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A war correspondent is a
journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly done by the journalist is called journalism. ...

journalist
who covers stories first-hand from a
war zone
war zone
. War correspondents' jobs bring them to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there, they attempt to get close enough to the action to provide written accounts, photos, or film footage. Thus, this is often considered the most dangerous form of journalism. Only some conflicts receive extensive worldwide coverage, however. Among recent wars, the
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started 28 February 1998 and lasted until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war ...
received a great deal of coverage, as did the
Persian Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership t ...
. In contrast, the largest war in the last half of the 20th century, the
Iran–Iraq War , commander1 = Ruhollah Khomeini , commander2 = , units1 = see Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War, order of battle , units2 = see Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War, order of battle , ...
, received far less substantial coverage. This is typical for wars among less-developed countries, as audiences are less interested and the reports do little to increase sales and ratings. The lack of infrastructure makes reporting more difficult and expensive, and the conflicts are also far more dangerous for war correspondents.


History

People have written about wars for thousands of years.
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Da ...
's account of the
Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empi ...
is similar to journalism, though he did not himself participate in the events.
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
, who some years later wrote a
history of the Peloponnesian War The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' ( el, Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek l ...
was a commander and an observer to the events he described. Memoirs of soldiers became an important source of
military history Military history is a humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and re ...
when that specialty developed. War correspondents, as specialized
journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly done by the journalist is called journalism. ...

journalist
s, began working after the printing of news for publication became commonplace. In the eighteenth century the Baroness
Frederika Charlotte Riedesel Frederika Charlotte Louise von Massow, Baroness (Freifrau) Riedesel zu Eisenbach (1746-1808) was a German writer. She was the wife of General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel of Brunswick. She accompanied him during the Saratoga Campaign in the American ...
's ''Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution and the Capture of the German Troops at Saratoga'' is regarded as the first account of war by a woman. Her description of the events that took place in the Marshall House are particularly poignant because she was in the midst of battle. The first modern war correspondent is said to be
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
painter Willem van de Velde, who in 1653 took to sea in a small boat to observe a naval battle between the Dutch and the English, of which he made many sketches on the spot, which he later developed into one big drawing that he added to a report he wrote to the States General. A further modernization came with the development of
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...

newspaper
s and
magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content (media ...

magazine
s. One of the earliest war correspondents was
Henry Crabb Robinson Henry Crabb Robinson (13 May 1775 – 5 February 1867) was an English lawyer, remembered as a diarist. He took part in founding London University. Life Robinson was born in Bury St. Edmunds, England. He was youngest son of a tanner who died in ...
, who covered
Napoleon's campaigns in Spain
Napoleon's campaigns in Spain
and Germany for ''The Times'' of London. Another early correspondent was William Hicks (Royal Navy Officer), William Hicks whose letters describing the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were also published in The Times. Winston Churchill as writer, Winston Churchill in 1899, working as a correspondent, became notorious as an escaped prisoner of war. Early film newsreels and television news rarely had war correspondents. Rather, they would simply collect footage provided by other sources, often the government, and the News presenter, news anchor would then add Narrator, narration. This footage was often staged as cameras were large and bulky until the introduction of small, portable motion picture cameras during World War II. The situation changed dramatically with the Vietnam War when networks from around the world sent cameramen with portable cameras and correspondents. This proved damaging to the United States as the full brutality of war became a daily feature on the nightly news. News coverage gives combatants an opportunity to forward information and arguments to the media. By this means, conflict parties attempt to use the media to gain support from their constituencies and dissuade their opponents.Kepplinger, Hans Mathias ''et al.'
"Instrumental Actualization: A Theory of Mediated Conflicts,"
''European Journal of Communication'', Vol. 6, No. 3, 263-290 (1991).
The continued progress of technology has allowed live coverage of events via satellite up-links and the rise of twenty-four hour news channels has led to a heightened demand for material to fill the hours.


Crimean War

William Howard Russell, who covered the Crimean War, also for ''The Times'', is often described as the first modern war correspondent. The stories from this era, which were almost as lengthy and analytical as early books on war, took numerous weeks from being written to being published.


