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Terminology is a group of specialized words and respective meanings in a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use; the latter meaning is also known as terminology science. A ''term'' is a word,
compound word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and ...
, or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts is given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from
lexicography Lexicography is the study of lexicons, and is divided into two separate academic disciplines. It is the art of compiling dictionaries. * Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionary, dictionaries. ...
, as it involves the study of
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of the concept behind principles, thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by sev ...
s, conceptual systems and their labels (''terms''), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings. Terminology is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and exceptional cognitive skills due to a large and complex Human brain, brain. This has enabled the development of ad ...
activity. It does this through the research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage. Terminology can be limited to one or more languages (for example, "multilingual terminology" and "bilingual terminology"), or may have an
interdisciplinarity Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of multiple academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ec ...
focus on the use of terms in different fields.


Overview

The terminology discipline consists mainly of the following aspects: * Analyzing concepts and concept structures utilized in a field or area of activity * Identifying the terms assigned to concepts * Creating correspondences between terms in the different languages in the case of multilingual or bilingual term. * Creating new terms in databases or compiling the terms on paper or in databases managing terminology databases as required


Types of terminology

A distinction is made between two types of terminology work: * Ad hoc work on terminology, which deals with a single term or a limited number of terms * Systematic collection of terminology, which deals with all the terms in a specific subject field or domain of activity, often by creating a structured
ontology In metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about ...
of the terms within that domain and their interrelationships. Ad hoc terminology is prevalent in the
translation Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The ...
profession, where a translation for a specific term (or group of terms) is required quickly to solve a particular translation problem.


Terminology as a discipline

A ''terminologist'' intends to hone categorical organization by improving the accuracy and content of its terminology. Technical industries and
standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization ...
institutes compile their own glossaries. This provides the consistency needed in the various areas—fields and branches, movements and specialties—to work with core terminology to then offer material for the discipline's traditional and doctrinal literature. Terminology is also then key in boundary-crossing problems, such as in language translation and social epistemology. Terminology helps to build bridges and to extend one area into another.
Translator Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The ...
s research the terminology of the languages they translate. Terminology is taught alongside translation in universities and translation schools. Large translation departments and translation bureaus have a ''Terminology'' section.


Science

Terminology science is a branch of
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and structure. Linguis ...
studying special vocabulary. The main objects of terminological studies are special
lexical unit In lexicography, a lexical item is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (catena (linguistics), catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈ vocabulary). Examples are ''cat'', ''traffic light'', ''take car ...
s (or special
lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical semantics, lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection. It is a basic abstract unit of meaning, a emic unit, unit of Morphology (linguistics), morphological Semantic analysis ...
s), first of all terms. They are analysed from the point of view of their origin, formal structure, their meanings and also functional features. Terms are used to denote concepts, therefore terminology science also concerns itself with the formation and development of concepts, as well as with the principles of exposing the existing relations between concepts and classifying concepts; also, with the principles of defining concepts and appraising the existing definitions. Considering the fact that characteristics and functioning of term depend heavily on its lexical surrounding nowadays it is common to view as the main object of terminology science not separate terms, but rather the whole terminology used in some particular field of knowledge (also called subject field). Terminological research started seventy years ago and was especially fruitful at the last forty years. At that time the main types of special lexical units, such as terms proper, nomens, terminoids, prototerms, preterms and quasiterms were singled out and studied. A nomen, or a nomenclature unit, is a name of a single notion or a certain unit of mass production, e.g. prefix dis-; Canon 550D; UA-24; etc. Terminoids, or jargon terms, are special lexical units which are used to name the phenomena that are absolutely new and whose concepts are not interpreted in a monosemantic way. E.g., Salmon Day, mouse potato, etc. Prototerms are special lexemes that appeared and were used in prescientific times. Preterms are a special group of lexemes which is represented by special lexical units used as terms to name new scientific notions. They are represented by a vast descriptive pattern, e.g.
business process reengineering Business process re-engineering (BPR) is a business management strategy originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflow A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of activity, enabled ...
, management by walking about, etc. The main principles of terminological work were elaborated, terminologies of the leading European languages belonging to many subject fields were described and analysed. It should be mentioned that at the former USSR terminological studies were conducted on an especially large scale: while in the 1940s only four terminological dissertations were successfully defended, in the 1950s there were 50 such dissertations, in the 1960s their number reached 231, in the 1970s – 463 and in the 1980s – 1110. As the result of development and specialising of terminological studies, some of the branches of terminology science – such as typological terminology science, semasiological terminology science, terminological derivatology, comparative terminology science, terminography, functional terminology science, cognitive terminology science, historical terminology science and some branch terminology sciences – have gained the status of independent scientific disciplines.


