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In many religious, philosophical, and
myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as gods, demigods, and other supernatural figures. ...
ological traditions, the soul is the incorporeal
essence Essence ( la, essentia) is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysem ...
of a living being. Soul or
psyche Psyche (''Psyché'' in French) is the Greek term for "soul" or "spirit" (ψυχή). It may also refer to: Psychology * Psyche (psychology), the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious * Psyche (book), ''Psyche'' (book), an 1846 boo ...
(
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek was the language of an ...
: ψυχή ''psykhḗ'', of ψύχειν ''psýkhein'', "to breathe", cf.
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
'anima') comprises the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness,
qualia In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are defined as individual instances of Subjectivity, subjective, consciousness, conscious experience. The term ''qualia'' derives from the Latin neuter plural form ...
, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or
immortal Immortality Immortality is eternal life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such funct ...
. Greek philosophers, such as
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
,
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the ...

Plato
, and
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
, understood that the soul (ψυχή '' psykhḗ'') must have a logical faculty, the exercise of which was the most divine of human actions. At his defense trial, Socrates even summarized his teachings as nothing other than an exhortation for his fellow Athenians to excel in matters of the psyche since all bodily goods are dependent on such excellence (''
Apology Apology, apologize/apologise, apologist, apologetics, or apologetic may refer to: Common uses * Apology (act) An apology is an expression of regret or remorse for actions, while apologizing is the act of expressing regret or remorse. In inform ...
'' 30a–b). Aristotle reasoned that a man's body and soul were his matter and form respectively: the body is a collection of elements and the soul is the essence.
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, ...

Thomas Aquinas
took this view into Christianity. In
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
and in some
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
denominations, (except for angels) only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism and the concept of immortality may have been influenced by Plato). For example, Thomas Aquinas, borrowing directly from Aristotle's ''
On the Soul ''On the Soul'' (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ...
'', attributed "soul" (''
anima Anima may refer to: Animation * Ánima Estudios Ánima Estudios (stylized and also known as ÁNiMA) is a family entertainment company founded in 2002 by Fernando De Fuentes S. and Jose C. Garcia De Letona, the studio is best known for producin ...
'') to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal. Other religions (most notably
Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as . The word ' is an , and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitione ...

Hinduism
and
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...

Jainism
) believe that all living things from the smallest bacterium to the largest of mammals are the souls themselves (
Atman Atman may refer to: Religion * Ātman (Jainism), a philosophical term used within Jainism to identify the soul * Ātman (Hinduism) ''Ātman'' (; sa, आत्मन्) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominaliz ...
,
jiva In Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-largest religion, with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The wo ...

jiva
) and have their physical representative (the body) in the world. The actual
self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness. Since the ''self'' is a reference by a subject to the same subject, this reference is necessarily Subjective character of experience, subjective. The sense of havi ...

self
is the soul, while the body is only a mechanism to experience the karma of that life. Thus if one sees a tiger then there is a self-conscious identity residing in it (the soul), and a physical representative (the whole body of the tiger, which is observable) in the world. Some teach that even non-biological entities (such as rivers and mountains) possess souls. This belief is called
animism Animism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...

animism
.


Etymology

The Modern English word ''
soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...
'', derived from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
''sáwol, sáwel'' which means immortal principle in man, was first attested in the 8th century poem ''
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literat ...

Beowulf
'' v. 2820 and in the
Vespasian Psalter The Vespasian Psalter (London, British Library, Cotton Vespasian A I) is an Anglo-Saxon art, Anglo-Saxon Illuminated manuscript, illuminated psalter decorated in a partly Insular art, Insular style produced in the second or third quarter of the 8t ...
77.50 . It is cognate with other German and
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...

Baltic
terms for the same idea, including
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
''saiwala'',
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or c ...
''sêula, sêla'',
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a and the earliest recorded form of / (spoken nowadays in , the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the and parts of ). It is a language, closely related to the languages. It is documented ...
''sêola'',
Old Low Franconian In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pa ...

Old Low Franconian
''sêla, sîla'',
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
''sála'' and
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
''siela''. Deeper etymology of the
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
word is unclear. The original concept behind the Germanic root is thought to mean “''coming from or belonging to the sea'' (or ''lake'')”, because of the Germanic and pre-Celtic belief in souls emerging from and returning to
sacred lakes Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a deity; considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspires awe or Reverence (emotion), reverence among believers. The property is often ascribe ...
,
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a and the earliest recorded form of / (spoken nowadays in , the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the and parts of ). It is a language, closely related to the languages. It is documented ...
''sêola'' (soul) compared to
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a and the earliest recorded form of / (spoken nowadays in , the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the and parts of ). It is a language, closely related to the languages. It is documented ...
''sêo'' (sea).


