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A township is a kind of
human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use ...
or
administrative subdivision Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...
, with its meaning varying in different countries. While the term is occasionally associated with an
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbati ...
, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
, and parts of the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban.


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; such a place in England might qualify as a
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
or a
hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptism, bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and acto ...
. The term refers purely to the settlement; it does not refer to a unit of government; townships are governed as part of a larger (e.g., shire or city) council.


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
, two kinds of township occur in common use. *In
Eastern Canada Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces or the East) is generally considered to be the region of Canada east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces and territories of Canada, provinces: * Newfoundland and Labrador * New Brunswick ...

Eastern Canada
, a township is one form of the subdivision of a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
. In
Canadian French Canadian French (french: français canadien) is the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin ...
, this is a ''
canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...
''. Townships are referred to as "lots" in
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
; they merely form
census subdivisions The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
and are not administrative units. In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
, a municipality is a city, town, township, county, or
regional municipality#REDIRECT Regional municipality A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government similar to and at the same municipal government level as a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adm ...
which has been incorporated by
statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare Public po ...

statute
by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. *In
Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...
, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the
Dominion Land Survey The Dominion Land Survey (DLS; french: links=no, arpentage des terres fédérales, ATF) is the method used to divide most of Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region ...
and do not form administrative units. These townships are nominally six miles by six miles (36 square miles, or roughly 93 km2). Townships are designated by their township number and range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, and the numbers increase to the north. While not an administrative unit,
Alberta Alberta () is one of the thirteen of . It is part of and is one of the three . is the official language of the province. In 2016, 76.0% of Albertans were , 1.8% were and 22.2% were . Alberta is bordered by to the west, to the east, the to t ...

Alberta
and
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually refers to: * English language ...
do have numbered township and range roads in rural areas based on the old Dominion Land Survey. In
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually refers to: * English language ...
and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied landscape, from and the coastline in the to dense , large freshwater , and ...

Manitoba
, rural municipalities, township-like administrative units below the provincial level, are made up of groups of said surveyed townships.


China

In
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties,
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...

district
s and county level cities; above
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
s and communities, together with
ethnic township An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousne ...
s,
town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the word , the word ...
s and
subdistrict A subdistrict or sub-district is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...
s.


India

In
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
, townships are found at the fourth level of the city.


Jersey

In
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
of the island.


Malaysia

In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
, townships are found at the third level of the
administrative hierarchy
administrative hierarchy
, is
subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode of Prison Break (season 2), ''Prison Break'' (season 2) * Subdivisions (EP), ''Subdivisi ...
of a '' daerah'' (
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...

district
or
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
) or autonomous sub-district (''daerah kecil''), while above ''
kampung A (Indonesian language, Indonesian spelling), (in Van Ophuijsen Spelling System, older spelling), or (Malay language, Malay spelling) is a village in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore and a "port" in Cambodia. The term applies to traditi ...

kampung
'' (
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
) and ''taman'' (residential neighbourhood) as per Section 11(c) of the National Land Code 1965.


New Zealand

In local government in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
, there are no longer towns or townships. All land is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. The term "township" is, however, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area. The expression would generally equate to that of "village" in England.


Pakistan


Philippines

In the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were originally established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime. The term was later replaced with "
municipal district A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population. It can refer to a city, a town, a village, a small grouping of them, or a rural area. Canada In Canada, municipal districts are a type of r ...
". Most municipal districts would later be converted into regular municipalities by
executive order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (programming), a computer language construct that specifies how a compiler shou ...
s from the Philippine President. Currently,
Mambukal Mambukal Resort, officially the Township of Mambukal or simply known as Mambukal (alternatively spelled as "Mambucal"), is a resort township located within the boundaries of the municipality of Murcia, Negros Occidental. As a township, it is direc ...

Mambukal
, a
hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit rarely), for towns founded by Euro ...

hill station
geographically located in
Murcia, Negros Occidental , officially the , is a in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of t ...
, is the only legally constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities both Vertical and Horizontal projects. The modern and largest townships in the Philippines are New Clark City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga. Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport.


Post-Soviet countries

In the context of
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
, the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, and
CIS Cis or cis- may refer to: Places * Cis, Trentino, in Italy * In Poland: ** Cis, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central ** Cis, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, north Math, science and biology * cis (mathematics) is a mathematical not ...

