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A doctor of both laws, from the Latin ''doctor utriusque juris'', or ''juris utriusque doctor'', or ''doctor juris utriusque'' ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a
scholar A scholar is a person who pursues academic and intellectual activities, particularly academics who apply their intellectualism into expertise in an area of study. A scholar can also be an academic An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is t ...
who has acquired a
doctorate A doctorate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around pr ...
in both civil and
church law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule, line gauge, or scale, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to ...
. The degree was common among
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus (Romulus and Remus, legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan c ...
and German scholars of the Middle Ages and early modern times. Today the degree is awarded by the
Pontifical Lateran University The Pontifical Lateran University ( it, Pontificia Università Lateranense; la, Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis), also known as Lateranum, is a pontifical university based in Rome. The university also hosts the central session of the Pontif ...
after a period of six years of study, by the
University of Würzburg The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg (also referred to as the University of Würzburg, in German ''Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg'') is a public research university in Würzburg Würzburg (; Main-Franconian: ) is a List of ...
, and by the
University of Fribourg The University of Fribourg (french: Université de Fribourg; german: Universität Freiburg) is a public university, public university located in Fribourg, Switzerland. The roots of the university can be traced back to 1580, when the notable Je ...
, as well as the
University of Cologne The University of Cologne (german: Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was established in the year 1388 and is one of the most prestigious and research intensive universities in Germany. It was the sixth university to ...
. Between approximately the twelfth through the eighteenth centuries European students of law mastered the ''Ius commune'', a pan-European legal system that held sway during that span. It was composed of canon (church) law and Roman and feudal (civil) law, resulting in the degree of "Doctor of both laws". or of "Licentiatus of both laws".


Doctors of Civil and Canon Law

* Agliardi, Antonio,
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Animals * Cardinal (bird) or Cardinalidae, a family of North and South American birds **''Cardinalis'', genus of cardinal in the family Cardinalidae **''Cardinalis cardinalis'', or northern cardinal, the ...
, Camerlengo of the
Sacred College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is , of whom are eligible to vote in a ...
* Arregui Yarza, Antonio,
Metropolitan Archbishop Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a typ ...
of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guayaquil The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Guayaquil ( la, Archidioecesis Guayaquilensis) is an archdiocese located in the city of Guayaquil in Ecuador. Special churches *Minor Basilica: ** Basílica de Nuestra Señora de La Merced in Guayaq ...
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Ikwayur''; Shuar language, Shuar: ''Ecuador'' or ''Ekuatur''), officially the Republic of Ecuador ( es, República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechuan ...
*
Thomas Bach Thomas Bach (born 29 December 1953) is a German lawyer, former Olympic foil fencer and Olympic gold medalist, serving as the ninth and current president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (educati ...
*
Pope Benedict XIV Pope Benedict XIV ( la, Benedictus XIV; it, Benedetto XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 17 August 1740 to his death in May 1758.Antipope ...
* Bevilacqua, Anthony, Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia (USA) * Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin * St. Charles Borromeo *
Edoardo Borromeo Edoardo Borromeo (3 August 1822 – 30 November 1881) was an Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Maestro di Camera del Papa, ''Maestro di Camera'' to Pius IX and was Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Vito, Modesto ...
*
Giacomo Luigi Brignole Giacomo Luigi Brignole (8 May 1797 – 23 June 1853) was a cardinal (catholicism), Catholic Cardinal and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Early life Brignole was born on 8 May 1797 in Genoa, then the capital of the Republic of ...
*
Giovanni Battista Bussi (1755–1844) Giovanni Battista Bussi (Viterbo, 23 January 1755 – Benevento, 31 January 1844) was an Italian cleric. He was raised to cardinal by pope Leo XII in the consistory of 3 May 1824. References External links