Third Italian War of Independence

Another renowned journalist, Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, Italian correspondent of European newspapers such as ''La Presse (French newspaper), La Presse'', ''Journal des débats'', ''Indépendance Belge'' and ''The Daily News (UK), The Daily News'', was known for his extremely gory style in his articles but involving at the same time. Jules Claretie, critic of ''Le Figaro'', was amazed about his correspondence of the Battle of Custoza (1866), Battle of Custoza, during the Third Italian War of Independence. Claretie wrote, "Nothing could be more fantastic and cruelly true than this tableau of agony. Reportage has never given a superior artwork."


Russo-Japanese War

When the Telegraphy, telegraph was developed, reports could be sent on a daily basis and events could be reported as they occurred. That is when short, mainly descriptive stories as used today became common. Press coverage of the Russo-Japanese War was affected by restrictions on the movement of reporters and strict censorship. In all military conflicts which followed this 1904–1905 war, close attention to more managed reporting was considered essential.Walker, Dale L.
"Jack London's War."
World of Jack London website.


First and Second Balkan Wars

The First Balkan War (1912–1913) between the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) and the Ottoman Empire, and the Second Balkan War (1913) between Bulgaria and its former allies Serbia and Greece, was actively covered by a large number of foreign newspapers, news agencies, and movie companies. An estimated 200–300 war correspondents, war photographers, war artists, and war cinematographers were active during these two nearly sequential conflicts.


First World War

The First World War was characterized by rigid censorship. British Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Lord Kitchener hated reporters, and they were banned from the Front at the start of the war. But reporters such as Basil Clarke and Philip Gibbs lived as fugitives near the Front, sending back their reports. The Government eventually allowed some accredited reporters in April 1915, and this continued until the end of the war. This allowed the Government to control what they saw. French authorities were equally opposed to war journalism, but less competent (criticisms of the French high command were leaked to the press during the Battle of Verdun in 1916). was imposed by the United States, though General John J. Pershing allowed Embedded journalism, embedded reporters (Floyd Gibbons had been severely wounded at the Battle of Belleau Wood in 1918).


Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, US conflict in Vietnam saw the tools and access available to war correspondents expanded significantly. Innovations such as cheap and reliable hand-held color video cameras, and the proliferation of television sets in Western homes give Vietnam-era correspondents the ability to portray conditions on the ground more vividly and accurately than ever before. Additionally, the US Military allowed unprecedented access for journalists, with almost no restrictions on the press, unlike in previous conflicts. These factors produced military coverage the likes of which had never been seen or anticipated, with explicit coverage of the human suffering produced by the war available right in the livingrooms of everyday people. Vietnam-era war correspondence was markedly different from that of WWI and WWII, with more focus on investigative journalism and discussion of the ethics surrounding the war and America's role in it. Reporters from dozens of media outlets were dispatched to Vietnam, with the number of correspondents surpassing 400 at the peak of the war. Vietnam was a dangerous war for these journalists, and 68 would be killed before the conflict came to a close. Many within the US Government and elsewhere would blame the media for the American failure in Vietnam, claiming that media focus on atrocities, the horrors of combat and the impact on soldiers damaged morale and eliminated support for the war at home. Unlike in older conflicts, where Allied journalism was almost universally supportive of the war effort, journalists in the Vietnam theater were often harshly critical of the US military, and painted a very bleak picture of the war. In an era where the media was already playing a significant role in domestic events such as the Civil Rights Movement, war correspondence in Vietnam would have a major impact on the American political scene. Some have argued that the conduct of war correspondents in Vietnam is to blame for the tightening of restrictions on journalists by the US in wars that followed, including the Persian Gulf war and the conflicts in Iraq War, Iraq and War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan.


