and , other than the simple difference in specific mass, involve properties that are affected by hydrogen bonding, such as freezing and boiling, and other kinetic effects. This is because the nucleus of deuterium is twice as heavy as protium, and this causes noticeable differences in bonding energies. The difference in boiling points allows the isotopologues to be separated. The self-diffusion coefficient of at 25 °C is 23% higher than the value of . Because water molecules exchange hydrogen atoms with one another, hydrogen deuterium oxide (DOH) is much more common in low-purity heavy water than pure dideuterium monoxide . Consumption of pure isolated may affect biochemical processes—ingestion of large amounts impairs kidney and central nervous system function. Small quantities can be consumed without any ill-effects; humans are generally unaware of taste differences, but sometimes report a burning sensation or sweet flavor. Very large amounts of heavy water must be consumed for any toxicity to become apparent. Rats, however, are able to avoid heavy water by smell, and it is toxic to many animals. ''Light water'' refers to deuterium-depleted water (DDW), water in which the deuterium content has been reduced below the standard level.


Occurrence

Water is the most abundant substance on Earth and also the third most abundant molecule in the universe, after and . 0.23 ppm of the earth's mass is water and 97.39% of the global water volume of 1.38 km3 is found in the oceans.


Reactions


Acid-base reactions

Water is
amphoteric In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, struc ...
: it has the ability to act as either an
acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton (i.e. hydrogen ion, H+), known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid A Lewis acid (named for the American p ...
or a base in chemical reactions. According to the Brønsted-Lowry definition, an acid is a proton () donor and a base is a proton acceptor. When reacting with a stronger acid, water acts as a base; when reacting with a stronger base, it acts as an acid. For instance, water receives an ion from HCl when
hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride. It is a colorless solution with a distinctive pungency, pungent smell. It is classified as a acid strength, strong acid. It is a component of the gas ...
is formed: : + + In the reaction with
ammonia Ammonia is an inorganic chemical compound, compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the chemical formula, formula . A Binary compounds of hydrogen, stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a dis ...
, , water donates a ion, and is thus acting as an acid: : + + Because the oxygen atom in water has two
lone pair In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atom in a covalent bondIUPAC ''Gold Book'' definition''lone (electron) pair''/ref> and is sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair. Lone ...
s, water often acts as a
Lewis base A Lewis acid (named for the American physical chemist Gilbert N. Lewis) is a chemical species that contains an empty Non-bonding orbital, orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis Base (chemistry), base to form a Lewis a ...
, or electron-pair donor, in reactions with
Lewis acid A Lewis acid (named for the American physical chemist Gilbert N. Lewis) is a chemical species that contains an empty Non-bonding orbital, orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis Base (chemistry), base to form a Lewis a ...
s, although it can also react with Lewis bases, forming hydrogen bonds between the electron pair donors and the hydrogen atoms of water.
HSAB theory HSAB concept is a jargon for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases". HSAB is widely used in chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that m ...
describes water as both a weak hard acid and a weak hard base, meaning that it reacts preferentially with other hard species: : + → : + → : + → When a salt of a weak acid or of a weak base is dissolved in water, water can partially hydrolyze the salt, producing the corresponding base or acid, which gives aqueous solutions of
soap Soap is a salt (chemistry), salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are surfactants usually used for washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping. In industrial settings, ...
and
baking soda Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogencarbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt (chemistry), salt composed of a sodium cation (Sodium, Na+) and a bic ...
their basic pH: : + NaOH +


Ligand chemistry

Water's Lewis base character makes it a common
ligand In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electro ...
in
transition metal In chemistry, a transition metal (or transition element) is a chemical element in the d-block of the periodic table (groups 3 to 12), though the elements of group 12 (and less often group 3) are sometimes excluded. They are the elements that can ...
complexes, examples of which include
metal aquo complex In chemistry, metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand. These complexes are the predominant Chemical species, species in aqueous solutions of many metal Salt (chemistry), salts, such as meta ...
es such as to perrhenic acid, which contains two water molecules coordinated to a
rhenium Rhenium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-gray, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 element, group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 pa ...
center. In solid hydrates, water can be either a ligand or simply lodged in the framework, or both. Thus, consists of e2(H2O)6sup>2+ centers and one "lattice water". Water is typically a monodentate ligand, i.e., it forms only one bond with the central atom.