*http://www.catholic-hierarchy.o ...
*
Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (14 December 1797 – 13 January 1867) was a Catholic Cardinal A cardinal ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally 'cardinal of the Holy Roman Church') is a senior member of the clergy of the C ...
*
Étienne Hubert de Cambacérès Étienne, a French analog of Stephen or Steven, is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a forename or first name) is the part of a personal name quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a middle name as well, and ...
*
Giovanni Battista Caprara Giovanni Battista Caprara Montecuccoli (1733 – 1810) was an Italian statesman and Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal and archbishop of Milan from 1802 to 1810. As a papal diplomat he served in the embassies in Cologne, Lausanne, and Vienna. As L ...
*
Filippo Giudice Caracciolo Filippo Giudice Caracciolo was an Italian people, Italian prelate who was archbishop of Naples from 1833 to 1844. Life Born into a House of Caracciolo, noble family in Naples on 27 March 1785, he entered the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, Orat ...
*
Domenico Carafa della Spina di Traetto Domenico Carafa della Spina di Traetto (12 July 1805 – 17 June 1879) was a Cardinal (catholicism), Catholic Cardinal, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Benevento, Archbishop of Benevento and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Personal l ...
*
Francesco Carafa di Trajetto Francesco Carafa della Spina di Trajetto (29 April 1722, Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome ...
* Carafa, Pierluigi (iuniore),
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Animals * Cardinal (bird) or Cardinalidae, a family of North and South American birds **''Cardinalis'', genus of cardinal in the family Cardinalidae **''Cardinalis cardinalis'', or northern cardinal, the ...
, Camerlengo of the
Sacred College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is , of whom are eligible to vote in a ...
, Dean of the College of Cardinals * Luigi Dadaglio, Cardinal,
Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary The Apostolic Penitentiary (), formerly called the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is a dicastery of the Roman Curia and is one of the three ordinary tribunals of the Holy See, Apostolic See. The Apostolic Penitentiary is chiefl ...
* Antonio Despuig y Dameto * Michele di Pietro * Domenico Ferrata, Cardinal, Secretary of State * Giuseppe Milesi Pironi Ferretti * Michael J. Fitzgerald, Auxiliary Bishop of the
Archdiocese of Philadelphia The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Philadelphia is a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in Delaware Valley, southeastern Pennsylvania, in the United States. It covers the Philadelphia County, Penns ...
Official Biography. * Enrico Gasparri, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura *
Pietro Gasparri Pietro Gasparri, GCTE (5 May 1852 – 18 November 1934) was a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus (Romulus an ...
, Cardinal, Secretary of State, codifier of
1917 Code of Canon Law The 1917 ''Code of Canon Law'' (abbreviated 1917 CIC, from its Latin title ), also referred to as the Pio-Benedictine Code,Dr. Edward Peters accessed June-9-2013 was the first official comprehensive codification (law), codification of Canon law ...
* Pietro Giannelli * Giacomo Giustiniani *
Józef Glemp Józef Glemp (18 December 192923 January 2013) was a Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Warsaw The following is a list of the bishop A bishop is an ordained clergy member who is entrusted with a position of ...
, Cardinal, late Archbishop emeritus of Warsaw (
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called Voivodeships of Poland, voivodeships, covering an area of . Poland has a population of over 38 million and is ...
) *Archbishop
Filippo Iannone Filippo Iannone (born 13 December 1957) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who has been president of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts since April 2018. He has been a bishop since 2001 and an archbishop since 2012. He is a me ...
, appointed Vicegerent of the
Diocese of Rome The Diocese of Rome ( la, Dioecesis Urbis seu Romana; it, Diocesi di Roma) is the diocese, ecclesiastical district under the direct jurisdiction of the Pope, who is Bishop of Rome and hence the supreme pontiff and head of the worldwide Catholi ...
31 January 2012 * Stephan Kuttner, Professor, Catholic University of America, Yale University, and University of California at Berkeley, founder of the Stephan Kuttner Institute of Medieval Canon Law *