Gulf War

The role of war correspondents in the Gulf War would prove to be quite different from their role in Vietnam. The Pentagon blamed the media for the loss of the Vietnam war, and prominent military leaders did not believe the United States could sustain a prolonged and heavily televised war. As a result, numerous restrictions were placed on the activities of correspondents covering the war in the Gulf. Journalists allowed to accompany the troops were organized into "pools", where small groups were escorted into combat zones by US troops and allowed to share their findings later. Those who attempted to strike out on their own and operate outside the pool system claim to have found themselves obstructed directly or indirectly by the military, with passport visas revoked and photographs and notes taken by force from journalists while US forces observed. Beyond military efforts to control the press, observers noted that press reaction to the Gulf War was markedly different from that of Vietnam. Critics claim that coverage of the war was "jingoistic" and overly favorable towards American forces, in harsh contrast to the criticism and muckraking that had characterized coverage of Vietnam. Journalists like CNN's Peter Arnett were lambasted for reporting anything that could be construed as contrary to the war effort, and commentators observed that coverage of the war in general was "saccharine" and heavily biased towards the American account. These trends would continue into the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan and Iraq War, Iraq wars, where the pool model was replaced by a new system of embedded journalism.


Notable war correspondents


19th century

* Archibald Forbes * Benjamin C. Truman * Bennet Burleigh (1840–1914), Sudan (Omdurman), Boer War, Russo-Japanese War, Italo-Turkish war * Charles Frederick Williams, British journalist. * Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, Expedition of the thousand, Second Italian War of Independence, Second and Third Italian War of Independence, Paris Commune * Frederic Villiers * George Wingrove Cooke, Second Opium War, 1857–1858. *
Henry Crabb Robinson Henry Crabb Robinson (13 May 1775 – 5 February 1867) was an English lawyer, remembered as a diarist. He took part in founding London University. Life Robinson was born in Bury St. Edmunds, England. He was youngest son of a tanner who died in ...
, Germany and Spain (1807–1809). * Howard C. Hillegas, covered Boer Wars * John F. Finerty was a war correspondent for the ''Chicago Times'' covering the The Great Sioux War, Great Sioux War of 1876–1877. * Kit Coleman (1864–1915), female war correspondent who covered the Spanish–American War for the ''Toronto Mail'' in 1898. * Peter Finnerty, Walcheren Campaign (1809). * Richard Harding Davis (1864–1916); covered the Spanish–American War, Second Boer War and the fighting on the Macedonian front during World War I. * Robert Edmund Strahorn was a fighting war correspondent in The Great Sioux War of 1876–1877. * Stephen Crane (1871–1900); covered the 1897 Greco-Turkish War, where he contracted tuberculosis. * Thomas William Bowlby, North China Campaign (1860). * William Hicks (Royal Navy Officer), William Hicks covered the Battle of Trafalgar for ''The Times'' (1805) * William Howard Russell covered The Crimean War (1854–1855) * Winston Churchill (1874–1965); covered the Siege of Malakand, the Mahdist War and the Second Boer War.