Synonyms

The
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
uses (''psyche'') to translate
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
(''
nephesh Nephesh ( ''nép̄eš'') is a Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew language, Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite languages, Canaanite branch of ...
''), meaning "life, vital breath", and specifically refers to a mortal, physical life, but in English it is variously translated as "soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite,
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fund ...

mind
, living being, desire,
emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is currentl ...

emotion
, passion"; an example can be found in : : Hebrew – : Septuagint – :
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
– ' :
Authorized King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB), sometimes as the English version of 1611, or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβ ...

Authorized King James Version
– "And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth." The Koine Greek word ('' psychē''), "life, spirit, consciousness", is derived from a verb meaning "to cool, to blow", and hence refers to the breath, as opposed to (''soma''), meaning "body". ''Psychē'' occurs juxtaposed to , as seen in : : Greek – : Vulgate – ' : Authorized King James Version (KJV) – "And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
used ψυχή (''psychē'') and (''pneuma'') specifically to distinguish between the Jewish notions of (''nephesh'') and '' ruah'' (spirit) (also in the Septuagint, e.g. = = ' = "the Spirit of God").


Religious views


Ancient Near East

In the
ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ian culture. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with believed to be present in, and in control of the world. Rituals such as prayer a ...
, an individual was believed to be made up of various elements, some physical and some spiritual. Similar ideas are found in ancient Assyrian and Babylonian religion. The Kuttamuwa stele, a funeral stele for an 8th-century BCE royal official from Sam'al, describes Kuttamuwa requesting that his mourners commemorate his life and his afterlife with feasts "for my soul that is in this stele". It is one of the earliest references to a soul as a separate entity from the body. The basalt stele is tall and wide. It was uncovered in the third season of excavations by the Neubauer Expedition of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Oriental Institute in Chicago, Illinois.


Baháʼí Faith

The Baháʼí Faith affirms that "the soul is a sign of God, a heavenly gem whose reality the most learned of men hath failed to grasp, and whose mystery no mind, however acute, can ever hope to unravel". Bahá'u'lláh stated that the soul not only continues to live after the physical death of the human body, but is, in fact, immortal. Heaven can be seen partly as the soul's state of nearness to God; and hell as a state of remoteness from God. Each state follows as a natural consequence of individual efforts, or the lack thereof, to develop spiritually. Bahá'u'lláh taught that individuals have no existence prior to their life here on earth and the soul's evolution is always towards God and away from the material world.


Christianity

According to a common Christian eschatology, when people die, their souls will be particular judgment, judged by God and determined to go to Heaven (Christianity), Heaven or to Christian views on Hades, Hades awaiting the resurrection. Other Christians understand the soul as the life, and believe that the dead have no life until General judgment, after the resurrection (Christian conditionalism). Some Christians believe that the souls and bodies of the unrighteous will be destroyed in Christian views on Hell, Hell rather than suffering eternally (annihilationism). Believers will inherit eternal life (Christianity), eternal life either in Heaven, or in a Kingdom of God on earth, and enjoy eternal fellowship with God.


Origin of the soul

The "origin of the soul" has provided a vexing question in Christianity. The major theories put forward include creationism (soul), soul creationism, traducianism, and pre-existence. According to soul creationism, God creates each individual soul directly, either at the moment of conception or some later time. According to traducianism, the soul comes from the parents by natural generation. According to the preexistence theory, the soul exists before the moment of conception. There have been differing thoughts regarding whether human embryos have souls from conception, or whether there is a point between conception and birth where the fetus ensoulment, acquires a soul, consciousness, and/or personhood. Stances in this question might play a role in judgements on the Christianity and abortion, morality of abortion.


Trichotomy of the soul

Augustine of Hippo, Augustine (354-430), one of western Christianity's most influential early Christian thinkers, described the soul as "a special substance, endowed with reason, adapted to rule the body". Some Christians espouse a trichotomy (philosophy), trichotomic view of humans, which characterizes humans as consisting of a body (''soma''), soul (''psyche''), and spirit (''pneuma''). However, the majority of modern Bible scholars point out how the concepts of "spirit" and of "soul" are used interchangeably in many biblical passages, and so hold to dichotomy: the view that each human comprises a body and a soul. Paul said that the "body wars against" the soul, "For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit" (Heb 4:12 NASB), and that "I buffet my body", to keep it under control.