Terminological theories

Terminological theories include general theory of terminology, socioterminology, communicative theory of terminology, sociocognitive terminology, and
frame-based terminology Frame-based terminology is a cognitive linguistics, cognitive approach to terminology developed by Pamela Faber and colleagues at the University of Granada. One of its basic premises is that the conceptualization of any specialized domain is goal- ...
.


See also

*
Applied linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, psychology, Communication stud ...
*
Concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of the concept behind principles, thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by sev ...
*
Controlled vocabulary Control may refer to: Basic meanings Economics and business * Control (management), an element of management * Control, an element of management accounting * Comptroller (or controller), a senior financial officer in an organization * Control ...
* Critical vocabulary *
Dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include inf ...
*
Glossary A glossary (from grc, γλῶσσα, ''glossa''; language, speech, wording) also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of Term (language), terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Tradi ...
*
Euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the us ...
*
Interpreting Interpreting is a Translation studies, translational activity in which one produces a first and final target-language output on the basis of a one-time exposure to an expression in a Source language (translation), source language. The most commo ...
*
Jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative context and may not be well understood outside that context. The conte ...
*
ISO/TC 37 ISO/TC 37 is a technical committee within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that prepares Technical standard, standards and other documents concerning methodology and principles for terminology and language resources. Tit ...
*
Lexicography Lexicography is the study of lexicons, and is divided into two separate academic disciplines. It is the art of compiling dictionaries. * Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionary, dictionaries. ...
*
LSP dictionary A language-for-specific-purposes dictionary (LSP dictionary) is a reference work A reference work is a work, such as a paper, book or periodical (or their electronic equivalents), to which one can refer for information. The information ...
*
Meme A meme ( ) is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads by means of imitation from person to person within a culture and often carries symbolic meaning representing a particular phenomenon or theme. A meme acts as a unit for carrying culture, c ...
*
Nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally ag ...
*
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations between the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all Domain o ...
* Orismology *
Reference work A reference work is a work, such as a paper, book or periodical (or their electronic equivalents), to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Such works are usually ''referred'' to ...
* Specialised lexicography *
Tag cloud A tag cloud (also known as a word cloud, wordle or weighted list in visual design) is a visual representation of text data, which is often used to depict tag (metadata), keyword metadata on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usua ...
* Terminology standardization *
Translation Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The ...
*
Taxonomy (general) Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification (general theory), classification. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are ...
*
Technical terminology Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular communicative context and may not be well understood outside that context. The context is usually a partic ...
* Terminology planning policy *
Terminology extraction Terminology extraction (also known as term extraction, glossary extraction, term recognition, or terminology mining) is a subtask of information extraction. The goal of terminology extraction is to automatically extract relevant terms from a giv ...


References


Further reading

*Sonneveld, H, Loenning, K: (1994): Introducing terminology, in Terminology, p. 1-6 *Wright, S.E.; Budin, G.: (1997): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 1, Basic Aspects of Terminology Management, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins 370 pp. *Gaudin, F., 2003, Socioterminologie: une approche sociolinguistique de la terminologie, éd. De Boeck-Duculot, Belgium. *Wright, S.E.; Budin, G.: (2001): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 2, Application-Oriented Terminology Management, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins. *Kockaert, H.J.; Steurs, F.: (2014): Handbook of Terminology, Volume 1, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins.


External links


Terminology
from the OTTIAQ website
TermNet
- International Network for Terminology
Infoterm
- International Information Centre for Terminology
ISO
Technical Committee 37 "Terminology and other language and content resources" (
ISO/TC 37 ISO/TC 37 is a technical committee within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that prepares Technical standard, standards and other documents concerning methodology and principles for terminology and language resources. Tit ...
)
Faoterm
from the FAO Terminology website
The Online Dictionary of Language TerminologyTermSciences, the Scientific Terminology DatabaseIULA, Institut Universitari de Lingüistica Aplicada
{{Authority control Applied linguistics Lexicography Translation