20th century

Some of them became authors of fiction drawing on their war experiences, including Davis, Crane and Hemingway. *Aernout van Lynden *Al Gore (born 1948); covered the Vietnam War. *Alan Moorehead; Australian reporter, covered World War II with units of General Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Bernard Montgomery, author of several books on the war. *Albert K. Dawson (1885–1967); American photographer and film correspondent with the German, Austrian and Bulgarian army during World War I *Alexander Clifford; covered World War II *Alexander Gault MacGowan (1894–1970); correspondent for ''The Sun (New York), The Sun'' (New York), reported from the front lines in World War II. *Alexandra Boulat *Anderson Cooper (born 1967); war correspondent for CNN who covered Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda. *Anna Politkovskaya *Anne O'Hare McCormick *Basil Clarke (1879–1947); covered the fighting on the Western Front (World War I), Western Front during WWI, living as a fugitive in Battle of Dunkirk, Dunkirk during the early part of the War and then as an accredited reporter at the Battle of the Somme in late 1916. he also covered the Eastern Front (World War I), Eastern Front and the Easter Rising and later became the UK's first public relations officer. *Bernard B. Fall; (1926–1967); covered the First Indochina War and the Vietnam War (where he was killed by a landmine). *Betty Knox (1906–1963); dancer with Wilson, Keppel and Betty and war correspondent for the ''London Evening Standard'' during WWII *Betty Wason *Bill Boss (1917–2007); Canadian war correspondent, for the Canadian Press, who covered World War II. *Bill Downs (1914–1978); one of the "Murrow Boys" who covered the Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Front, the Operation Overlord, Normandy landings, and later covered the Korean War. *Bill Shadel *Blaise Cendrars *Burton Crane (1901–1963); covered occupied Japan after World War II and the Korean War for ''The New York Times''. *Catherine Leroy (1945–2006); French freelance photographer, covered the Vietnam War. *Cecil Brown (journalist), Cecil Brown *Charles Collingwood (journalist), Charles Collingwood *Charles Shaw (journalist), Charles Shaw *Chas Gerretsen (born 1943); covered the war in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos and received the Robert Capa Gold Medal Award for his coverage of the 1973 Chilean coup d'état *Chester Wilmot *Chris Hedges *Chris Morris (journalist), Christopher Morris *Clair Kenamore, ''St. Louis Post-Dispatch,'' early 20th century *Clare Hollingworth; covered World War II, Algerian War, Vietnam War, Bangladesh Liberation War (1971). *Cork Graham (born 1964); imprisoned in Vietnam for illegal entry, illegally entering the country while looking for buried treasure, treasure buried by Captain Kidd. *Corra Harris; early women correspondent in World War I. *Curzio Malaparte *Dan Rather; Covered Vietnam War for CBS News for several months in 1966–67. *David Douglas Duncan *David Halberstam (1934–2007); American journalist, ''The New York Times''. Covered the war in the Congo and the Vietnam War for which he won the Pulitzer Prize. *Derek Round (1935–2012); Covered the Vietnam War. *Dickey Chapelle (1918–1965); covered the Pacific War, the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Vietnam War (where she was killed by a landmine). She was the first female US war correspondent to be killed in action. *Don McCullin; British photographer. Covered conflicts in Northern Ireland, Vietnam, Biafra. *Edgar Rice Burroughs; WWII—covered the attack on Pearl Harbor. Became one of the oldest war correspondents ever. *Edward R. Murrow (1908–1965); Covered the Blitz in London and the European Theater during World War II for CBS News. Hired a team of foreign correspondents for CBS News who became known as the "Murrow Boys". *Edwin Leland James, Edwin L. James (1890–1951); covered World War I for ''The New York