Views of various denominations

; Roman Catholicism The present Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the term soul : “refers to the innermost aspect of [persons], that which is of greatest value in [them], that by which [they are] most especially in God's image: ‘soul’ signifies the spiritual principle in [humanity]”. All souls living and dead will be judged by Jesus Christ when Second Coming, he comes back to earth. The Catholic Church teaches that the existence of each individual soul is dependent wholly upon God: : "The doctrine of the faith affirms that the spiritual and immortal soul is created immediately by God." ;Two Protestant camps Protestants generally believe in the soul's existence, but fall into two major camps about what this means in terms of an afterlife: Some believe the soul is immortal and persists after death, and some believe the soul is mortal and dies with the body. The two positions are exemplified by Jean Calvin and Martin Luther, respectively, and discussed in the following paragraphs. ; Calvinism: Some, following Jean Calvin, Calvin, believe the immortality of the soul, soul persists as consciousness after death. ; Lutheranism: Others, following Martin Luther, Luther, believe the mortality of the soul, soul dies with the body, and is unconscious ("sleeps") until the resurrection of the dead. ;Adventism: Various new religious movements deriving from Adventism — including Christadelphians, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses — similarly believe that the dead do not possess a soul separate from the body and are unconscious until the resurrection. ;Latter-day Saints (‘Mormonism’): The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that the spirit and body together constitute the Soul of Man (Mankind). "The spirit and the body are the soul of man." Latter-day Saints believe that the soul is the union of a pre-existing, God-made spirit and a temporal body, which is formed by physical conception on earth. After death, the spirit continues to live and progress in the Spirit world (Latter Day Saints), Spirit world until the resurrection, when it is reunited with the body that once housed it. This reuniting of body and spirit results in a perfect soul that is immortal, and eternal, and capable of receiving a fulness of joy. Latter-day Saint cosmology also describes "intelligences" as the essence of consciousness or agency. These are co-eternal with God, and animate the spirits. The union of a newly-created spirit body with an eternally-existing intelligence constitutes a "spirit birth" and justifies God's title "Father of our spirits".


Confucianism

Some Confucian traditions contrast a spiritual soul with a corporeal soul.


Hinduism

''Ātman'' is a Sanskrit word that means inner
self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness. Since the ''self'' is a reference by a subject to the same subject, this reference is necessarily Subjective character of experience, subjective. The sense of havi ...

self
or soul.David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, , pp. 208–09, Quote: "Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself". In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of
Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as . The word ' is an , and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitione ...

Hinduism
, Ātman is the first principle, the ''true'' self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain Moksha, liberation (moksha), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana), which is to realize that one's true self (Ātman) is identical with the transcendent self Brahman according to Advaita Vedanta. The Hindu philosophy, six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe that there is Ātman (self, essence) in every being.KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, , pp. 246–49, from note 385 onwards; Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, , p. 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; Edward Roer (Translator), to ''Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad'', pp. 2–4; Katie Javanaud (2013)
Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?
, Philosophy Now
In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as . The word ' is an , and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitione ...

Hinduism
and
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...

Jainism
, a ''jiva'' ( sa, जीव, , alternative spelling ''jiwa''; hi, जीव, , alternative spelling ''jeev'') is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force. The concept of ''jiva'' in Jainism is similar to ''Atman (Hinduism), atman'' in Hinduism. However, some Hindu traditions differentiate between the two concepts, with ''jiva'' considered as individual self, while atman as that which is universal unchanging self that is present in all living beings and everything else as the metaphysical Brahman. The latter is sometimes referred to as ''jiva-atman'' (a soul in a living body).


Islam

The Quran, the holy book of Islam, uses two words to refer to the soul: ''rūḥ'' (translated as spirit, consciousness, pneuma or "soul") and ''nafs'' (translated as self, ego, psyche or "soul"), cognates of the Hebrew ''nefesh'' and ''ruach''. The two terms are frequently used interchangeably, though ''rūḥ'' is more often used to denote the divine spirit or "the breath of life", while ''nafs'' designates one's disposition or characteristics. In Islamic philosophy, the immortal rūḥ "drives" the mortal nafs, which comprises temporal desires and perceptions necessary for living. Two of the passages in the Quran that mention the rûh occur in chapters 17 ("The Night Journey") and 39 ("The Troops"):


