school organizational models
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School organizational models are methods of structuring the
curriculum In education, a curriculum (; plural, : curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to ...
, functions, and facilities for
school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsor ...
s,
college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a coll ...
s, and
universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities ty ...
. The organizing of teaching and learning has been structured since the first educational institutions were established. With greater specialization and expertise in a particular field of knowledge, and a gathering of like-minded individuals, instructors clustered into specialized groups, schools, and eventually departments within larger institutions. This structure spread rapidly during the 19th and 20th centuries with
factory model school "Factory model schools", "factory model education", or "industrial era schools" are ahistorical terms that emerged in the mid to late-20th century and are used by writers and speakers as a rhetorical device In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, persua ...
s and their "assembly-line" method of standardized curriculum and instructional methods.''Schools for wisdom'', David Brooks, NY Times, October 16, 2015
Retrieved 2016-03-26
Beginning with the
progressive education Progressive education, or protractivism, is a pedagogical movement that began in the late 19th century and has persisted in various forms to the present. In Europe, progressive education took the form of the New Education Movement. The term ''pro ...
al movement in the early-mid 20th century, and again with similar trends in the late 20th and early 21st century, alternative models structured towards deeper learning, higher retention, and
21st century skills 21st century skills comprise higher-order thinking, skills, aptitude, abilities, and learning dispositions that have been identified as being required for achieved status, success in 21st century society and workplaces by educators, business lea ...
developed. The organizational models of schools fall into several main categories, including: departmental, integrative, project-based, academy, small learning communities, and school-within-a-school.


Departmental model

The departmental model is an organization where the departments and faculties of different academic subjects are separate and distinct. Each department (e.g. Math, Humanities, Science) may also have its own head (or manager or dean) that is responsible for different aspects of the department. Educators in that department may report to that head who in turn reports to a higher level administration, such as a school or college in a university, or directly to the main administration, such as the principal or head of a school. Educational institutions using the departmental model often provide
traditional education Traditional education, also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society has traditionally used in schools. Some forms of education reform promote the adoption of progressiv ...
. This is a traditional form of organization with an emphasis on traditional classroom forms and organizations that has been the dominant organizing model of high or secondary schools, colleges, and universities since the late 19th and early 20th century.''How to Break Free of Our 19th-Century Factory-Model Education System'', Joel Rose, The Atlantic, May 9, 2012
Retrieved 2016-03-26
This is reflected in the design of educational facilities with separate faculty buildings on a campus, or in a wing or cluster of standard classrooms or laboratories in a high school (e.g. science labs, vocational shops).
Master's School Building - traditional plan school


Integrative model

The integrative model is an
interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of multiple academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, e ...
organization that combines, rather than separates, academic subjects, faculties, and disciplines. A departmental structure may be in place for each field or discipline, but the physical organization of the educational facilities may place different subject-based classrooms or labs in groupings, such as in a defined area, wing, or small learning community. For example, each grouping may contain co-located classrooms with different instructors focusing on math, English, and Social Sciences near to a Science lab, Makerspace, or Vocational shop. Support spaces for instructors, such as offices or workrooms, and for students, such as seminar rooms and common workspaces, may also be located directly adjacent or nearby.
Integrative model diagram, DesignShare P.131


Project based learning model

The project-based learning model is a model that supports students "learning by doing." It may or not be fully interdisciplinary in its organization of subjects. Unlike traditional, teacher-led classroom-based instruction, students often must organize their own work and manage their own time in a project-based class, with an emphasis on student collaboration and hands-on work. It involves independent research, real-world experiences, opportunities and requirements for students to present and defend their learning, to practice and rehearse. Student projects are at the core of their learning. This is reflected in the design of educational facilities appearing similar to the integrative model, but with a de-emphasis on traditional instructional spaces such as classrooms and labs, and a greater emphasis on student collaboration spaces and workspaces, such as individual study and group seminar rooms, and workspaces such as Makerspaces and rooms with 2D or
3D printing 3D printing or additive manufacturing is the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English ...
and production. The design is student-centered, meaning it is to support the project work, not primarily the convenience of the teachers (e.g. classrooms). A noted example of this model is High Tech High.
Project-based learning model: plan diagram, P. 139 and P. 141


