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The genitourinary system, or urogenital system, are the
organs In biology, an organ is a collection of Tissue (biology), tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the biological organization, hierarchy of life, an organ lies between Tissue (biology), tissue and an organ system. Tiss ...
of the
reproductive system The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system, is the biological system made up of all the anatomical sex organs, organs involved in sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pherom ...
and the
urinary system The urinary system, also known as the urinary tract or renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and bl ...
. These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of common pathways, like the male urethra. Also, because of their proximity, the systems are sometimes imaged together. The term "apparatus urogenitalis" was used in ''
Nomina Anatomica ''Nomina Anatomica'' (''NA'') was the international standard on human anatomic terminology from 1895 until it was replaced by ''Terminologia Anatomica'' in 1998. In the late nineteenth century some 30,000 terms for various body parts were in use ...
'' (under Splanchnologia) but is not used in the current ''
Terminologia Anatomica ''Terminologia Anatomica'' is the international standard for human anatomy, human anatomical terminology. It is developed by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminology, a program of the International Federation of Association ...
''.


Development

The urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the
intermediate mesoderm Intermediate mesoderm or intermediate mesenchyme is a narrow section of the mesoderm (one of the three primary germ layers) located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate of the developing embryo. The intermediate mesoderm develops in ...
. The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set of structures that are purely embryonic and that, with the exception of the ducts, disappear almost entirely before the end of fetal life. These embryonic structures are on either side: the
pronephros Pronephros is the most basic of the three excretory system, excretory organs that develop in vertebrates, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. It is succeeded by the mesonephros, which in fish and amphibians remains as the adult ...
, the
mesonephros The mesonephros ( el, middle kidney) is one of three excretory system, excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. It serves as the main excretory organ of aquatic vertebrates and as a temporary kidney in reptiles, birds, and mammals. The mesone ...
and the
metanephros Kidney development, or nephrogenesis, describes the embryology, embryologic origins of the kidney, a major organ in the urinary system. This article covers a 3 part developmental process that is observed in most reptiles, birds and mammals, includi ...
of the
kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organ (anatomy), organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult humans are about in length. They receive blood from the paired renal ...
, and the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts of the
sex organ A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproductive system. In animals, the testis in the male, and the ovary in the female, a ...
. The pronephros disappears very early; the structural elements of the mesonephros mostly degenerate, but the
gonad A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a Heterocrine gland, mixed gland that produces the Gamete, gametes and Sex hormone, sex hormones of an organism. Female reproductive cells are Egg cell, egg cells, and male reproductive cells are sp ...
is developed in their place, with which the Wolffian duct remains as the duct in males, and the Müllerian as that of the female. Some of the tubules of the mesonephros form part of the permanent kidney.


Disorders

Disorders of the genitourinary system includes a range of disorders from those that are asymptomatic to those that manifest an array of signs and symptoms. Causes for these disorders include congenital anomalies, infectious diseases, trauma, or conditions that secondarily involve the urinary structure. To gain access to the body,
pathogen In biology, a pathogen ( el, πάθος, "suffering", "passion" and , "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense, is any organism or agent that can produce disease. A pathogen may also be referred to as an infectious agent, or simply a Germ ...
s can penetrate mucous membranes lining the genitourinary tract. Urogenital malformations include: * Hypospadias * Epispadias * Labial fusion * Varicocele As a medical specialty, genitourinary pathology is the subspecialty of
surgical pathology Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathology, anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology involves gross and microscopic examination of surgery, surgical specimens, as well as biop ...
which deals with the
diagnosis Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different academic discipline, disciplines, with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience, to determine "causality, cause a ...
and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic
disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not immediately due to any external injury. Diseases are often known to be medica ...
s of the
urinary tract The urinary system, also known as the urinary tract or renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and bl ...
, male genital tract and testes. However, medical disorders of the kidneys are generally within the expertise of renal pathologists. Genitourinary pathologists generally work closely with urologic surgeons.


See also

*
Reproductive system The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system, is the biological system made up of all the anatomical sex organs, organs involved in sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pherom ...


References


External links

* * {{Authority control