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A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function is developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing
technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy) Norms are concepts ( sentences) of practical ...
s to address the needs of a group of affected adopters. Put another way, such an organization works to create uniformity across producers, consumers, government agencies, and other relevant parties regarding terminology, product specifications (e.g. size, including units of measure), protocols, and more. Its goals could include ensuring that Company A's external hard drive works on Company B's computer, an individual's blood pressure measures the same with Company C's
sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer ( ), also known as a blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and ...

sphygmomanometer
as it does with Company D's, or that all shirts that should not be ironed have the same icon (an iron crossed out with an X) on the label. Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law. Some standards become mandatory when they are adopted by regulators as legal requirements in particular domains, often for the purpose of safety or for
consumer protection Consumer protection is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and the public, against unfair practices in the marketplace A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly go to gather for the purchase ...
from deceitful practices. The term ''formal standard'' refers specifically to a specification that has been approved by a standards setting organization. The term ''
de jure In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its ...
standard'' refers to a standard mandated by legal requirements or refers generally to any formal standard. In contrast, the term ''
de facto standard A de facto standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market). is a Latin phrase that means ''in fact'' (literally by or from fact) in th ...
'' refers to a specification (or protocol or technology) that has achieved widespread use and acceptance – often without being approved by any standards organization (or receiving such approval only after it already has achieved widespread use). Examples of de facto standards that were not approved by any standards organizations (or at least not approved until after they were in widespread ''de facto'' use) include the
Hayes command setThe Hayes command set (also known as the AT command set) is a specific command language A command language is a language for job control in computing. It is a domain-specific and interpreted language; common examples of a command language are sh ...
developed by Hayes,
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's TrueType font design and the PCL protocol used by
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational company headquartered in . HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components, as well as software and related servic ...

Hewlett-Packard
in the
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s they produced. Normally, the term ''standards organization'' is not used to refer to the individual parties participating within the standards developing organization in the capacity of founders, benefactors,
stakeholders Stakeholder may refer to: *Stakeholder (corporate), a group, corporate, organization, member, or system that affects or can be affected by an organization's actions *Project stakeholder, a person, group, or organization with an interest in a projec ...
, members or contributors, who themselves may function as or lead the standards organizations.


History


Standardization

The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became highly important with the onset of the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
and the need for high-precision
machine tool A machine tool is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
s and
interchangeable parts Interchangeable parts are parts (components Component may refer to: In engineering, science, and technology Generic systems *System A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...

interchangeable parts
.
Henry Maudslay Henry Maudslay (pronunciation and spellingPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lang ...

Henry Maudslay
developed the first industrially practical
screw-cutting lathe A screw-cutting lathe is a machine (specifically, a lathe A watchmaker using a lathe to prepare a component cut from copper for a watch A lathe () is a machine tool that rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operati ...
in 1800, which allowed for the standardization of
screw thread A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a or in the form of a helix, with the former being called a ''straight'' thread ...
sizes for the first time. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization; some companies' in-house standards spread a bit within their industries.
Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machi ...

Joseph Whitworth
's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first (unofficial) national standard by companies around the country in 1841. It came to be known as the
British Standard Whitworth British Standard Whitworth (BSW) is an imperial-unit-based screw thread A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a ...
, and was widely adopted in other countries.


Early standards organizations

By the end of the 19th century differences in standards between companies was making trade increasingly difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often ty ...
'': "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a
girder A girder () is a support beam Beam may refer to: Streams of particles or energy *Light beam, or beam of light, a directional projection of light energy **Laser beam *Particle beam, a stream of charged or neutral particles **Charged particle ...
to employ for given work". The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body.Robert C. McWilliam. ''BSI: The First Hundred Years. 1901–2001. A Century of Achievement''. 2001. Thanet Press. London It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929. The national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, and enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. It involved much of , as well as , the and , and was also fought ...
, similar national bodies were established in other countries. The
Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Worl ...
was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commission Permanente de Standardisation, both in 1918.


