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Soup is a primarily , generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining of or s with , milk, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by solid s in liquids in a pot until the s are extracted, forming a . Soups are similar to s, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid (broth) than stews. In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: ''clear soups'' and ''thick soups''. The established classifications of clear soups are ' and '. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: ''s'' are vegetable soups thickened with ; ' are made from puréed or vegetables thickened with ; cream soups may be thickened with ; and ' are thickened with , , and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include , , , and s; many popular soups also include pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, s and bird's nests. Other types of soup include s, dessert soups, pulse soups like split pea, cold soups and other styles.


History

Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of containers (which probably came in the form of vessels). Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used. This method was also used to cook acorns and other plants. The word ''soup'' comes from ''soupe'' ("soup", "broth"), which comes through ''suppa'' ("bread soaked in broth") from a source, from which also comes the word "", a piece of used to soak up soup or a thick . The word ' (meaning " omethingrestoring") was first used in in the 16th century, to refer to a highly concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, that was advertised as an to physical . In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups. This prompted the use of the modern word ''restaurant'' for the eating establishments. In the , the first was published by William Parks in , in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's ', and it included several recipes for soups and bisques. A 1772 cookbook, ''The Frugal Housewife'', contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking; but as new arrived from other countries, other national soups gained popularity. In particular, immigrants living in were famous for their soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the , opened an eating establishment in called "", and became known as the "Prince of Soups". The first American cooking dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: ''Soups and Soup Making''. was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time.


Commercial products

Commercial soup became popular with the invention of in the 19th century, and today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market.


Canned

soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding (or sometimes ) or it can be "ready-to-eat", meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Condensed soup (invented in 1897 by , a chemist with the ) allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can and sold at a lower price than other canned soups. The soup is usually doubled in volume by adding a "can full" of water or milk, about . The "ready-to-eat" variant can be prepared by simply heating the contents of the can on a or in a , rather than actually anything. Such soups can be used as a for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, meat, cream or pasta. Since the 1990s, the canned soup market has burgeoned, with non-condensed soups marketed as "ready-to-eat", so they require no additional liquid to prepare. Microwaveable bowls have expanded the "ready-to-eat" canned soup market even more, offering convenience (especially in workplaces), and making for popular lunch items. In response to concerns over the negative health effects of intake, some soup manufacturers have introduced reduced-salt versions of popular soups. Today, Campbell's (introduced in 1897), , and (introduced in 1934) are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume approximately 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year. Other popular brands of soup include .


Dried

are sold by many manufacturers, and are reconstituted with hot water; other fresh ingredients may then be added. The first dried soup was s; the earlier did not require refrigeration, but was a viscous liquid. East Asian-style soups include and seasonings, and are marketed as a convenient and inexpensive instant meal, requiring only hot water for preparation. While North American ones tend to have a powder pack only, instant noodles sold in East Asia commonly include a pack of dried vegetables too. Western-style dried soups include vegetable, chicken base, potato, pasta and flavors.


Types

In French cuisine, soup is often served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad, cheese and dessert, and that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration".


Dessert

* ', a Vietnamese cold dessert soup containing sugar and coconut milk, with many different varieties of other ingredients including , , , , , and . * ', Filipino soup made from milk, fruits and pearls, served hot or cold * ', a Japanese soup * ', a collective term for Chinese sweet soups * ''Sawine'', a soup made with milk, spices, parched , almonds and dried fruits, served during the Muslim festival of in * include ' and


Fruit

Fruit soups are prepared using fruit as a primary ingredient, and may be served warm or cold depending on the recipe. Many varieties of fruit soups exist, and they may be prepared based upon the availability of seasonal fruit.


Cold

Cold soups are a particular variation on the traditional soup, wherein the temperature when served is kept at or below room temperature. They may be sweet or savory. In summer, sweet cold soups can form part of a tray. An example of a savory chilled soup is ', a chilled vegetable-based soup originating from Spain. is a cold purée of potatoes, leeks, and cream.


Asian

A feature of East Asian soups not normally found in Western cuisine is the use of in soups. Many traditional East Asian soups are typically broths, "clear soups", or thickened soups.


