the Sundance Kid
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Harry Alonzo Longabaugh (1867 – November 7, 1908), better known as the Sundance Kid, was an outlaw and member of
Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch was one of the loosely organized outlaw gangs operating out of the Hole-in-the-Wall Hole-in-the-Wall is a remote pass in the Big Horn Mountains of Johnson County, Wyoming. In the late 19th and the early 20th centu ...
in the American
Old West The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and e ...
. He likely met Butch Cassidy (real name Robert Leroy Parker) after Cassidy was released from prison around 1896. The "Wild Bunch" gang performed the longest string of successful train and bank robberies in American history. Longabaugh fled the United States along with his consort
Etta Place Etta Place ( , ?) was a companion of the American outlaws Robert LeRoy Parker, alias Butch Cassidy and Harry Alonzo Longabaugh, alias Sundance Kid. The three were members of the outlaw gang known as Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch. She was principal ...
and Butch Cassidy to escape the dogged pursuit of the
Pinkerton Detective Agency Pinkerton, founded as the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, is a private security guard A security guard (also known as a security inspector, security officer, or protective agent) is a person employed by a government or private party to pro ...
. The trio fled first to Argentina and then to Bolivia, where most historians believe Cassidy and Longabaugh were killed in a shootout in November 1908.


Early life

Longabaugh was born in
Mont Clare, Pennsylvania Mont Clare is a village in Upper Providence Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Upper Providence Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. The village is located on the left bank of the Schu ...
, in 1867 to Pennsylvania natives Josiah and Annie G. (née Place) Longabaugh, the youngest of five children. At age 15, he traveled west in a covered wagon with his cousin George to help settle George's homestead near
Cortez, Colorado The City of Cortez () is the home rule municipality Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gov ...
. While there, he found work as a wrangler at a neighboring ranch, and he learned to buy and breed horses. He left Cortez in 1886 and struck out on his own, drifting north and working on ranches. He found work on the N Bar N Ranch in
Montana Territory The Territory of Montana was an organized incorporated territory of the United States and the founding of the United States: Kingdom of Great Britain, British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yellow. ...
, but the hard
winter of 1886–1887 The winter of 1886–1887, also known as the Big Die-Up, was extremely harsh for much of continental North America, especially the United States. Although it affected other regions in the country, it is most known for its effects on the Western Uni ...
forced the ranch to lay off wranglers, including Longabaugh. Longabaugh drifted to the
Black Hills The Black Hills ( lkt, Ȟe Sápa; chy, Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; hid, awaxaawi shiibisha) is a small and isolated mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or ...

Black Hills
before turning back to try to find work again at the N Bar N.


Career

In 1887, while traveling across the Three V Ranch near
Sundance, Wyoming Sundance (Lakota language, Lakota: ''Owíwaŋyaŋg Wačhí''; "Sun-Watching Dance") is a town in and the county seat of Crook County, Wyoming, Crook County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 1,032 at the United States Census, 2020, 2020 c ...
, he stole a gun, horse, and saddle from a cowboy. He was captured by authorities in
Miles City, Montana Miles City ( chy, Ma'xemâhoévé'ho'eno) is a city in and the county seat of Custer County, Montana, Custer County, Montana, United States. The population was 8,354 at the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census. History After the Battle of the ...

Miles City, Montana
, and sentenced to 18 months in jail by Judge William L. Maginnis. He adopted the nickname Sundance Kid during this time in jail. After his release, he went back to working as a ranch hand, and he worked at the
Bar U Ranch The Bar U Ranch National Historic Site, located near Longview, Alberta, is a preserved ranch that for 70 years was one of the leading ranching operations in Canada. At its peak, the ranch extended over with 30,000 cattle and 1000 Percheron hor ...
in the
North-West Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2016 census population of 41,790, it ...

North-West Territories
of Canada in 1891, which was one of the largest commercial ranches of the time. He became joint owner of a saloon in the Grand Central Hotel in
Calgary Calgary Calgary ( ) is a city in the western Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America ...