International organizations

Several
international organizations An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations m ...
create
international standards are technical standards developed by international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was established in 194 ...
, such as
Codex Alimentarius The ''Codex Alimentarius'' is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to food, food production, food labeling, and food safety. History Its name is derived from the ...
in food, the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
Guidelines in health, or
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...

ITU
Recommendations in
ICT ICT may refer to: Science and technology * Information and communications technology * Image Constraint Token, in video processing * Immunochromatographic test, a rapid immunoassay used to detect diseases such as anthrax * In-circuit test, in el ...
and being publicly funded, are freely available for consideration and use worldwide.


International standards associations

In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the
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in ,
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Missouri
, as part of a delegation by the
Institute of Electrical Engineers An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing a ...
. He presented a paper on standardization, which was so well received that he was asked to look into the formation of a commission to oversee the process. By 1906 his work was complete and he drew up a permanent terms for the
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République franç ...
. The body held its first meeting that year in London, with representatives from 14 countries. In honour of his contribution to electrical standardization,
Lord Kelvin William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 182417 December 1907) was a British mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of ...
was elected as the body's first President. The (ISA) was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance international cooperation for all technical standards and specifications. The body was suspended in 1942 during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
. After the war, ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in
London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the as ' and retains b ...

London
and agreed to join forces to create the new
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task ...
(ISO); the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.


Overview

Standards organizations can be classified by their role, position, and the extent of their influence on the local, national, regional, and global standardization arena. By geographic designation, there are international, regional, and national standards bodies (the latter often referred to as NSBs). By technology or industry designation, there are standards developing organizations (SDOs) and also standards setting organizations (SSOs) also known as consortia. Standards organizations may be governmental, quasi-governmental or non-governmental entities. Quasi- and non-governmental standards organizations are often non-profit organizations.


International standards organizations

Broadly, an international standards organization develops
international standards are technical standards developed by international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was established in 194 ...
. (This does not necessarily restrict the use of other published standards internationally.) There are many international standards organizations. The three largest and most well-established such organizations are the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task ...
, the
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République franç ...
, and the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
(ITU), which have each existed for more than 50 years (founded in 1947, 1906, and 1865, respectively) and are all based in
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Geneva
,
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Switzerland
. They have established tens of thousands of standards covering almost every conceivable topic. Many of these are then adopted worldwide replacing various incompatible "homegrown" standards. Many of these standards are naturally evolved from those designed in-house within an industry, or by a particular country, while others have been built from scratch by groups of experts who sit on various technical committees (TCs). These three organizations together comprise the World Standards Cooperation (WSC) alliance. ISO is composed of the national standards bodies (NSBs), one per member economy. The IEC is similarly composed of national committees, one per member economy. In some cases, the national committee to the IEC of an economy may also be the ISO member from that country or economy. ISO and IEC are private international organizations that are not established by any international treaty. Their members may be non-governmental organizations or governmental agencies, as selected by ISO and IEC (which are privately established organizations). The ITU is a treaty-based organization established as a permanent agency of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
, in which governments are the primary members, although other organizations (such as non-governmental organizations and individual companies) can also hold a form of direct membership status in the ITU as well. Another example of a treaty-based international standards organization with government membership is the
Codex Alimentarius Commission The ''Codex Alimentarius'' is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to food, food production, food labeling, and food safety. History Its name is derived from the ...
. In addition to these, a large variety of independent international standards organizations such as the
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{{rcat shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...
, the
ASTM International ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SS ...
, th
International Commission on Illumination (CIE)
the
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particul ...
, the
Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function ...
(IETF),
SAE International SAE International, formerly named the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a United States-based, globally active professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional ...
,
TAPPI TAPPI is a registered not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit ...
, the
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
(W3C), and the
Universal Postal Union The Universal Postal Union (UPU, french: Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to ma ...
(UPU) develop and publish standards for a variety of international uses. In many such cases, these international standards organizations are not based on the principle of one member per country. Rather, membership in such organizations is open to those interested in joining and willing to agree to the organization's by-laws – having either organizational/corporate or individual technical experts as members. The Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC) was formed in 1949 to prepare avionics system engineering standards with other aviation organizations RTCA, EUROCAE, and ICAO. The standards are widely known as the ARINC Standards.