Jainism

In Jainism, every living being, from plant or bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. According to Jainism, there is no beginning or end to the existence of soul. It is eternal in nature and changes its form until it attains liberation. In Jainism, ''jiva'' is the immortal essence or soul of a living organism (human, animal, fish or plant etc.) which survives physical death. The concept of ''Ajiva'' in Jainism means "not soul", and represents matter (including body), time, space, non-motion and motion. In Jainism, a ''Jiva'' is either ''samsari'' (mundane, caught in cycle of rebirths) or ''mukta'' (liberated). According to this belief until the time the soul is liberated from the ''Saṃsāra (Jainism), saṃsāra'' (cycle of repeated birth and death), it gets attached to one of these bodies based on the Karma in Jainism, karma (actions) of the individual soul. Irrespective of which state the soul is in, it has got the same attributes and qualities. The difference between the liberated and non-liberated souls is that the qualities and attributes are manifested completely in case of ''siddha'' (liberated soul) as they have overcome all the karmic bondages whereas in case of non-liberated souls they are partially exhibited. Souls who rise victorious over wicked emotions while still remaining within physical bodies are referred to as Arihant (Jainism), arihants. Concerning the Jain view of the soul, Virchand Gandhi said


Judaism

The Hebrew terms ''nephesh, nefesh'' (literally "living being"), ''ruach'' (literally "wind"), ''neshamah'' (literally "breath"), ''chayah'' (literally "life") and ''yechidah'' (literally "singularity") are used to describe the soul or spirit. In
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
the soul is believed to be given by God to Adam as mentioned in Book of Genesis, Genesis, Judaism relates the quality of one's soul to one's performance of the commandments (''mitzvot)'' and reaching higher levels of understanding, and thus closeness to God. A person with such closeness is called a ''tzadik''. Therefore, Judaism embraces the commemoration of the day of one's death, ''Yartzeit, nahala''/''Yahrtzeit'' and not the birthday as a festivity of remembrance, for only toward the end of life's struggles, tests and challenges could human souls be judged and credited for righteousness. Judaism places great importance on the study of the souls. Kabbalah and other mystic traditions go into greater detail into the nature of the soul. Kabbalah separates the soul into five elements, corresponding to the five worlds: # Nephesh, Nefesh, related to natural instinct. # Ruach, related to emotion and morality. # Neshamah, related to intellect and the awareness of God. # Chayah, considered a part of God, as it were. # Yechidah. This aspect is essentially one with God. Kabbalah also proposed a concept of reincarnation, the ''gilgul''. (See also ''nefesh habehamit'' the "animal soul".) Some Jewish traditions assert that the soul is housed in the ''Luz (bone), luz'' bone, though traditions disagree as to whether it is the Atlas (anatomy), atlas at the top of the spine sacrum at bottom of the spine.


Scientology

The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it is a soul. A person is immortal, and may be reincarnated if they wish. The Scientology term for the soul is "thetan", derived from the Greek word "theta", symbolizing thought. Scientology counselling (called Auditing (Scientology), auditing) addresses the soul to improve abilities, both worldly and spiritual.


Shamanism

Soul dualism (also called "multiple souls" or "dualistic pluralism") is a common belief in Shamanism, and is essential in the universal and central concept of "soul flight" (also called "soul journey", "out-of-body experience", "Religious ecstasy, ecstasy", or "astral projection"). It is the belief that humans have two or more souls, generally termed the "body soul" (or "life soul") and the "free soul". The former is linked to bodily functions and awareness when awake, while the latter can freely wander during sleep or trance states. In some cases, there are a plethora of soul types with different functions. Soul dualism and multiple souls are prominent in the traditional animistic beliefs of the Austronesian peoples, the Hun and po, Chinese people (Hun and po, ''hún'' and ''pò''), the Tibetan people, most Ethnic groups of Africa, African peoples, most Indigenous peoples of the Americas#North America, Native North Americans, ancient South Asian peoples, Northern Eurasian peoples, and in Ancient Egyptians (the Ancient Egyptian conception of the soul, ''ka'' and ''ba''). The belief in soul dualism is found throughout most Austronesian people, Austronesian shamanistic traditions. The reconstructed Proto-Austronesian word for the "body soul" is ''*nawa'' ("breath", "life", or "vital spirit"). It is located somewhere in the abdominal cavity, often in the liver or the heart (Proto-Austronesian ''*qaCay''). The "free soul" is located in the head. Its names are usually derived from Proto-Austronesian ''*qaNiCu'' ("ghost", "spirit [of the dead]"), which also apply to other non-human nature spirits. The "free soul" is also referred to in names that literally mean "twin" or "double", from Proto-Austronesian ''*duSa'' ("two"). A virtuous person is said to be one whose souls are in harmony with each other, while an evil person is one whose souls are in conflict. The "free soul" is said to leave the body and journey to the Spirit world (spiritualism), spirit world during sleep, trance, trance-like states, delirium, insanity, and death. The duality is also seen in the healing traditions of Austronesian shamans, where illnesses are regarded as a "soul loss" and thus to heal the sick, one must "return" the "free soul" (which may have been stolen by an evil spirit or got lost in the spirit world) into the body. If the "free soul" can not be returned, the afflicted person dies or goes permanently insane. In some ethnic groups, there can also be more than two souls. Like among the Tagbanwa people, where a person is said to have six souls – the "free soul" (which is regarded as the "true" soul) and five secondary souls with various functions. Several Inuit groups believe that a person has more than one type of soul. One is associated with respiration, the other can accompany the body as a shadow. In some cases, it is connected to Inuit religion, shamanistic beliefs among the various Inuit groups. Also Caribou Inuit groups believed in several types of souls. The shaman heals within the spiritual dimension by returning 'lost' parts of the human soul from wherever they have gone. The shaman also cleanses excess negative energies, which confuse or pollute the soul.


