video production
   HOME

TheInfoList



Video production is the process of producing
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active de ...

video
content for TV, home video or the internet. It is the equivalent of
filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through , , pre-production, shooting, sound recordi ...
, but with video recorded either as analog signals on
videotape Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material. Thicker plastic material i ...
, digitally in video tape or as computer files stored on optical discs, hard drives, SSDs, magnetic tape or memory cards instead of
film stock Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is ...
. There are three stages of video production: pre-production, production (also known as principal photography), and post-production. Pre-production involves all of the planning aspects of the video production process before filming begins. This includes scriptwriting, scheduling, logistics, and other administrative duties. Production is the phase of video production which captures the video content (electronic moving images) and involves filming the subject(s) of the video. Post-production is the action of selectively combining those video clips through
video editing Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video Video is an Electronics, electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving picture, moving image, visual Media (communication), media. Vid ...
into a finished product that tells a story or communicates a message in either a live event setting (live production), or after an event has occurred (post-production). Currently, the majority of video content is captured through
electronic media Electronic media are media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Br ...
like an
SD card Secure Digital, officially abbreviated as SD, is a proprietary format, proprietary non-volatile memory, non-volatile memory card format developed by the SD Association, SD Association (SDA) for use in portable devices. The standard was introduce ...

SD card
for consumer grade cameras, or on
solid state storage A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies to store data Persistence (computer science), persistently, typically using flash memory, and functioning as secondary storage in the Computer d ...
and
flash storage Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machine ...
for professional grade cameras. Video content that is distributed digitally on the internet often appears in common formats such as the
MPEG The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working group A working group, or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activit ...
container format (.mpeg, .mpg, .mp4),
QuickTime QuickTime is an extensible multimedia framework A multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to traditi ...

QuickTime
(.mov),
Audio Video Interleave Audio Video Interleave (also Audio Video Interleaved), known by its initials AVI and the .avi filename extension A filename extension, file extension or file type is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name A name is a term used for i ...
(.avi),
Windows Media Video Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codec A video codec is software or Computer hardware, hardware that data compression, compresses and Uncompressed video, decompresses digital video. In the context of video compression, ''codec'' is ...
(.wmv), and
DivX DivX is a brand of video codec A video codec is software or Computer hardware, hardware that data compression, compresses and Uncompressed video, decompresses digital video. In the context of video compression, ''codec'' is a portmanteau of '' ...
(.avi, .divx).


Types of videos

There are many different types of video production. The most common include film and TV production, television commercials, internet commercials, corporate videos, product videos, customer testimonial videos, marketing videos, event videos, wedding videos. The term "Video Production" is reserved only for content creation that is taken through all phases of production (Pre-production, Production, and Post-production) and created with a specific audience in mind. A person filming a concert, or their child's band recital with a smartphone or video camera for the sole purpose of capturing the memory would fall under the category of "home movies" not video production.


Production scale

Production scale is determined by crew size and not the location of the production, or the type of content captured. Crew size in most cases will determine a projects quality and is not a limitation of what kind of content can be captured. There are feature films that have been captured by a crew of just 2 people, and corporate videos that leverage teams of 10 or more. Some examples of production scale include: *A solo camera operator with a professional video camera in a single-camera setup (aka a "one-man band"). *A small crew of 2 people, one for operating the camera and one for capturing audio. *A multiple-camera setup shoot with multiple camera operators and a small crew with support staff. *A larger scale production with a crew of 5 or more people and a trailer or production truck


Shooting styles and techniques

The same shooting styles used in
filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through , , pre-production, shooting, sound recordi ...
can also be used in video production. There is not a singular type of style that is used for every kind of video content captured. Instead, style changes depending on the type of video being created, and the desired tone and message of the video. *Tripods for a stable shots (also called a locked down shot) *Hand-held for a more energetic and jittery feel - often used to depict natural movement *Non-leveled camera angles see
Dutch angle The Dutch angle, also known as Dutch tilt, canted angle, or oblique angle, is a type of camera shot which involves setting the camera at an angle on its roll axis so that the shot is composed with vertical lines at an angle to the side of the fram ...
* Whip pan and Whip zoom *Vertical motion shots using a jib or crane often in the beginning or ends of videos/ *Steadicam for smooth movement and tracking shots at slower speeds such as moving through rooms or following actors and action. *3-axis stabilized gimbal for smooth motion shots at any speed. The gimbal compensates for the camera operators movements much like a steadicam but through electronic motors instead of through inertia. The gimbal allows for operators to move much more freely than a steadicam because of the considerably smaller amount of weight used in a gimbal setup. Gimbals can access many places that would be impossible for a steadicam because of this added portability.