Regional standards organizations

Regional standards bodies also exist, such as the
European Committee for Standardization The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, french: Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organizatio ...
(CEN), the
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization 300px, CENELEC (french: Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique; en, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) is responsible for European standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of impleme ...
(CENELEC), the
European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technical standard is an establi ...
(ETSI), and the
Institute for Reference Materials and MeasurementsThe Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), located in Geel, Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Net ...
(IRMM) in Europe, the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), the Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT), the African Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO), the Arabic industrial development and mining organization (AIDMO), and others. In the European Union, only standards created by CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI are recognized as ''European standards'' (according to Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012), and member states are required to notify the European Commission and each other about all the draft technical regulations concerning ICT products and services before they are adopted in national law.European Union
Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations
''Official Journal L'' é04, 21.7.1998, p. 37–48. (This page also provides references to amendments.) See also European Commission: Enterprise Directorate-General
Vademecum on European Standardisation
(This document contains a consolidated version of Directive 98/34/EC, dated 15 November 2003.) Accessed 2009-05-05.
These rules were laid down in Directive 98/34/EC with the goal of providing transparency and control with regard to technical regulations. Sub-regional standards organizations also exist such as the MERCOSUR Standardization Association (AMN), the CARICOM Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality (CROSQ), and the ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ), EAC East Africa Standards Committee www.eac-quality.net, and the GCC Standardization Organization, GCC Standardization Organization (GSO) for Arab States of the Persian Gulf.


National standards bodies

In general, each country or economy has a single recognized national standards body (NSB). A national standards body is likely the sole member from that economy in ISO; ISO currently has 161 members. National standards bodies usually do not prepare the technical content of standards, which instead is developed by national technical societies. NSBs may be either public or private sector organizations, or combinations of the two. For example, the Standards Council of Canada is a Canadian Crown Corporation, Dirección General de Normas is a governmental agency within the Mexican Ministry of Economy, and ANSI is a 501(c)(3) non-profit U.S. organization with members from both the private and public sectors. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the U.S. government's standards agency, cooperates with ANSI under a memorandum of understanding to collaborate on the United States Standards Strategy. The determinates of whether an NSB for a particular economy is a public or private sector body may include the historical and traditional roles that the private sector fills in public affairs in that economy or the development stage of that economy.


Standards developing organizations (SDOs)

A ''national standards body'' (NSB) generally refers to one standardization organization that is that country’s member of the International Organization for Standardization, ISO. A ''standards developing organization'' (SDO) is one of the thousands of industry- or sector-based standards organizations that develop and publish industry specific standards. Some economies feature only an NSB with no other SDOs. Large economies like the United States and Japan have several hundred SDOs, many of which are coordinated by the central NSBs of each country (ANSI and JISC in this case). In some cases, international industry-based SDOs such as th
CIE
the
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particul ...
and the Audio Engineering Society (AES) may have direct liaisons with international standards organizations, having input to international standards without going through a national standards body. SDOs are differentiated from standards setting organizations (SSOs) in that SDOs may be accredited to develop standards using open and transparent processes.


Scope of work

Developers of technical standards are generally concerned with interface standards, which detail how products interconnect with each other, and safety standards, which established characteristics ensure that a product or process is safe for humans, animals, and the environment. The subject of their work can be narrow or broad. Another area of interest is in defining how the behavior and performance of products is measured and described in data sheets. Overlapping or competing standards bodies tend to cooperate purposefully, by seeking to define boundaries between the scope of their work, and by operating in a hierarchical fashion in terms of national, regional and international scope; international organizations tend to have as members national organizations; and standards emerging at national level (such as ISO 9000, BS 5750) can be adopted at regional levels (BS 5750 was adopted as EN 29000) and at international levels (BS 5750 was adopted as ISO 9000). Unless adopted by a government, standards carry no force in law. However, most jurisdictions have False advertising, truth in advertising laws, and ambiguities can be reduced if a company offers a product that is "compliant" with a standard.