Shinto

Shinto distinguishes between the souls of living persons (''tamashii'') and those of dead persons (''mitama''), each of which may have different aspects or sub-souls.


Sikhism

Sikhism considers soul (''atma'') to be part of God (Waheguru). Various hymns are cited from the holy book Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) that suggests this belief. "God is in the Soul and the Soul is in the God." The same concept is repeated at various pages of the SGGS. For example: "The soul is divine; divine is the soul. Worship Him with love." and "The soul is the Lord, and the Lord is the soul; contemplating the Shabad, the Lord is found." The ''atma'' or soul according to Sikhism is an entity or "spiritual spark" or "light" in the human body - because of which the body can sustain life. On the departure of this entity from the body, the body becomes lifeless – no amount of manipulations to the body can make the person make any physical actions. The soul is the "driver" in the body. It is the ''roohu'' or spirit or ''atma'', the presence of which makes the physical body alive. Many religious and philosophical traditions support the view that the soul is the ethereal substance – a spirit; a non-material spark – particular to a unique living being. Such traditions often consider the soul both immortal and innately aware of its immortal nature, as well as the true basis for sentience in each living being. The concept of the soul has strong links with notions of an afterlife, but opinions may vary wildly even within a given religion as to what happens to the soul after death. Many within these religions and philosophies see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it possibly material.


Taoism

According to Chinese traditions, every person has two types of soul called hun and po (魂 and 魄), which are respectively yin and yang, yang and yin. Taoism believes in ten souls, ''sanhunqipo'' (:zh:三魂七魄, 三魂七魄) "three ''hun'' and seven ''po''". A living being that loses any of them is said to have mental illness or unconsciousness, while a dead soul may reincarnate to a disability, lower desire realms, or may even be unable to reincarnate.


Zoroastrianism


Other religious beliefs and views

In theological reference to the soul, the terms "life" and "death" are viewed as emphatically more definitive than the common concepts of "life, biological life" and "biological death". Because the soul is said to be transcendent of the ''matter, material existence,'' and is said to have (potentially) immortality, eternal life, the death of the soul is likewise said to be an ''eternal death''. Thus, in the concept of divine judgment, God is commonly said to have options with regard to the dispensation of souls, ranging from Heaven (i.e., angels) to hell (i.e., demons), with various concepts in between. Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of life expectancy, lifespan and time. According to Louis Ginzberg, the soul of Adam is the image of God. Every soul of human also escapes from the body every night, rises up to heaven, and fetches new life thence for the body of man.


Spirituality, New Age, and new religions


Brahma Kumaris

In Brahma Kumaris, human souls are believed to be incorporeal and eternity, eternal. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.


Theosophy

In Helena Blavatsky's Theosophy (Blavatskian), Theosophy, the soul is the field of our psychological activity (thinking, emotions, memory, desires, will, and so on) as well as of the so-called paranormal or psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc.). However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings. Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call "good"—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc. While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not. The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both. The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the "battlefield" of good and evil. It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine.


Anthroposophy

Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomy (philosophy), trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness: * The "sentient soul", centering on sensations, drives, and passions, with strong conatus, conative (will) and emotional components; * The "intellectual" or "mind soul", internalizing and reflecting on outer experience, with strong affective (feeling) and cognitive (thinking) components; and * The "consciousness soul", in search of universal, objective truths.


Miscellaneous

In Surat Shabd Yoga, Surat Shabda Yoga, the soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. The purpose of Surat Shabd Yoga is to realize one's True Self as soul (Self-Realisation), True Essence (Spirit-Realisation) and True Divinity (God-Realisation) while living in the physical body. Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that "Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul – which is one, infinite, and eternal...[and] [t]he sole purpose of creation is for the soul to enjoy the infinite state of the Oversoul consciously." Eckankar, founded by Paul Twitchell in 1965, defines Soul as the true self; the inner, most sacred part of each person. George Gurdjieff, G.I. Gurdjieff taught that humans are not born with immortal souls but could develop them through certain efforts.