Times'' *Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett (1881–1931); covered the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. *Eric Lloyd Williams *Eric Sevareid *Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961); covered the 1922 Great Fire of Smyrna, Catastrophe of Smyrna in Turkey, the Spanish Civil War and World War II. *Ernie Pyle; Scripps-Howard Newspapers, reported human interest stories from the front lines in World War II, Pulitzer Prize, 1944. Pyle was killed by a machine gun burst on the island of Iejima in April 1945, while covering ongoing conflict on the island. *Frank Hewlett (1913–1983); covered WW2 in the Philippines *Frank Palmos (1940–); Vietnam War 1965–1968, Indonesian Civil War 1965–66. *Gary Knight (born 1964); British photojournalist. Covered conflicts in: Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan war. *Gaston Chérau (Niort (France) 1872 - Boston (USA) 1937). French war correspondent and photograph for ''Le Matin'' during the Italo-Turkish war over Libya (1911-1912) and for ''L'Illustration'' at the beginning of World War I (1914-1915). See : Pierre Schill, ''Réveiller l’archive d’une guerre coloniale. Photographies et écrits de Gaston Chérau, correspondant de guerre lors du conflit italo-turc pour la Libye (1911-1912)'', Créaphis, 2018, 480p.et 230 photographies. *George Lewis (journalist), George Lewis (NBC News); covered Vietnam War 1970–1973 *George Polk *George Sessions Perry (1910–1956); Writer who covered WWII for ''Harper's Weekly'' and the ''Saturday Evening Post''. Accompanied troops on invasions of Italy and France. Said after the war that his war experiences "de-fictionalized" him for life and never wrote fiction again. *Georgie Anne Geyer (born 1935); covered the Guatemalan Civil War and the Algerian Civil War. *Gloria Emerson (1929–2004); covered the Vietnam War for ''The New York Times'' in 1970–72 and wrote the book ''Winners and Losers (book), Winners and Losers'' which won the National Book Award. *Greg Clark (journalist), Greg Clarke (1892–1977); Canadian war correspondent who covered World War I and II. *Helen Kirkpatrick (1909–1997); covered World War II including The Blitz, Normandy Invasion and Liberation of France. *Henry Tilton Gorrell (1911–1958); United Press correspondent. Covered the Spanish Civil War and World War II. Author of "Soldier of the Press, Covering the Front in Europe and North Africa, 1936–1943" in 2009. *Horst Faas (1933–2012); Associated Press Saigon Photographer, two Pulitzer Prices, co author "Lost Over Laos", "Requiem", "Henri Huet". Covered the Congo War, Algeria, Vietnam, Bangladesh. *Howard K. Smith *J. C. Furnas; covered World War II. *Jack London *Jacques Leslie; Cambodian–Vietnamese War correspondent for the ''Los Angeles Times'', 1972–1973, 1975. Leslie was the first American journalist to enter and return from Viet Cong (National Liberation Front) territory in South Vietnam, in January 1973. *James Nachtwey (born 1948); American photographer. Covered Northern Ireland, South Africa, Iraq, Sudan, Indonesia, India, Rwanda, Chechnya, Pakistan, Kosovo, Bosnia, Romania, Afghanistan, Israel. *Jean Leune (1889–1944); and Hélène Leune, Hélène Vitivilia Leune (?–1940), French war correspondents who as a married couple covered the First Balkan War in Greece 1912–1913. *Jessie Pope; was a pro war journalist and poet during the first world war. *Jim G. Lucas; Scripps-Howard Newspapers, reported human interest stories from the front lines in World War II, Korea and Vietnam. *Jim McGlincy (1917–1988); United Press correspondent, covered World War II in London and the War in Vietnam (1945–46), postwar conflict in French Indochina. *Joe Sacco; comics artist who covered the Gulf War and Bosnian War *Johannes-Matthias Hönscheid; covered World War II, only correspondent to receive the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross *John MacVane *John Pilger *John Reed (journalist), John Reed (1887–1920); covered the Mexican Revolution, the First World