Calgary
, but after quarreling with his partner, he headed south to Montana again. There, he took another job with the N Bar N and began rustling cattle and horses in Montana and Canada. Longabaugh was suspected of taking part in a train robbery in 1892 and a bank robbery in 1897 with five other men. He became associated with a group known as the Wild Bunch, which included Robert Leroy Parker, better known as Butch Cassidy. Longabaugh was reportedly fast with a gun and was often referred to as a gunfighter, but he is not known to have killed anyone prior to a shootout in Bolivia in which Parker and he allegedly were killed. He became better known than
Kid Curry Harvey Alexander Logan (1867 – June 17, 1904), also known as Kid Curry, was an American outlaw and gunfighter, gunman who rode with Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid's infamous Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch, Wild Bunch gang during the late 19th an ...
, a member of his gang whose real name was
Harvey Logan (Known month and day) (known month) (known year) --> , birth_place = Iowa, United States , death_date = , death_place = Parachute, Colorado, United States , resting_place = Linwood Cemetery, Gle ...
; Curry killed numerous men while with the gang. Longabaugh did participate in a shootout with lawmen who trailed a gang led by George Curry to the
Hole-in-the-Wall Hole-in-the-Wall is a remote pass in the Big Horn Mountains of Johnson County, Wyoming. In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, the Hole-in-the-Wall Gang and Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch gang met at the log cabin, which is now preserved at ...
hideout in
Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is also the List of U.S. states and territories b ...
, and he was thought to have wounded two men in that shootout. Several people were killed by members of the gang, including five law enforcement officers killed by Logan. "Wanted dead or alive" posters were posted throughout the country, with rewards of as much as a $30,000 for information leading to their capture or deaths. Longabaugh and Logan used a log cabin at
Old Trail Town Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya, Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire, England *Old Street station, a railway and tube station in London (station code OLD) *OLD, IATA code for Old Town Municipal Airport and Seaplane Base, Old Town, Mai ...
in
Cody, Wyoming Cody is a city in Northwest Wyoming and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administrati ...

Cody, Wyoming
, as a hide-out, as they planned to rob a bank in
Red Lodge, Montana Red Lodge is a town in and the county seat of Carbon County, Montana, Carbon County, Montana, United States. It is part of the Billings Metropolitan Area, Billings Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,257 at the United States Censu ...

Red Lodge, Montana
. They then began hiding out at Hole-in-the-Wall, located near
Kaycee, Wyoming Kaycee is a town in Johnson County, Wyoming, Johnson County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 263 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. It is home to a museum that preserves the cattle ranching heritage of the area, especially ...
. From there, they could strike and retreat with little fear of capture, since it was situated on high ground with a view of the surrounding territory in all directions. Pinkerton detectives led by
Charlie Siringo Charles Angelo Siringo (February 7, 1855 – October 18, 1928) was an American lawman, detective, bounty hunter, and agent for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Early life Siringo was born on ...
, however, hounded the gang for a few years. Parker, Longabaugh, and his consort
Etta Place Etta Place ( , ?) was a companion of the American outlaws Robert LeRoy Parker, alias Butch Cassidy and Harry Alonzo Longabaugh, alias Sundance Kid. The three were members of the outlaw gang known as Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch. She was principal ...
left the United States on February 20, 1901 aboard the British ship ''Herminius'' for
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Argentina.