Traditional regional varieties

* ' is a green soup from , when prepared with chicken, it is called ''aguadito de pollo''. It also includes cilantro, carrot, peas, potatoes, ají amarillo, other meat like hen, mussels or fish, it can alleviate hangover. * ' is a rice soup very popular in . When prepared with chicken, it is referred to as ''asopao de pollo''. * ' is a from . * ' is a chicken soup with and egg. It is also prepared as a sauce. * ' is a Vietnamese ' noodle soup, popular variants include ''bánh canh cua'' (crab udon soup), ''bánh canh chả cá'' ( udon soup) * is a in Chinese cuisine. * is a thick, creamy, highly seasoned soup, classically of pureed crustaceans, of French origin. * ' is a -vegetable soup: originally for beetroots with cabbage from and beetroots with mushrooms from . * ' is a from , is also made in other Mediterranean regions; in Catalonia it is called ''bullebesa''. * ''Bourou-bourou'' is a vegetable and pasta soup from the island of , Greece. * ' is a spicy -flavored beef noodle soup from , , topped with fresh herbs, sliced onions and shallots and other crunchy toppings like * ' is a minced soup * ' is a thick, creamy soup made with , spinach and, often, meat from Trinidad and Tobago * ' – () made with rice, fish, various vegetables, and in some cases is from Vietnam. * ' is a Portuguese soup of chicken, rice and lemon. * ' is a Chilean soup of medium thick flavoured stock obtained from cooking several kinds of meats and vegetables mixed together. * is found in two major types, New England clam chowder, made with potatoes and cream, and Manhattan clam chowder, made with a tomato base. * is and potato soup made with chicken stock, from . * , also from Scotland, is a fish soup made with smoked , potatoes, onions and cream. * , a savory Chinese soup, is made by adding already-beaten eggs into boiling water or broth. * ' soup, a traditional soup from , is made with vegetables, meat, fish, and balls of ground melon seed. It is often eaten with '. * ' is a fruit soup made from the used in ish s at the feast of , is eaten by at '. * ' is a traditional variety of , also very common in Turkey. * ' is a Greek lentil soup, with s, , herbs and possibly sauce or . * ' is a traditional soup from . * ' is a traditional Greek soup. * is a clear soup made with beef broth and sautéed (caramelized) onions. * ' is a traditional dish in (southwest France), midway between a soup and a stew. * ' (from Spain and Portugal) is a savory soup based on tomato. * ' is a soup of , and . * is a traditional soup from the . It is thickened with pods, and sometimes . * ''Halászlé'' (), a very hot and spicy Hungarian river fish soup, is made with hot paprika. * ' is a traditional Icelandic meat soup made with lamb and vegetables. * ' is a soup of lamb, rice, vegetables and a highly spiced bouillon. * ' is a sour cream soup. * (Vi: ''hủ tiếu)'', a /Southern Vietnamese pork rice noodle soup, often in combination with shrimp, squid and other seafood, topped with fresh herbs and bean sprouts. * ' is a traditional n ( region) sour soup made from , s, , potatoes and . * ' – a tradition in , is made with pasta, vegetables, ground lamb and numerous spices. * ''Lan Sikik'' is a Thai soup made with noodles, dried fish and tomato extract. * is a simple soup made from leeks, is popular in during . * is popular in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines. * London particular is a thick soup of pureed (dry or split) peas and ham from England; purportedly it is named after the of 19th-century London. * ' soup is made in Greece and Cyprus using lamb . * Maryland crab soup is made of vegetables, meat, and in a tomato base, from . * is a traditional soup, is with (usually beef) and . * Michigan has been a staple for over a hundred years in the dining room in the form of . * is an Italian vegetable soup. * is made from and fermented soy in Japan. * is an curried soup. * ''Nässelsoppa'' () is made with stinging nettles, and traditionally eaten with hard boiled egg halves, is considered a spring delicacy in Sweden. * ' is a heavily spiced soup from based on with meat, most often chicken, and vegetables added. It is generally eaten with '. * is the common name for a diverse collection of soups with varied ingredients, including noodles. * ' is a cold soup of Russian origin. * is a Scottish soup made with crabmeat and rice. * is made with tripe in Greece. It is also cooked in Turkey and the . * "Peasants' soup" is a catch-all term for soup made by combining a diverse—and often eclectic—assortment of ingredients. Variations on peasants' soup are popular in Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Africa. * soup is a specialty, is traditionally made with tripe. * ' is Vietnamese beef or chicken soup with s, , charred , wild coriander ('), , , , and . * ' is a Greek fish soup, is made in various versions with a variety of fish types. * is a South Indian traditional soup prepared using tamarind, pepper, cumin and steamed lentils. * ' is a Greek chickpea soup. * ' is chicken soup with vegetables in Latin America. * is made from mutton or lamb, barley and root vegetables. * ''Shchav'' is a in Polish, Russian and cuisines, is sour from the sorrel. * ' is a Russian soup with cabbage as the primary ingredient. * is from , and is a creamy soup made with blue crab meat and crab roe. * ''Sinigang'', from the Philippines, is a clear sour soup made from tamarind paste and meat, fish, or vegetables. * ' (''erwtensoep'') is a thick , is eaten in the as a winter dish, and is traditionally served with sliced . * ' – Russian soup on a meat, fish or vegetable broth with pickles, spices and smoked meat or fish. * ''Sopa da Pedra'' is a rich traditional Portuguese soup with many ingredients. * ''Sopa de Peixe'' is a traditional Portuguese fish soup. * ' is a traditional Indonesian soup made with turmeric, , etc., usually contains either beef or chicken. * ' is a traditional Canadian pea soup that is made with yellow peas and often incorporates ham. * ' is a traditional Swedish soup, whose main ingredient is goose and, sometimes, pig's blood, and is made in , the southernmost region of Sweden. The other ingredients typically include vinegar, port wine or cognac and spices such as cloves, ginger and allspice. The soup is served warm with boiled pieces of apple and plums, goose liver sausage and the boiled innards of the goose. * is a thick soup made in the Caribbean from split peas (chickpeas or garbanzos), usually includes "ground provision" vegetable staples and some type of meat. * ' is a Bulgarian cold soup made from and s. * ' is a noodle soup which centers on little hand-rolled bhatsa noodles. * comes in several varieties, with tomatoes in common. * ' is the name for two similar hot and sour soups with fragrant herbs from Laos and Thailand. * ' soup is from , and is made with fermented grains and yogurt. * ' is a variation of the above soup using chicken and * ' is a Russian fish soup, sometimes eaten with . * ', a French-style soup invented by a French chef at the in New York City, is a cold purée of potatoes, leeks, and cream. * ' is a Belgian fish soup. * '' is a spicy beef soup, also includes vegetables. * ''Żurek'' is a Polish with sausages, is often served in a bowl made of bread. * ''Ärtsoppa'' is a Swedish split pea soup, served with mustard and fresh marjoram or thyme. It is traditionally eaten as lunch on Thursdays. It is served together with Swedish ' as beverage and Swedish pancakes with preserved berries for dessert.