War, and the Russian Revolution (1917), Russian Revolution, author of ''Ten Days that Shook the World'' *John Rich (war correspondent), John Rich (1917–2014); American journalist. Covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War for NBC News. *John Steinbeck *Joseph Kessel *Joseph L. Galloway (born November 13, 1941); UPI correspondent in Vietnam and co-author of ''We Were Soldiers Once...and Young''. *Joseph Morton (journalist), Joseph Morton (born in 1911 or 1913, died in 1945); Associated Press war correspondent, the first American correspondent to be executed by the enemy during World War II. *Karsten Thielker (born 1966); German photojournalist. Covered Rwanda Genocide, Kosovo. 1995 Pulitzer Prize. *Kate Adie (born 1945); covered the Gulf War, Yugoslav Wars, Rwandan genocide and the Sierra Leone Civil War. *Kate Webb (1943–2007); covered the Vietnam and Cambodian wars for UPI; captured by the North Vietnamese in Cambodia in 1971 and held for three weeks; covered East Timor war. Later Gulf War, Indonesia, Afghanistan for AFP. *Kurt Eggers (1905–1943); World War II SS correspondent, editor of the SS magazine ''Das Schwarze Korps'', was killed while reporting on the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking, Wiking's battles near Kharkov. The German SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers was named in his honor. *Kurt Schork *Larry Burrows (1927–1971); British photojournalist famous for his work in the Vietnam War. Killed in a helicopter crash over Laos with three colleagues. *Larry LeSueur; CBS radio correspondent, reported from rooftops during World War II London The Blitz, blitzes, went ashore in the first waves of the D-Day invasion, and broadcast to America the Allied liberation of Paris. One of the "Murrow Boys". *Lothar-Günther Buchheim (1918–2007); covered ''Kriegsmarine'' patrols during the World War II, most notably the famous seventh patrol in the Battle of the Atlantic which was eventually taken as basis for the Academy awards, Oscar nominated movie and mini-series ''Das Boot'' ("The Boat"). *Louis Grondijs (1878–1961); covered Russo-Japanese War, World War I, the Russian Civil War, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the Spanish Civil War. *Luc Delahaye *Macdonald Hastings *Margaret Bourke-White (1904–1971); first female war correspondent, photographed Buchenwald concentration camp *Marguerite Higgins; paved the way for female war correspondents. *Marie Colvin; considered one of the most influential correspondents of past 20 years, killed in Homs, Syria. *Martha Gellhorn (1908–1998); covered the Spanish Civil War, World War II, Vietnam War, the Six-Day War, and the U.S. invasion of Panama. *Martin Bell (born 1938); covered the Vietnam War, Biafra War, The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Angolan Civil War and the Bosnian War. *Mary Marvin Breckinridge, Marvin Breckinridge Patterson (1905–2002); covered World War II. *Max Hastings *Michael Birch (journalist), Michael Birch (1944–1968); killed in Saigon during Tet while covering the Vietnam War. *Michael Herr (1940–2016); American writer for ''Esquire (magazine), Esquire'' in the Vietnam War (1967–68). Book: ''Dispatches'', Screenplay: ''Full Metal Jacket'' Voice-over narration for ''Apocalypse Now''. *Morley Safer; Covered Vietnam War for CBS News in 1965 and made documentary film, ''Morley Safer's Vietnam''. *Nakayama Gishu *Neil Davis (cameraman), Neil Davis; Australian combat cameraman covered the Vietnam War, Cambodia and Laos and subsequently conflicts in Africa. He was killed in 1985 in Thailand. *Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006); Italian journalist, author and Giustizia e Libertà, partisan. Covered the Vietnam War, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts, Indo-Pakistani War, Middle East, and in South America. *Osmar White *Patrick Chauvel *Paul Wood (journalist), Paul Wood; BBC defense correspondent in the Middle East covering the Arab World