Philosophical views

The ancient Greece, ancient Greeks used the word "Ensoulment, ensouled" to represent the concept of being "alive", indicating that the earliest surviving western philosophy, western philosophical view believed that the soul was that which gave the body life. The soul was considered the incorporeal or spiritual "breath" that animates (from the Latin, '':wikt:anima, anima'', cf. "animal") the living organism. F. M. Cornford, Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals "an award of joy or sorrow drawing near" in dreams. Erwin Rohde writes that an early pre-Pythagoreanism, Pythagorean belief presented the soul as lifeless when it departed the body, and that it retired into Hades with no hope of returning to a body.


Socrates and Plato

Drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, Plato considered the psyche to be the
essence Essence ( la, essentia) is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysem ...
of a person, being that which decides how we behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato said that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think. He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn (metempsychosis) in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal, namely the intellect (''Logos#Ancient Greek philosophy, logos''). The Platonic soul consists of three parts: # the ''logos'', or ''logistikon'' (mind, nous, or reason) # the ''Thumos, thymos'', or ''thumetikon'' (
emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is currentl ...

emotion
, spiritedness, or masculine) # the ''Eros (concept), eros'', or ''epithumetikon'' (appetitive, motivation, desire, or feminine) The parts are located in different regions of the body: # ''logos'' is located in the head, is related to reason and regulates the other part. # ''thymos'' is located near the chest region and is related to anger. # ''eros'' is located in the stomach and is related to one's desires. Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal Plato's tripartite theory of soul, caste system. According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well. Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated.


Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322 BCE) defined the soul, or ''Psūchê'' (ψυχή), as the "first actuality" of a naturally organized body, and argued against its separate existence from the physical body. In Aristotle's view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul. For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see (its purpose or final cause). Another example is that the full actualization of a human being would be living a fully functional human life in accordance with reason (which he considered to be a faculty unique to humanity). For Aristotle, the soul is the organization of the form and matter of a natural being which allows it to strive for its full actualization. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being. Using an artifact (non-natural being) as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material (wood, nails, bricks, etc.) necessary for its actuality (i.e. being a fully functional house). However, this does not imply that a house has a soul. In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves (for example, a builder builds a house). In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself. Aristotle elaborates on this point when he addresses the faculties of the soul. The various faculties of the soul, such as nutrition, movement (peculiar to animals), reason (peculiar to humans), sensation (special, common, and incidental) and so forth, when exercised, constitute the "second" actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive. For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live their life, while the latter can no longer do so. Aristotle identified three hierarchical levels of natural beings: plants, animals, and people, having three different degrees of soul: ''Bios'' (life), ''Zoë'' (animate life), and ''Psuchë'' (self-conscious life). For these groups, he identified three corresponding levels of soul, or biological activity: the nutritive activity of growth, sustenance and reproduction which all life shares (''Bios''); the self-willed motive activity and sensory faculties, which only animals and people have in common (''Zoë''); and finally "reason", of which people alone are capable (''Pseuchë''). Aristotle's discussion of the soul is in his work, ''De Anima'' (''
On the Soul ''On the Soul'' (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ...
''). Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy can be found in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book: in this text both interpretations can be argued for, soul as a whole can be deemed mortal, and a part called "active intellect" or "active mind" is immortal and eternal. Advocates exist for both sides of the controversy, but it has been understood that there will be permanent disagreement about its final conclusions, as no other Aristotelianism, Aristotelian text contains this specific point, and this part of ''De Anima'' is obscure. Further, Aristotle states that the soul helps humans find the truth, and understanding the true purpose or role of the soul is extremely difficult.


Avicenna and Ibn al-Nafis

Following Aristotle, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Ibn al-Nafis, an Arab physician, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul. They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and the Avicennism, Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholasticism, Scholastics. Some of Avicenna's views on the soul include the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill. In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intelligence, intellect. While he was imprisoned, Avicenna wrote his famous "Floating man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantial nature of the soul. He told his readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sense, sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argues that in this scenario one would still have self-consciousness. He thus concludes that the idea of the self (philosophy), self is not logically dependent on any physical object (philosophy), thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance theory, substance. This argument was later refined and simplified by René Descartes in epistemology, epistemic terms, when he stated: "I can abstract from the supposition of all external things, but not from the supposition of my own consciousness." Avicenna generally supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heart, whereas Ibn al-Nafis rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organ (anatomy), organs". He further criticized Aristotle's idea whereby every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. Al-Nafis concluded that "the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul," and he defined the soul as nothing other than "what a human indicates by saying "I (pronoun), I".