Standards development process

When an organization develops standards that may be used openly, it is common to have formal rules published regarding the process. This may include: * Who is allowed to vote and provide input on new or revised standards * What is the formal step-by-step process * How are bias and commercial interests handled * How negative votes or ballots are handled * What type of consensus is required Though it can be a tedious and lengthy process, formal standard setting is essential to developing new technologies. For example, since 1865, the telecommunications industry has depended on the
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...

ITU
to establish the telecommunications standards that have been adopted worldwide. The ITU has created numerous telecommunications standards including telegraph specifications, allocation of telephone numbers, interference protection, and protocols for a variety of communications technologies. The standards that are created through standards organizations lead to improved product quality, ensured interoperability of competitors’ products, and they provide a technological baseline for future research and product development. Formal standard setting through standards organizations has numerous benefits for consumers including increased innovation, multiple market participants, reduced production costs, and the efficiency effects of product interchangeability. To support the standard development process, ISO published Good Standardization Practices (GSP) and the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee published the "Six Principles" guiding members in the development of international standards.


Standards distribution and copyright

Some standards – such as the Schools Interoperability Framework, SIF Specification in K12 education – are managed by a non-profit organizations composed of public entities and private entities working in cooperation that then publish the standards under an open license at no charge and requiring no registration. A technical library at a university may have copies of technical standards on hand. Major libraries in large cities may also have access to many technical standards. Some users of standards mistakenly assume that all standards are in the public domain. This assumption is correct only for standards produced by the central governments whose publications are not amenable to copyright or to organizations that issue their standard under an open license. Any standards produced by non-governmental entities remain the intellectual property of their developers (unless specifically designed otherwise) and are protected, just like any other publications, by copyright laws and international treaties. However, the intellectual property extends only to the standard itself and not to its use. For instance if a company sells a device that is compliant with a given standard, it is not liable for further payment to the standards organization except in the special case when the organization holds patent rights or some other ownership of the intellectual property described in the standard. It is, however, liable for any patent infringement by its implementation, just as with any other implementation of technology. The standards organizations give no guarantees that patents relevant to a given standard have been identified. ISO standards draw attention to this in the foreword with a statement like the following: "Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights". If the standards organization is aware that parts of a given standard fall under patent protection, it will often require the patent holder to agree to Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing before including it in the standard. Such an agreement is regarded as a legally binding contract, as in the 2012 case ''Microsoft v. Motorola''.


Trends

The ever-quickening pace of technology evolution is now more than ever affecting the way new standards are proposed, developed and implemented. Since traditional, widely respected standards organizations tend to operate at a slower pace than technology evolves, many standards they develop are becoming less relevant because of the inability of their developers to keep abreast with the technological innovation. As a result, a new class of standards setters appeared on the standardization arena: the industry consortia or standards setting organizations (SSOs), which are also referred to as technical standard, private standards. Despite having limited financial resources, some of them enjoy truly international acceptance. One example is the
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
(W3C), whose standards for HTML, Cascading Style Sheets, CSS, and XML are used universally. There are also community-driven associations such as the
Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function ...
(IETF), a worldwide network of volunteers who collaborate to set standards for lower-level software solutions. Some industry-driven standards development efforts don't even have a formal organizational structure. They are projects funded by large corporations. Among them are the OpenOffice.org, an Apache Software Foundation-sponsored international community of volunteers working on an open standard, open-standard software that aims to compete with Microsoft Office, and two commercial groups competing fiercely with each other to develop an industry-wide standard for DVD, high-density optical storage. Another example is the Global Food Safety Initiative where members of the Consumer Goods Forum define benchmarking requirements and recognize scheme owners using technical standard, private stanadrds for food safety.


See also

* Coordination game *
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task ...
* List of computer standards * List of international common standards * List of technical standard organizations * Quality control * Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing * Software standard * Specification (technical standard) * Standardization * Technical standard * Transport standards organisations


References


External links


ANSI: directory of standards developing organizations

CEN: standards consortia for information and communication technologies

NIST: global standards information
{{DEFAULTSORT:Standards Organization Standards organizations, Product testing