since 2003. *Peggy Hull (1889–1967); covered World War I and World War II *Peter Arnett (born 1934); covered the Vietnam War, 1991 Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), 2001 Invasion of Afghanistan and the 2003 Iraq War. *Peter Cave (born 1952); covered the Gulf War, Yugoslav Wars, the Coconut War in the New Hebrides, Iraq War, Tiananmen Square in Beijing, 2006 Lebanon War, Lebanon, 2011 Egyptian revolution, Egypt and 2011 Libyan Civil War, Libya *Peter Scholl-Latour (1922–2014); German journalist who covered conflicts in Africa and Asia, Algeria, Vietnam, Angola, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Cambodia, etc. Author of 30 books. *Philip Gibbs; Official war Correspondent for Britain during World War I. *Philip Jones Griffiths (1936–2008); British photojournalist who covered the Vietnam War. *Ralph Barnes (journalist), Ralph Barnes (1899–1940); the first war correspondent killed during World War II *Ralph Morse; (born 1917) covered World War II *Richard C. Hottelet *Richard Dimbleby (1913–1965); covered World War II *Richard Tregaskis; author of ''Guadalcanal Diary'', dramatized in movie of same name. *Robert Capa (1913–1954); covered the Spanish Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, the European Theatre of World War II and the First Indochina War (where he was killed by a landmine). *Robert Goralski; NBC News correspondent. Covered the Vietnam War; provided witness testimony in the My Lai massacre trials. *Robert Pierpoint (journalist), Robert Pierpoint *Robert Sherrod; World War II, Pacific theatre, Guadalcanal and Tarawa/Saipan *Ron Haviv *Roy Pinney (1911–2010); covered World War II and was present at the Normandy landing on D-Day for the Normandy Invasion. He also covered the Yom Kippur War in the Gaza Strip and conflicts in Afghanistan, the Philippines, South Africa and Colombia. *Ruth Cowan Nash (1943-1945); First American woman war correspondent. Covered Women's Army Corps, Women's Army Auxiliary Corps and their first deployment in Algeria. *Sigrid Schultz *Simon Dring; British correspondent for Reuters, ''The Daily Telegraph, London Daily Telegraph'', BBC-TV News; covered wars/revolutions in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Biafra, Cyprus, Angola, Eritrea, India-Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Bosnia, Middle East. *Steve McCurry (born 1950); American photographer. Covered Cambodian Civil War, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Gulf War. Member of Magnum Photos. *Sydney Schanberg; his experiences in Cambodia during the Vietnam War are dramatized in ''The Killing Fields (film), The Killing Fields'' *Sylvana Foa; correspondent in Vietnam and Cambodia. *Thomas C. Lea, III, Tom Lea (1907–2001); ''Life (magazine), Life'' painter and correspondent in both the European and Pacific theaters with the US Navy and the US 1st Marine Division. *Tim Judah (born 1962); covered El Salvador, Romanian Revolution, Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Darfur, Iraq, Ukraine. *Tom Grandin *Vassili Grossman *Vaughan Smith (born 1963); British cameraman, covered Afghanistan, Iraq, Bosnia, Chechnya, Kosova, Gulf War. *Vernon Arnold Haugland, Vern Haugland (1908–1984); Associated Press, World War II Pacific War, Pacific theater, first civilian awarded Silver Star medal *Vicente Huidobro covered World War II in Europe. *Waldemar Milewicz *Walter Cronkite (1916–2009); covered the European Theater during World War II for United Press. *Wilfred Burchett (1911–1983); covered the Pacific War, Korean War and Vietnam War. *William L. Shirer; Covered WWII for CBS News, one of the "Murrow Boys", and the author of "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich", a scholarly history. *William Pidgeon (1909-1981) artist and writer, principally for The Australian Women's Weekly. He visited Darwin, Northern Territory, Darwin, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Morotai and Borneo in World War II *Winston Burdett