Thomas Aquinas

Following Aristotle (whom he referred to as "the Philosopher") and Avicenna,
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, ...

Thomas Aquinas
(1225–74) understood the soul to be the first actuality of the living body. Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the operations of plants; and humans, which add intellect to the operations of animals. Concerning the human soul, his epistemological theory required that, since the knower becomes what he knows, the soul is definitely not corporeal—if it is corporeal when it knows what some corporeal thing is, that thing would come to be within it. Therefore, the soul has an operation which does not rely on a body organ, and therefore the soul can exist without a body. Furthermore, since the rational soul of human beings is a subsistent form and not something made of matter and form, it cannot be destroyed in any natural process. The full argument for the immortality of the soul and Aquinas' elaboration of Aristotelian theory is found in Question 75 of the First Part of the Summa Theologica. Aquinas affirmed in the doctrine of the divine effusion of the soul, the particular judgement of the soul after the separation from a dead body, and the final Resurrection of the flesh. He recalled two canons of the 4th-century ''Gennadius of Massilia#De Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus, De Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus'' for which "the rational soul is not engendered by coition" (canon XIV) and "is one and the same soul in man, that both gives life to the body by being united to it, and orders itself by its own reasoning." Moreover, he believed in a unique and tripartite soul, within which are distinctively present a nutritive, a sensitive and intellectual soul. The latter is created by God and is taken solely by human beings, includes the other two types of soul and makes the sensitive soul incorruptible.


Immanuel Kant

In his discussions of rational psychology, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) identified the soul as the "I" in the strictest sense, and argued that the existence of inner experience can neither be proved nor disproved. It is from the "I", or soul, that Kant proposes transcendental rationalization, but cautions that such rationalization can only determine the limits of knowledge if it is to remain practical.


Philosophy of mind

Gilbert Ryle's ghost in the machine argument, which is a rejection of Descartes' mind–body dualism, can provide a contemporary understanding of the soul/mind, and the problem concerning its connection to the brain/body.


Psychology

Soul belief prominently figues in Otto Rank's work recovering the importance of immortality in the psychology of primitive, classical and modern interest in life and death. Rank's work directly opposed the "scientific" psychology that concedes the possibility of the soul's existence and postulates it as an object of research without really admitting that it exists. "Just as religion represents a psychological commentary on the social evolution of man, various psychologies represent our current attitudes toward spiritual belief. In the animistic era, psychologizing was a ''creating'' of the soul; in the religious era, it was a ''representing'' of the soul to one's self; in our era of natural science it is a ''knowing'' of the individual soul." Rank's "Seelenglaube" translates to "Soul Belief". Rank's work had a significant influence on Ernest Becker's understanding of a universal interest in immortality. In Denial of Death, Becker describes "soul" in terms of Kierkegaard's use of "self" when he says, "what we call schizophrenia is an attempt by the symbolic self to deny the limitations of the finite body."


Science

Some scientists, such as Julien Musolino, hold that the mind is merely a complex machine that operates on the same physical laws as all other objects in the universe. According to Musolino, there is currently no scientific evidence whatsoever to support the existence of the soul and there is considerable evidence that seems to indicate that souls do not exist. The search for the soul, however, is seen to have been instrumental in driving the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the human body, particularly in the fields of cardiovascular and neurology. In the two dominant conflicting concepts of the soul – one seeing it to be spiritual and immortal, and the other seeing it to be material and mortal, both have described the soul as being located in a particular organ or as pervading the whole body.


Neuroscience

Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field, and its branch of cognitive neuroscience particularly, operates under the ontology, ontological assumption of physicalism. In other words, it assumes that only the fundamental phenomena studied by physics exist. Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are caused solely by physical processes taking place inside the brain, and it operates by the way of reductionism by seeking an explanation for the mind in terms of brain activity. To study the mind in terms of the brain several methods of functional neuroimaging are used to study the neuroanatomical correlates of various cognition, cognitive processes that constitute the mind. The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical correlates in brain function. However, such correlational studies cannot determine whether neural activity plays a causal role in the occurrence of these cognitive processes (correlation does not imply causation) and they cannot determine if the neural activity is either necessity and sufficiency, necessary or sufficient for such processes to occur. Identification of causality, causation, and of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that activity. If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred. Two of the most common types of manipulation experiments are loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. In a loss-of-function (also called "necessity") experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt to determine if it is necessary for a certain process to occur, and in a gain-of-function (also called "sufficiency") experiment, an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal. Manipulations of brain activity can be performed with direct electrical brain stimulation, magnetic brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation, psychoactive drug, psychopharmacological manipulation, optogenetics, optogenetic manipulation, and by studying the symptoms of brain damage (case studies) and lesions. In addition, neuroscientists are also investigating how the mind develops with the development of the brain.