CIS
states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial, settlement and used to translate the terms ''поселок городского типа'' (
townlet Urban-type settlement (russian: посёлок городско́го ти́па, translit=posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: russian: п.г.т., translit=p.g.t.; ua, селище міського типу, translit=selyshche mis'koho typu, abb ...
), ''посад'' (''
posad A posad (russian: посад) was a town, settlement in the Russian Empire, often surrounded by Defensive wall, ramparts and a moat, adjoining a town or a Kremlin (fortification), kremlin, but outside of it, or adjoining a monastery in the 10th to ...
''), ''местечко'' (''mestechko'', from Polish "miasteczko", a small town; in the cases of predominant
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jewish
population the latter is sometimes translated as
shtetl A shtetl or shtetel (; yi, שטעטל, translit=shtetl (singular); שטעטלעך, romanized: ''shtetlekh'' (plural)) was a small town with a large Ashkenazi Jewish Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jews, Jewish Jewish diaspora, diaspora populatio ...
).


South Africa

In
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
, under
apartheid Apartheid (: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised that existed in and (now ) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on ' (or ), wh ...

apartheid
, the term ''township'' (or ''location''), in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites (Blacks, Coloureds, and Indians) living near or working in white-only communities.
Soweto Soweto () is a Township (South Africa), township of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng, South Africa, bordering the city's mining belt in the south. Its name is an English syllabic abbreviation for ''South Western T ...

Soweto
("SOuth-WEstern TOwnships") and
Mdantsane Mdantsane is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by populatio ...

Mdantsane
are well-known examples. However, the term township also has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas.


Taiwan

In
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, townships are administered by a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
, together with
county-administered city A county-administered city ( is a unit of administrative division in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the north ...
. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of
Taiwanese aborigines Taiwanese may refer to: * Taiwanese language, another name for Taiwanese Hokkien * Something from or related to Taiwan (Formosa) * Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan * Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan * Taiwanese people ...
.


Thailand


United Kingdom


England

In England, the term township is no longer in official use, but the term still has some meaning. In England, townships referred to subdivisions of large
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
for administrative purposes. This use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships that had been subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer
civil parishes In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts ...
in their own right. This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions that had been started in the 16th century. Recently, some councils, normally in the north of England, have revived the term.


Scotland

In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the
Highlands and Islands The Highlands and Islands is an area of broadly covering the , plus , and (Western Isles). The Highlands and Islands are sometimes defined as the area to which the of 1886 applied. This area consisted of eight : * * * * * * * * ...
, a township (Scotland), township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands generally the term may describe a very small agrarian community.


Wales

For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire.


United States

There are two types of townships in the United States; a U.S. state, state may have one or both types. In states that have both, the boundaries often coincide in many counties. * A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county (United States), county. Specific responsibilities and the degree of Wiktionary:autonomy, autonomy vary based on each U.S. state, state. In many states, townships are organized and operate under the authority of state statutes, similar to counties. In others, townships operate as municipal corporations—chartered entities with a degree of home rule. There are exceptions, the most notable being Township (New Jersey), New Jersey and Township (Pennsylvania), Pennsylvania, where townships are a class of incorporation with fixed boundaries and equal standing to a village, town, borough, or city, analogous to a New England town or Administrative divisions of New York#Town, towns in New York. * A survey township is a unit of land measure defined by the Public Land Survey System, which in many states has no governmental function at all.


Puerto Rico

When after the Treaty of Paris, the U.S. did its first census of Puerto Rico the documents called them "barrios" as they had been called when Puerto Rico was under Spanish rule. The townships or ''Barrios of Puerto Rico, barrios'' as they are called in P.R. and on U.S. Census documents are subdivisions of municipalities of Puerto Rico.


Vietnam

In Vietnam, a Commune-level town (Vietnam), commune-level town (''thị trấn'') is very similar to a township; it is a subdivision of a rural district (''huyện'') and is the lowest administration subdivision in the country.


Zimbabwe

In Zimbabwe, the term township was used for segregated parts of suburban areas. During colonial years in Rhodesia, the term township referred to a residential area reserved for black citizens within the boundaries of a city or town and is still commonly used colloquially. This reflected the Township (South Africa), South African usage. In modern Zimbabwe, the term is also used to refer to a residential area within close proximity of a rural growth point.


See also

* Croft (Scotland) * Market town * Shtetl * Town * Townland * Urban-type settlement


References


External links

* {{Terms for types of administrative territorial entities Townships, Types of administrative division