21st century

* Martin Adler (1958–2006) Swedish video journalist, killed in Mogadishu, Somalia. Covered the Gulf War, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone. *Christiane Amanpour covered the Gulf War and the Bosnian War * Jon Lee Anderson covered the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Uganda, Israel, El Salvador, Ireland, Lebanon and Iran. *Andrew Beatty, embedded for Agence France-Presse, AFP during the 2011 Libyan Civil War and fired upon during the 2012 Benghazi attack *Ben Brown (journalist), Ben Brown covered the Gulf War *Mile Cărpenişan (born August 23, 1975 – died March 22, 2010) covered the Iraq War and Kosovo war *Mstyslav Chernov (Associated Press), covered the War in Donbass, Civil War in Syria, and US military operations in Iraq. *Marie Colvin (1956–2012) American UPI after ''The Sunday Times, Sunday Times'' journalist. Covering the conflict in Syria, Marie was killed in Homs. Covered conflicts in Sierra Leone, Chechnya, Sri Lanka, Libya *Dan Eldon (1970–1993) British photojournalist. Killed in Mogadishu, Somalia, by an angry mob while covering the Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Battle of Mogadishu *Richard Engel (born 1973), American who covered the Iraq War, the 2006 Lebanon War and the Syrian civil war (during which he was kidnapped but subsequently rescued) *Dexter Filkins (born 1961), covered wars in Iraq War, Iraq, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan, and Syrian Civil War, Syrian *Robert Fisk (1946–2020), British journalist, covered Northern Ireland conflict, Algerian Civil War, Beirut, Bosnia, Afghanistan, Lebanese Civil War, Iranian Revolution,
Iran–Iraq War , commander1 = Ruhollah Khomeini , commander2 = , units1 = see Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War, order of battle , units2 = see Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War, order of battle , ...
, the 1991 Persian Gulf War,
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started 28 February 1998 and lasted until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war ...
and the 2003 Iraq War. *Janine di Giovanni (1990–present) reported wars in Bosnia, Africa, the Middle East and, more recently, Syria. *Aziz Ullah Haidari (1968 – November 19, 2001); covered the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan war *Michael Hastings (journalist), Michael Hastings (1980–2013) covered the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan War *Tim Hetherington (1970–2011) British Photographer and documentary filmmaker, covered Afghanistan, Liberia and was killed in Libya. *Chris Hondros (1970–2011) American photographer, covered conflicts in Liberia, Angola, Sierra Leone, Kosovo and was killed in Misrata, Libya, in 2011. *Wojciech Jagielski *Gilles Jacquier (1968–2012) French cameraman for France 2 Television. He was the first reporter killed in Syrian Civil War. *Sebastian Junger, American Journalist and documentary filmmaker, covered conflicts in Bosnia and Afghanistan, *Ryszard Kapuściński *Joseph Kessel * Rick Leventhal (born 1960) covered the wars in Kosovo War, Kosovo, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan, Iraq War, Iraq and 2011 Libyan Civil War, Libya *Terry Lloyd (1952–2003), British television journalist, covered the Middle East. He was killed by U.S. troops while covering the 2003 invasion of Iraq for ITN. * Anthony Loyd (born 1966) covered Bosnia and Chechnya * Karen Maron * Kenji Nagai (1957–2007) Japanese photographer. Covered Afghanistan War. Kenji was killed in Yangon, Burma. *Remy Ourdan *Iain Overton, who has written two books on conflict. *Robert Young Pelton, best known for his 1,000+ page guide to warzones and survival, ''The World's Most Dangerous Places''. *Arturo Pérez-Reverte, worked for Pueblo newspaper and Spanish Televisión Española, TVE. Covered the Bosnian War among others * Nir Rosen; covered the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) *İrfan Sapmaz (born 1962) Turkish senior war correspondent; covered the Soviet-Afghan War from 1987 for six years onwards, as well as the Gulf Wars and more-recent conflicts in the Middle East for CNN Türk. *Giuliana Sgrena * Anthony Shadid (1968-2012) covered Iraq war, Arab spring. Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting 2004 & 2009. *Heba Shibani *John Simpson (journalist), John Simpson * Kevin Sites * Daniel Wakefield Smith *Michael Ware (born 1969); ongoing coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, invasion and Iraq War, occupation of Iraq. Reporting from the perspectives of all combatant groups. *Olivier Weber covered the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), in Israel, Iran, Eritrea, Algeria, Pakistan and a dozen other conflicts. *Mika Yamamoto (1967–2012) Japanese photographer and TV journalist. Killed on August 20, 2012, in Aleppo, while covering the Syrian Civil War * Isobel Yeung Covered conflicts in Yemen, Syria, Philippines. * Michael Yon (born 1964); former Special Forces (United States Army), Green Beret, turned journalist and author. Embedded journalism, Embedded with American, British and Lithuanian combat units in Iraq War


Books by war correspondents

* * Previous ed. also available. * * * *Junger, Sebastian (2010). War


War correspondent under International Humanitarian Law

Journalists in a war zone are protected by the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their additional protocols. In general journalists are considered civilians so they have all rights related to the civilians in a conflict.


See also

* Breathing (memorial sculpture) * Embedded journalism *''Headline Hunters (1945 film), Headline Hunters'', a 1945 newsreel short about Canadian WWII war correspondents * Journalists of the Balkan Wars * List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War * Military journalism * Peace journalism * Press pool * War correspondents 1942–1943


References

* Stephen D. Reese, Stephen D., Oscar H. Gandy and August E. Grant. (2001)
''Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World''
Maywah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
OCLC 46383772
* ''War Torn: Stories of War from the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam'' by Tad Bartimus. NY: Random House, 2002. * ''On Their Own: Women Journalists and the American Experience in Vietnam'' by Joyce Hoffmann. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2008. ; se
Author Interview
at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library on October 30, 2008


External links


War Correspondents: A Book Bibliography


* "Covering D-Day: An Allied Journalist's Perspective" – a report written by David J. Marcou for ''British Heritage'' magazine for the 60th anniversary of D-Day
Biographical dictionary of 24,000+ British and Irish journalists who died between 1800 and 1960
{{DEFAULTSORT:War Correspondent Reporting specialties People associated with war War correspondents, *