Death

A courier was conveying the payroll for the ''Aramayo Franke y Cia'' silver mine on November 3, 1908, near
San Vicente Canton, Bolivia San Vicente Canton is one of the cantons of the Atocha Municipality, the second municipal section of the Sud Chichas Province Sud Chichas (or: ''Sur Chichas'') is a Provinces of Bolivia, province in the Bolivian Departments of Bolivia, departm ...
, when he was attacked and robbed by two masked American bandits. The bandits then proceeded to the mining town of San Vicente, where they lodged in a small boarding house owned by Bonifacio Casasola, a miner. Casasola became suspicious of them because they had a mule from the Aramayo Mine, which bore the mining company's brand; he informed a nearby telegraph officer, who notified the Abaroa cavalry unit stationed nearby. The unit dispatched three soldiers under the command of Captain Justo Concha, and they notified the local authorities. The mayor, a number of his officials, and the three soldiers from the Abaroa regiment all surrounded the house on the evening of 6 November. The bandits then opened fire, killing one of the soldiers and wounding another and starting a gunfight. The police and soldiers heard a man screaming from inside the house around 2 am, during a lull in the firing. They heard a single shot from inside the house, after which the screaming stopped, then they heard another shot minutes later. The soldiers entered the house the next morning and found two dead bodies, both with numerous bullet wounds to the arms and legs. One of the men had a bullet wound in the forehead and the other had a bullet wound in the temple. The police report surmised from the positions of the bodies that one bandit had shot his mortally wounded partner to put him out of his misery, before killing himself with his final bullet soon after. The Tupiza police investigation concluded that the dead men were the bandits who had robbed the Aramayo payroll transport, but the Bolivian authorities could not positively identify them. The bodies were buried at the San Vicente cemetery, where they were interred close to the grave of Gustav Zimmer, a German miner. American forensic anthropologist
Clyde Snow Clyde Snow (January 7, 1928 – May 16, 2014) was a well-known United States, U.S. forensic anthropologist. Some of his skeletal confirmations include John F. Kennedy, victims of John Wayne Gacy, King Tutankhamun, victims of the Oklahoma City bombi ...
and his researchers attempted to find the graves in 1991, but they did not find any remains with DNA matching the living relatives of Parker and Longabaugh. Some have claimed that one or both men survived and returned to the United States. One of these claims was that Longabaugh lived under the name of William Henry Long in the small town of
Duchesne, Utah Duchesne ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a T ...
. Long died in 1936, and his remains were exhumed in December 2008 and subjected to DNA testing. Anthropologist John McCullough stated Long's remains did not match the DNA which they had gotten "from a distant relative of the Sundance Kid."


In popular culture

*
Arthur Kennedy John Arthur Kennedy (February 17, 1914January 5, 1990) was an American stage and film actor known for his versatility in supporting film roles and his ability to create "an exceptional honesty and naturalness on stage", especially in the origina ...
portrayed the Sundance Kid in the 1947 film ''
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
'' (later retitled ''The Wyoming Kid''). *Longabaugh was portrayed by Robert Ryan in the 1948 film ''Return of the Bad Men'', although the film is inaccurate in a number of points, not least of which are the cold-blooded killings by the character and his death at the end of the movie. *He was depicted as a character in the 1951 film ''The Texas Rangers (1951 film), The Texas Rangers'' played by Ian MacDonald (actor), Ian MacDonald. The fictional tale has real-life outlaws Sam Bass (outlaw), Sam Bass, John Wesley Hardin, Butch Cassidy and Dave Rudabaugh and him forming a gang, then squaring off against two convicts recruited by John B. Jones to bring them to justice. *He was portrayed by Alan Hale, Jr. in the 1956 film ''The Three Outlaws'', with Neville Brand as Butch Cassidy. *Scott Brady played him in the 1956 film ''The Maverick Queen''. *Robert Redford played him in the 1969 film ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid''. Redford named the Sundance Film Festival after the Sundance Kid. *Elizabeth Montgomery played his fugitive girlfriend in the 1974 film ''Mrs. Sundance''. *William Katt portrayed the Sundance Kid and Tom Berenger played Butch in ''Butch and Sundance: The Early Days'' (1979). *Padraic Delaney portrayed him in the 2011 film ''Blackthorn (film), Blackthorn''. *He is an antagonist in the video game ''Call of Juarez: Gunslinger'' (2013). * Harry Longbaugh (sic) is the main character in the novel ''Sundance,'' by David Fuller, published in 2014.


See also

*List of fugitives from justice who disappeared


References


Bibliography

* * Pages 42–47 tell the story of Kid Curry and the failed attempt at a bank robbery in Red Lodge.


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Sundance Kid 1867 births 1908 deaths 19th-century American criminals American bank robbers American escapees American people of English descent American people of German descent American people of Welsh descent American emigrants to Argentina American expatriates in Argentina Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch Cowboys Deaths by firearm in Bolivia Outlaws of the American Old West People from Upper Providence Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania People of the American Old West Train robbers