Carlo Laurenzi Carlo Laurenzi (12 January 1821 – 2 November 1893) was an Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Congregation of Rites, Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Rites from 1889 until his death, a ...
*
Pope Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII ( it, Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in July 1903. Living until the age of 93, he was the second-old ...
*
Alphonsus Maria de Liguori Alphonsus Liguori, CSsR (27 September 1696 – 1 August 1787), sometimes called Alphonsus Maria de Liguori or Saint Alphonsus Liguori, was an Italian Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the larges ...
, Bishop of
Sant'Agata de' Goti Sant'Agata de' Goti is a ''comune'' (municipality) and former Catholic bishopric in the Province of Benevento in the Italy, Italian region Campania, located about 35 km northeast of Naples and about 25 km west of Benevento near the Monte ...
* Listecki, Jerome Edward, Archbishop of Milwaukee (USA) * Vincenzo Macchi * Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei * Teodolfo Mertel, last
lay cardinal In the historical practice of the Catholic Church, a lay cardinal was a man whom the pope appointed to the College of Cardinals while still a laity, layman. This appointment carried with it the obligation to be ordained to a Holy orders in the Ca ...
in the Catholic Church * Denzil Meuli, priest of the diocese of Auckland * Alfonso Ortiz, editor of the Mozarabic Missal (1500) and Breviary (1502) * J. K. Paasikivi, President of Finland * Giovanni Panico, cardinal and nuncio * Salvatore Pappalardo, Cardinal, Archbishop of Palermo (
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region) ...
) * Thomas J. Paprocki, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois (USA) * Peters, Edward N., Catholic University of America, 1991 *
Luigi Poggi is a fictional character featured in video games and related media released by Nintendo. Created by Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, Luigi is portrayed as the younger fraternal twin brother and sidekick of Mario, Nintendo's masc ...
, Cardinal,
Archivist An archivist is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to Document, records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist c ...
and Librarian Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church * Mario Francesco Pompedda, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura *
Pietro Respighi Pietro Respighi S.T.D. JUD (22 September 1843 – 22 March 1913) was an Italian Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Animals * Cardinal (bird) or Cardinalidae, a family of North and South American birds **''Cardinalis'' ...
, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran * Gabriele della Genga Sermattei * K. J. Ståhlberg, President of Finland *
Alessandro Verde Alessandro Verde (27 March 1865 – 29 March 1958) was an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. Early life He was born in Sant'Antimo, and educated at the ...
, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Italy) * Pietro Vidoni * Carlo Maria Viganò, Archbishop at the centre of the
Vatileaks scandal The Vatican leaks scandal, also known as Vati-Leaks, is a scandal beginning in 2012 initially involving leaked Holy See, Vatican documents, exposing corruption; in addition, an internal Vatican investigation has purportedly uncovered the blackmail ...
* Jan Wężyk * Jean-Baptiste van Dievoet (1775-1862) JUL (Juris Utriusque Licentiatus) of the
Old University of Leuven The Old University of Leuven (or of Louvain) is the name historians give to the Medieval university, university, or ''studium generale'', founded in Leuven, Duchy of Brabant, Brabant (then part of the Burgundian Netherlands, now part of Belgium), ...
. * Antonín Theodor Colloredo-Waldsee, Cardinal, Archbishop of Olomouc


See also

*
Doctor of Canon Law Doctor of Canon Law ( la, Juris Canonici Doctor, JCD) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of Canon law (Catholic Church), canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. It can also be an honorary degree awarded by Anglican colleges. It ...
*
Legum Doctor Legum Doctor (Latin: “teacher of the laws”) (LL.D.) or, in English, Doctor of Laws A Doctor of Law is a degree in law Law is a set of rules that are created and are law enforcement, enforceable by social or governmental institution ...


References

{{Academic degrees Laws, Doctor Law degrees Religious degrees Dual academic degrees Academic canon law *