Academy model

The Academy model is an organization that includes specific themes or grades-based organizational groupings within a single institution. These are sometimes referred to as "Career Academies" or "Career Pathways". The school may be organized along largely departmental or integrated models, with specially courses geared towards the theme or focus of each academy provided within each academy and the students be enrolled and following their academy's prescribed course of study as they take courses in different departments. Alternatively, the school may be organized with each academy providing its own core and specialty themed courses. This can be reflected in the design of educational facilities in several ways: a departmental-type configuration with specialty spaces located in separate areas, or along a single common area with each academy's themed spaces adjacent and observables by students in other academies; or in a similar manner to a SLC or school-within-a-school, with each academy co-located with their specialty space. For example, a justice-themed academy may have a fully functioning country courtroom off of the commons, such as along the "Main Street" in the Jack E. Singley Academy. In England, ''Academy'' normally refers to an entire institution offering a distinct program or theme, not a separate division within. AVID Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID)


Small learning communities model

The Small Learning Community (SLC) model is an organization geared towards providing a more personalized learning environment. A cohort of students and instructors may stay within a given SLC from grade to grade. Teachers in the SLC usually have common planning time to foster collaboration, development of interdisciplinary projects, and to track progress of individual students across subjects. These include several types, including: Theme-Based SLCs or Focus Schools, usually formed around a specific curricular theme, such as "Success Academy" or "Humanities"; grade-based SLCs or Houses, such as Freshman Academies which are structured to support students transitioning into higher-level schools; Career Academies, developed around a career theme or Career Clusters; Magnet Schools, career-themed SLCs that include accelerated course-work for Gifted & Talented students. This is reflected in the design of educational facilities with SLCs designed into separate clusters or groupings, often with a central common or flexible learning area at its heart of the cluster, with a variety of learning and group meeting rooms opening onto it, including several classrooms or learning studios, a science lab, and potentially a makerspace or vocational shop. A school would have multiple SLCs, often with between 100 and 200 students.''Architecture for Achievement - building patterns of small school learning'', Victoria Bergsagel, Tim Best, Kathleen Cushman, Lorne McConachie, Wendy Sauer, David Stephen. Mercer Island, WA. 1997. Page 101-104. . Retrieved 2016-04-07
Small Learning Communities plan diagramLAUSC Small Learning Communities plan diagram, page 24


School-within-a-school model

The school-within-a-school model is similar to the Small Learning Communities model of personalization for both students and schools, but with additional administrative and support functions located within each school or "community". Each school has both multiple disciplines as well as separate administrators, either fully stand-alone or as subordinate to a whole-school administration or principal. This is reflected in the design of educational facilities with a larger school building, or a campus, with separate identities, entries, and often names for each small school. An example of this model is the Marysville Getchell Campus with separate buildings for each of the three small schools as well as a common a shared facility for the physical education, cafeteria, and services functions not as easily supported by smaller schools.''Marysville Getchell High School Campus,'' Education Design Showcase, 2015
Retrieved 2016-04-07


See also

*
Blended learning Norm Friesen (born March 21, 1966) is Professor in Educational Technology at Boise State University. Norm Friesen studied German Literature, Secondary Education, and Communication at the Johns Hopkins University, University of Alberta and Simon Fr ...
*
Factory model school "Factory model schools", "factory model education", or "industrial era schools" are ahistorical terms that emerged in the mid to late-20th century and are used by writers and speakers as a rhetorical device In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, persua ...
* Flipped classroom *
Learning environment The term learning environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom", but it typically refers to ...
*
Learning space Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may also refer to an ...
* Open air school *
Virtual school An online school (virtual school or e-school or cyber-school) teaches students entirely or primarily online and offline, online or through the Internet. It has been defined as "education that uses one or more technologies to deliver instruction to ...


References

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External links


"Academy-style learning"

South Fort Myers High School academiesNext Gen learningDigital crayon flexible building design - plans of different organizational models''From high school to learning communities''
Educational facilities Pedagogy Schools School types