Physics

Physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that the idea of a soul is incompatible with quantum field theory (QFT). He writes that for a soul to exist: "Not only is new physics required, but dramatically new physics. Within QFT, there can't be a new collection of 'spirit particles' and 'spirit forces' that interact with our regular atoms, because we would have detected them in existing experiments." Some theorists have invoked Quantum indeterminacy, quantum indeterminism as an explanatory mechanism for possible soul/brain interaction, but neuroscientist Peter Clarke found errors with this viewpoint, noting there is no evidence that such processes play a role in brain function; Clarke concluded that a Cartesian dualism, Cartesian soul has no basis from quantum physics.


Parapsychology

Some parapsychologists have attempted to establish, by scientific experiment, whether a soul separate from the brain exists, as is more commonly defined in religion rather than as a synonym of psyche or mind. Milbourne Christopher (1979) and Mary Roach (2010) have argued that none of the attempts by parapsychologists have yet succeeded.


Weight of the soul

In 1901 Duncan MacDougall (doctor), Duncan MacDougall conducted 21 grams experiment, an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as they died. He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death; he concluded the soul weighed 21 grams, based on measurements of a single patient and discarding conflicting results. The physicist Robert L. Park has written that MacDougall's experiments "are not regarded today as having any scientific merit" and the psychologist Bruce Hood (psychologist), Bruce Hood wrote that "because the weight loss was not reliable or replicable, his findings were unscientific."Bruce Hood (psychologist), Hood, Bruce. (2009). ''Supersense: From Superstition to Religion – The Brain Science of Belief''. Constable. p. 165.


See also

* Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul * Being * Ekam * History of the location of the soul * Kami * Metaphysical naturalism * Mind–body problem * The Over-Soul (essay) * Paramatman (or oversoul) * Philosophical zombie * Self * Self-awareness * Shade (mythology) * Soul dualism * Vitalism


References


Further reading

* Batchelor, Stephen. (1998). ''Buddhism Without Beliefs''. Bloomsbury Publishing. * * Chalmers, David. J. (1996). ''The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory'', New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Milbourne Christopher, Christopher, Milbourne. (1979). ''Search for the Soul: An Insider's Report on the Continuing Quest By Psychics & Scientists For Evidence of Life After Death''. Thomas Y. Crowell, Publishers. * * Bruce Hood (psychologist), Hood, Bruce. (2009). ''Supersense: From Superstition to Religion – The Brain Science of Belief''. Constable. * McGraw, John J. (2004). ''Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul''. Aegis Press. * Michael Martin (philosopher), Martin, Michael; Augustine, Keith. (2015)
''The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death''
Rowman & Littlefield. * Robert L. Park, Park, Robert L. (2009). ''Superstition: Belief in the Age of Science''. Princeton University Press. * Erwin Rohde, Rohde, Erwin. (1925)
''Psyche: The Cult of Souls and the Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks''
London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1925; reprinted by Routledge, 2000. . * Ryle, Gilbert. (1949) ''The Concept of Mind'', London: Hutchinson. * Spenard, Michael (2011
"Dueling with Dualism: the forlorn quest for the immaterial soul"
essay. An historical account of mind-body duality and a comprehensive conceptual and empirical critique on the position. * Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, Richard. (1997). ''The Evolution of the Soul''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Leibowitz, Aryeh. (2018). The Neshama: A Study of the Human Soul. Feldheim Publishers. * * Translation of the original:


External links


Etymology of Soul

Quantum Theory Won’t Save The Soul

What Science Really Says About the Soul
by Stephen Cave
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Ancient Theories of the Soul

The soul in Judaism
at Chabad.org
The Old Testament Concept of the Soul
by Heinrich J. Vogel]
Body, Soul and Spirit
Article in th
Journal of Biblical Accuracy

Is Another Human Living Inside You?
*
"The Soul"
BBC Radio 4 discussion with Richard Sorabji, Ruth Padel and Martin Palmer (''In Our Time'', 6 June 2002) {{Authority control Conceptions of self Concepts in metaphysics Dualism (philosophy of mind) Ghosts Metaphysics of religion Mind Religious philosophical concepts Religious belief and doctrine Vitalism