As a figure of speech

In the English language, the word ''soup'' has developed several uses in phrase. * , a large number of acronyms used by an administration; the term has its roots in a common tomato-based soup containing pasta shaped in the letters of the * Duck soup, a simple soup, stands for a task that is particularly easy * "" means "from beginning to end", referring to the traditional position of soup as the first course in a multi-course meal * "In the soup" refers to being in a bad situation * , a type of very thick fog caused by air pollution, heavily associated with * , the organic mixture leading to the development of life * , a place that serves prepared food of any kind to the homeless * ', a popular children's fable about a poor man who encourages villagers to share their food with him by telling them that he can make soup with a stone * , the practice of bible societies during the to feed the hungry in exchange for religious instruction. The expression 'took the soup' is used to refer to those who converted at the behest of these organizations' offers of food * , poorly coded The direct translation for soup in the , ''sabaw'', is used as a figure of speech, referring to moments where one is unable to think straight, as if one's brain is empty, much like a bowl of soup devoid of any ingredients. It can also refer to someone who says something that makes no sense, thereby referring to them as ''sabog''.


Gallery

Image:Tom Yum Soup.JPG, File:Seafood chowder.jpg, Seafood chowder File:Borscht with bread.jpg, Borscht File:Vegetable beef barley soup.jpg, Vegetable beef barley soup File:Chicken Noodle Soup.jpg, Chicken pasta soup File:Tomato soup and grilled cheese.JPG, Chunky tomato soup File:Pea-soup-with-tortilla.jpg, A thick pea soup with a accent File:Crème d'asperge à la truffe.jpg, File:Reindeer cheese soup.jpg, Cheese soup


See also

* * * ** ** ** * *


References


Further reading

* Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. ''Near a Thousand Tables: A History of Food'' (2002). New York: Free Press * ''Larousse Gastronomique'', Jennifer Harvey Lang, ed. American Edition (1988). New York: Crown Publishers * Morton, Mark. ''Cupboard Love: A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities'' (2004). Toronto: Insomniac Press * {{Authority control Types of food