Corporate video

Corporate videos production can be scripted and covers a wide range of purposes from corporate
Communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

Communication
,
Training Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any s and or that relate to specific . Training has specific goals of improving one's , capacity, and . It forms the core of s and provides the backbone of content at (also known as ...

Training
and
Education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, lea ...

Education
, videotaping conferences and conventions, products and services, and sales. The most common type of corporate video is the "Corporate Overview Video," which introduces the company's executive team and puts a name and face to the people incharge. This video is used as a way to communicate a company's core beliefs and values as well as their overall mission statement. This video is often called the "foundation" of a company's video content as it sets the tone and communication style for all of their other video content.


Corporate event videos

Corporate event videos occur at conventions or trade shows and cover the multiple-day event including speakers, break-out sessions, awards ceremonies and local recreational activities in which the conventioneers participate. An on-site editor then creates a short video presentation that is shown before the close of the convention. Many national or international companies also take advantage of the convention venue to gather interviews of their key employees or customers to speak on the company's behalf as it is much easier to film everyone at a central location.


Product videos

Product videos are created with the main purpose of selling a product and offer an opportunity to communicate all of the highlights and features of a product which are typically written on the product page in text but with the added bonus of showcasing glamour shots of the product. The most effective product videos are typically between 2 and 3 minutes in duration, balancing the amount of information provided while keeping the audience engaged.


Television broadcast

Two styles of producing video are ''ENG'' (
Electronic news-gathering File:MSH04 news media trucks at CVO office 10-02-04 med.jpg, Microwave trucks seen transmitting. Modern news employs these trucks extensively. Electronic news-gathering (ENG) is when Journalist, reporters and editors make use of Electronics, ele ...
) and ''EFP'' (
Electronic field production Electronic field production (EFP) is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three ...
). Television broadcast productions include
television commercials A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial, advert, TV advert or simply an ad) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization. It conveys a message promoting, and aiming to market, ...
,
infomercial An infomercial is a form of television commercial that resembles regular TV programming yet is intended to promote or sell a product, service or idea. It generally includes a toll-free telephone number or website. Most often used as a form of dir ...
s,
newscast News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic medium (communication), mass communications medium, but typically one using th ...
s,
variety shows Variety show, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is entertainment made up of a variety of acts including musical theatre, musical performances, sketch comedy, magic (illusion), magic, acrobatics, juggling, and ventriloquism. It is ...
,
game shows A game show is a type of radio, television or stage show where contestants regularly compete for a reward. The history of game shows dates back to the invention of television as a medium. On most game shows, contestants either have to answer que ...
,
live television Live television is a television production upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A televisio ...
documentaries A documentary film is a non-fictional motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record". Bill Nichols has characterised the documentary in terms of "a filmma ...
,
news magazines '' 2512'', a monthly news magazine published in Réunion. A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine, radio or television program, usually published weekly, consisting of articles about current events. News magazines generally ...
,
sitcom A sitcom, clipping Clipping may refer to: Words * Clipping (morphology) In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for stud ...
s, and
reality show Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations, often starring unknown people rather than professional actors. Reality television emerged as a distinct genre in the early 1990s ...
s, among others. Shows can be distributed by
broadcast syndication Broadcast syndication is the practice of leasing the right to broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or gen ...
. SP video production was the
broadcast television Broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notio ...
standard from the early 1980s up until the beginning of the 21st century, when many
television station A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content and audio content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the eart ...
s began using digital media to shoot, transmit, and store
High-definition High definition or HD may refer to: Visual technologies *HD DVD, discontinued optical disc format *HD Photo, former name for the JPEG XR image file format *HDV, format for recording high-definition video onto magnetic tape *HiDef, 24 frames-per- ...
(HD) footage.


Event video

Video production can be used at sporting, school, stage, wedding, church, and similar events to provide recordings of the events. Event video productions range in distribution from a wedding video that is custom made for a bride and groom and their immediate family and friends, to a dance recital where dozens to hundreds of videos are sold to individual dancers. Event video production can also be used to broadcast events live to viewers at home such as a press conference or concert. Video of live events can be sent by microwave or a satellite truck from the event location to a television studio in order to be broadcast. Event video usually refers to video made on an event, and has some sort of currency, for example news