Organic chemistry

As a hard base, water reacts readily with organic
carbocation A carbocation is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom. Among the simplest examples are the methenium , methanium and Vinyl cation, vinyl cations. Occasionally, carbocations that bear more than one positively charged carbon atom are a ...
s; for example in a
hydration reaction In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structu ...
, a hydroxyl group () and an acidic proton are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond, resulting in an alcohol. When the addition of water to an organic molecule cleaves the molecule in two,
hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution reaction, substitution, elimination reaction, elimination, and solvation reactions in which water ...
is said to occur. Notable examples of hydrolysis are the
saponification Saponification is a process of converting esters into soap, soaps and Alcohol (chemistry), alcohols by the action of aqueous alkali (for example, aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions). Soaps are salt (chemistry), salts of fatty acids, which in turn a ...
of fats and the
digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intest ...
of proteins and
polysaccharides Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrates found in food. They are long chain polymeric carbohydrates composed of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic bond, glycosidic linkages. This carbohydrate c ...
. Water can also be a
leaving group In chemistry, a leaving group is defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC as an atom or group of atoms that detaches from the main or residual part of a substrate during a reaction or elementary step of a reaction. Ho ...
in SN2 substitution and E2 elimination reactions; the latter is then known as a
dehydration reaction In chemistry, a dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule or ion. Dehydration reactions are common processes, the reverse of a hydration reaction. Dehydration reactions in organic che ...
.


Water in redox reactions

Water contains hydrogen in the
oxidation state In chemistry, the oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical Electrical charge, charge of an atom if all of its Chemical bond, bonds to different atoms were fully Ionic bond, ionic. It describes the degree of oxidation (loss of elec ...
+1 and oxygen in the oxidation state −2. It oxidizes chemicals such as hydrides,
alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, ...
metals, and some
alkaline earth The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group (periodic table), group 2 of the periodic table. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).. The elements have very similar pr ...
metals. One example of an alkali metal reacting with water is: :2 Na + 2 → + 2 + 2 Some other reactive metals, such as
aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) encompasses the Variety (linguistics), varieties of English language, English native to Canada. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, 2016 cens ...
and
beryllium Beryllium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. It is a divalent element that occurs naturally only in combination with other ...
, are oxidized by water as well, but their oxides adhere to the metal and form a
passive Passive may refer to: * Passive voice, a grammatical voice common in many languages, see also Pseudopassive (disambiguation), Pseudopassive * Passive language, a language from which an interpreter works * Passivity (behavior), the condition of su ...
protective layer. Note that the
rusting Rust is an iron oxide, a usually reddish-brown oxide formed by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the catalytic presence of water or air moisture. Rust consists of hydrous ferric oxides, hydrous iron(III) oxides (Fe2O3·nH2O) and iron(III) oxi ...
of
iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 of the periodic table. It is, Abundance ...
is a reaction between iron and oxygen that is dissolved in water, not between iron and water. Water can be oxidized to emit oxygen gas, but very few oxidants react with water even if their reduction potential is greater than the potential of . Almost all such reactions require a
catalyst Catalysis () is the process of increasing the reaction rate, rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst (). Catalysts are not consumed in the reaction and remain unchanged after it. If the reaction is rapid and the ...
. An example of the oxidation of water is: :4 + 2 → 4 AgF + 4 HF +


Electrolysis

Water can be split into its constituent elements, hydrogen, and oxygen, by passing an electric current through it. This process is called electrolysis. The cathode half reaction is: :2 + 2 → The anode half reaction is: : 2 → + 4 + 4 The gases produced bubble to the surface, where they can be collected or ignited with a flame above the water if this was the intention. The required potential for the electrolysis of pure water is 1.23 V at 25 °C. The operating potential is actually 1.48 V or higher in practical electrolysis.


History

Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish ( ; 10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was an English natural philosopher and scientist who was an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed "infl ...
showed that water was composed of oxygen and hydrogen in 1781. The first decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, by
electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, str ...
, was done in 1800 by English chemist William Nicholson and
Anthony Carlisle Sir Anthony Carlisle Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, FRCS, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (15 February 1768 in Stillington, County Durham, England – 2 November 1840 in London) was an English surgeon. Life He was born in Stillington, ...
. In 1805,
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (, , ; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French people, French chemist and physicist. He is known mostly for his discovery that water is made of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen (with Alexander von Humboldt), ...
and
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a German polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer Exploration refers to the historical practice of discovering remote lands. It is studied by geographe ...
showed that water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Gilbert Newton Lewis isolated the first sample of pure heavy water in 1933. The properties of water have historically been used to define various temperature scales. Notably, the
Kelvin The kelvin, symbol K, is the primary unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), used alongside its metric prefix, prefixed forms and the degree Celsius. It is named after the Belfast-born and University of Glasgow-based eng ...
,
Celsius The degree Celsius is the unit of temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated ...
, Rankine, and
Fahrenheit The Fahrenheit scale () is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). It uses the degree Fahrenheit (symbol: °F) as the unit. Several accounts of how he originally defined ...
scales were, or currently are, defined by the freezing and boiling points of water. The less common scales of Delisle, Newton, Réaumur, and Rømer were defined similarly. The
triple point In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three Phase (matter), phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.. It is that temperature and pressure at w ...
of water is a more commonly used standard point today.