Video production for distance education

Video production for distance education is the process of capturing, editing, and presenting educational material specifically for use in on-line education. Teachers integrate best practice teaching techniques to create scripts, organize content, capture video footage, edit footage using computer based video editing software to deliver final educational material over the Internet. It differs from other types of video production in at least three ways: *It augments traditional teaching tools used in on-line educational programs. *It may incorporate motion video with sound, computer animations, stills, and other digital media. *Capture of content may include use of cell phone integrated cameras and extend to commercial high-definition Broadcast quality cameras. The primary purpose of using video in distance education is to improve understanding and comprehension in a synchronous or asynchronous manner.Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, M. G. (2012). 'Distance education: A systems view of on line learning'. (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Webcasting A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or ...
is also being used in education for distance learning projects; one innovative use was the ''DiveLive'' programs. For example,
Nautilus Productions Nautilus Productions LLC is an American video production, stock footage Stock footage, and similarly, archive footage, library pictures, and file footage is film or video footage that can be used again in other films. Stock footage is benefici ...
details an exploration of a notable shipwreck:
"In the fall of 2000 Rick Allen's Nautilus Productions co-produced with Bill Lovin of Marine Grafics a groundbreaking, week long live internet broadcast known as ''QAR DiveLive'' from the
Blackbeard Edward Teach (alternatively spelled Edward Thatch, – 22 November 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was an English pirate Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the worl ...

Blackbeard
wreck site. For the first time ever, live video and audio was broadcast from an underwater archaeological site to the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational w ...
. Students were able to watch the
underwater archaeology Wreck of ''E. Russ'' in national heritage monument.">National heritage site">national heritage monument. Underwater archaeology is archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of ...

underwater archaeology
in real time and ask questions of the scientists exploring the
shipwreck A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be deliberate or accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have ...

shipwreck
. The twice-daily live distance learning programs reached an estimated 1600 students from as far away as Canada during the five days of broadcasting. In October of 2001 Allen and Lovin again co-produced ''QAR DiveLive 2001''. This time the interactive webcasts from the seafloor and conservation laboratories of the ''
Queen Anne's Revenge ''Queen Anne's Revenge'' was an early-18th-century ship, most famously used as a flagship by Edward Teach, better known by his nickname Blackbeard. Although the date and place of the ship's construction are uncertain, it was originally believed s ...
'' Shipwreck Project reached over 3600 students and another 2700 remote viewers from fifteen states and 2 countries during the five days of broadcasts."


Internet video production

Increasing internet speeds, the transition to digital from physical formats such as tape to file-based media and the availability of cloud-based video services has increased use of the internet to provision services previously delivered on-premise in the context of commercial content creation for example
video editing Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video Video is an Electronics, electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving picture, moving image, visual Media (communication), media. Vid ...

video editing
. In some cases the lower costs of equivalent services in the cloud has driven adoption and in others the greater scope for collaboration and time savings. Many web sites include videos. Although not necessarily produced online, many video production tools allow the production of videos without actually using a physical camera. An example of this is using the
YouTube YouTube is an American and owned by . It was launched on February 14, 2005 by , , and . It is the website, right after Google itself. YouTube has more than one billion monthly users who collectively watch more than one billion hours of vi ...

YouTube
video editor to create a video using pre-existing video content that is held on the platform under
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
license. Video content is being used in an ever-growing range of contexts, including testimonial videos, web presenter videos, help section videos, interviews, parodies, product demonstrations, training videos, thank you videos, and apology videos. Marketing videos are made on the basis of the campaign target. Explainer videos are used for explaining a product, commercial videos for introducing a company, sales videos for selling a product, and social media videos for brand awareness. Individual Internet marketing videos are primarily produced in-house and by small media agencies, while a large volume of videos are produced by big media companies,
crowdsourced Crowdsourcing is a wikt:sourcing, sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services , goods or services, including ideas, voting, micro-tasks and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly evolving g ...
production marketplaces, or in scalable video production platforms. Most Internet marketing videos serve the purpose of interacting with the audience. The two main types of internet marketing videos are transactional videos, which aim to sell a product to a customer, and reference videos, which are designed to keep the customer on the site.


See also

*
B-roll In film and television production, B-roll, B roll, B-reel or B reel is supplemental or alternative footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital mov ...
* List of video topics *
Television studies Television studies is an academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), sk ...


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Video Production
Broadcast engineering This Wikipedia:categories, category comprises articles pertaining to the radio frequency Broadcasting, broadcast transmission (telecom), transmission of Sound, audiovisual Wiktionary:signal, signals or data. For articles pertaining to the techno ...
Film and video technology
Television terminology {{CatAutoTOC Terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and ...
* Articles containing video clips