Nomenclature

The accepted
IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations working for the advancement of the chemical sciences, especially by developing nomenclature and terminology. It is ...
name of water is ''oxidane'' or simply ''water'', or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. Oxidane is only intended to be used as the name of the mononuclear parent hydride used for naming derivatives of water by substituent nomenclature. These derivatives commonly have other recommended names. For example, the name
hydroxyl In chemistry, a hydroxy or hydroxyl group is a functional group with the chemical formula and composed of one oxygen atom Chemical bond, covalently bonded to one hydrogen atom. In organic chemistry, alcohols and carboxylic acids contain one or ...
is recommended over ''oxidanyl'' for the –OH group. The name oxane is explicitly mentioned by the IUPAC as being unsuitable for this purpose, since it is already the name of a cyclic ether also known as
tetrahydropyran Tetrahydropyran (THP) is the organic compound consisting of a saturated six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. It is named by reference to pyran, which contains two double bonds, and may be produced from it by addin ...
. The simplest systematic name of water is ''hydrogen oxide''. This is analogous to related compounds such as
hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula . In its pure form, it is a very pale blue liquid that is slightly more viscosity, viscous than Properties of water, water. It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent, and antiseptic, usua ...
,
hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula, formula . It is a colorless Chalcogen hydride, chalcogen-hydride gas, and is poisonous, corrosive, and flammable, with trace amounts in ambient atmosphere having a characteristic ...
, and deuterium oxide (heavy water). Using chemical nomenclature for type I ionic binary compounds, water would take the name ''hydrogen monoxide'', but this is not among the names published by the
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations working for the advancement of the chemical sciences, especially by developing nomenclature and terminology. It is ...
(IUPAC). Another name is ''dihydrogen monoxide'', which is a rarely used name of water, and mostly used in the
dihydrogen monoxide parody The dihydrogen monoxide parody involves calling water by an unfamiliar chemical name, most often "dihydrogen monoxide" (DHMO), and listing some of water's properties in a particularly alarming manner, such as accelerating corrosion (rust) and ...
. Other systematic names for water include ''hydroxic acid'', ''hydroxylic acid'', and ''hydrogen hydroxide'', using acid and base names. None of these exotic names are used widely. The polarized form of the water molecule, , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. ''Water substance'' is a term used for hydrogen oxide (H2O) when one does not wish to specify whether one is speaking of liquid
water Water (chemical formula ) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...
,
steam Steam is a substance containing water in the gas phase, and sometimes also an aerosol of liquid water droplets, or air. This may occur due to evaporation or due to boiling, where heat is applied until water reaches the enthalpy of vaporization. ...
, some form of
ice Ice is water freezing, frozen into a solid state, typically forming at or below temperatures of 0 degrees Celsius or Depending on the presence of Impurity, impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a ...
, or a component in a mixture or mineral.


See also

* Chemical bonding of water *
Dihydrogen monoxide parody The dihydrogen monoxide parody involves calling water by an unfamiliar chemical name, most often "dihydrogen monoxide" (DHMO), and listing some of water's properties in a particularly alarming manner, such as accelerating corrosion (rust) and ...
* Double distilled water *
Electromagnetic absorption by water The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...
*
Fluid dynamics In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including ''aerodynamics'' (the study of air and other gases in motion) and ...
*
Hard water Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard water is formed when water percolation, percolates through deposits of limestone, chalk or gypsum, which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbona ...
* Heavy water *
Hydrogen polyoxide Hydrogen polyoxides (also known as oxidanes, oxohydrogens, or oxyhydrogens) are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) containing atoms from ...
*
Ice Ice is water freezing, frozen into a solid state, typically forming at or below temperatures of 0 degrees Celsius or Depending on the presence of Impurity, impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a ...
* Optical properties of water and ice *
Steam Steam is a substance containing water in the gas phase, and sometimes also an aerosol of liquid water droplets, or air. This may occur due to evaporation or due to boiling, where heat is applied until water reaches the enthalpy of vaporization. ...
*
Superheated water Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at temperatures between the usual boiling point, and the critical temperature, . It is also known as "subcritical water" or "pressurized hot water". Superheated water is stable because of overpres ...
* * Water cluster *
Water (data page) This page provides supplementary data to the article properties of water Water () is a Chemical polarity, polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from Color of wate ...
* Water dimer * Water model * Water thread experiment


Footnotes


References


Notes


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

*


External links

*
Release on the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use
(simpler formulation)

* * Calculation of ttp://ddbonline.ddbst.de/AntoineCalculation/AntoineCalculationCGI.exe?component=Water vapor pressurebr>liquid densitydynamic liquid viscosity
an
surface tension
of water
Water Density Calculator


NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil List of government space agencies, space program ...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Properties Of Water
Water Water (chemical formula ) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...
Forms of water Hydrogen compounds Oxygen compounds Hydroxides Inorganic solvents Neutron moderators Oxides Limnology Oceanography Extraterrestrial water Transport phenomena Heat transfer Greenhouse gases